X Ray Microscopy

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X Ray Microscopy Ii

Author : David Sayre
ISBN : 9783540392460
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 40.81 MB
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This volume is based on papers presented at the International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY, August 31-September 4, 1987. Previous recent symposia on the sub ject were held in New York in 1979, Gottingen in 1983 and Taipei in 1986. Developments in x-ray microscopy continue at a rapid pace, with im portant advances in all major areas: x-ray sources, optics and components, and microscopes and imaging systems. Taken as a whole, the work pre sented here emphasizes three major directions: (a) improvements in the capability and image-quality of x-ray microscopy, expressed principally in systems attached to large, high-brightness x-ray sources; (b) greater access to x-ray microscopy, expressed chiefly in systems employing small, often pulsed, x-ray sources; and (c) increased rate of exploration of applications of x-ray microscopy. The number of papers presented at the symposium has roughly dou bled compared with that of its predecessors. While we are delighted at this growth as a manifestation of vitality and rapid growth of the field, we did have to ask the authors to limit the length of their papers and to submit them in camera-ready form. We thank the authors for their con tributions and for their efforts in adhering to the guidelines on manuscript preparation.
Category: Technology & Engineering

X Ray Microscopy

Author : Werner Meyer-Ilse
ISBN : 1563969262
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.48 MB
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This volume is the status report of the international community of practitioners of x-ray microscopy. It contains the reviews and work presented at the 6th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy held in Berkeley, 2-6 August 1999. The techniques are being applied to biological imaging where, for example, special labeling can reveal the location of specific proteins in cells, while cryogenic sample handling prevents x-ray damage to cells. These techniques can also be used to analyze objects on a 10 nm size scale, allowing the study of their physical and chemical state. For example, chemical processes in the environment can be examined on the surfaces of microscopic particulate matter. The availability of several new soft x-ray synchrotron light sources around the world is facilitating the development of new applications. This conference showed that large new programs have become productive at these new synchrotron sources.
Category: Science

X Ray Microscopy

Author : G. Schmahl
ISBN : 9783540388333
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 71.72 MB
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X-ray microscopy fills a gap between optical and electron microscopy. Using soft x-rays, a resolution higher than with visible light can be obtained. In comparison to electron microscopy, thick, wet, unstained specimens can be examined. This is especially advantageous for biological applications. The intense synchrotron radiation of electron storage rings and the de velopment of optical elements for soft x-rays render x-ray microscopy feasi ble for basic research. Wider applications will be possible in the future with the development of laboratory x-ray sources and microscopes. In 1979 a conference on x-ray microscopy was organized by the New York Academy of Sciences and in 1981 a symposium on high resolution soft x-ray optics was held at Brookhaven. The present volume contains the contributions to the sympos i um "X-Ray Microscopy", organ i zed by the Akademie der Wi ssen schaften in Gottingen in September 1983. In their capacity as conference chairmen, the editors would like to thank the Akademie der Wissenschaften, especially Prof. H.G. Wagner, Secretary of the Academy, and Mr. J. Pfahlert for organizing the symposium. We are in debted to the Stiftung Volkswagenwerk for financial support. The symposium was held at the Max-Planck-Institut fUr Stromungsforschung. We are grateful for their hospitality and assistance during the symposium. Thanks are due to all authors and to the Springer Verlag for their combined efforts. We thank Dipl.-Phys. P. Guttmann, Dr. B. Niemann and Mrs. A. Marienhagen for their assistance during the final preparation of the manuscripts.
Category: Technology & Engineering

X Ray Microscopy

Author : Ping-chin Cheng
ISBN : 9783642728815
Genre : Science
File Size : 52.59 MB
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In 1979, a conference on x-ray microscopy was organized by the New York Academy of Sciences, and in 1983, the Second Interna tional Symposium on X-ray Imaging was organized by the Akademie der Wissenschaften in Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany. This volume contains the contributions to the symposium "X-ray Microscopy '86", held in Taipei, Taiwan, the Republic of China in August 1986. This is the first volume which intends to provide up-to date information on x-ray imaging to biologists, therefore, emphasis was given to specimen preparation techniques and image interpreta tion. Specimen preparation represents a major part of every microscopy work, therefore, it should be strongly emphasized in this emerging field of x-ray microscopy. Theoretically, x-ray microscopy offers the potential for the study of unfixed, hydrated biological ma terials. Since very few biological system can be directly observed without specimen preparation, we would like to emphasize that new information on biological specimens can only be obtained if the speci men is properly prepared. In the past decade, many of the published x-ray images were obtained from poorly prepared biological speci mens, mainly air-dried materials. Therefore, one of the goals of this conference is to bring the importance of specimen preparation to the attention of x-ray microscopy community. X-ray microscopy can be subdivided into several major areas. They are the classic x-ray projection microscope, x-ray contact imag ing (microradiography) and the more recent x-ray scanning micro scope, x-ray photoelectron microscope and x-ray imaging microscope.
Category: Science

X Ray Microscopy

Author : V. E. Cosslett
ISBN : 9781107654655
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.86 MB
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Originally published in 1960, this book looks at the physical principles behind the use of X-rays for microscopic investigation. Cosslett and Nixon review a variety of techniques used in X-ray microscopy, as well as specimen preparation methods. Many plates of various X-rayed materials are also included.
Category: Science

X Ray Microscopy Iii

Author : Alan G. Michette
ISBN : 9783540468875
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 29.26 MB
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The growth of interest and research activity in X -ray microscopy is reflected in the increasing size and scope of a related series of international conferences, the latest of which (XRM90) was held at King's College London (3-7 September 1990) with over 130 delegates. Previous conferences in Gottingen and Brookhaven resulted in books in the Springer Series in Optical Sciences, and this volume, the proceedings of XRM90, maintains this tradition. Because of the large number of papers their lengths were strictly limited and, while most papers can be directly identified with conference presentations, in a few cases those on similar topics by the same authors have been combined into a longer paper to allow better use of the space. The book is divided into six parts, with Parts IT-VI covering the major areas of interest at the conference. In Part 1 are two overviews; Ron Burge presented the opening paper of the conference, while the closing, summary, contrlbution by Janos Kirz is included here as a comprehensive introduction to the remainder of the book. Part IT covers developments in X -ray sources and optics. The high average brightnesses of synchrotron radiation sources have made many applications pos sible, while the more convenient, laboratory-based, plasma sources offer much promise for the future. Several contributions report significant advances in X-ray optics, which must clearly continue fully to exploit the latest sources.
Category: Technology & Engineering

X Ray Microscopy

Author : Chris Jacobsen
ISBN : 9781107076570
Genre : Medical
File Size : 77.41 MB
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A complete introduction to x-ray microscopy, covering optics, 3D and chemical imaging, lensless imaging, radiation damage, and applications.
Category: Medical

Microelectronics Failure Analysis

Author :
ISBN : 9780871708045
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 50.12 MB
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For newcomers cast into the waters to sink or swim as well as seasoned professionals who want authoritative guidance desk-side, this hefty volume updates the previous (1999) edition. It contains the work of expert contributors who rallied to the job in response to a committee's call for help (the committee was assigned to the update by the Electron
Category: Technology & Engineering

Modern Developments In X Ray And Neutron Optics

Author : Alexei Erko
ISBN : 9783540745600
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 88.36 MB
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This volume describes modern developments in reflective, refractive and diffractive optics for short wavelength radiation. It also covers recent theoretical approaches to modelling and ray-tracing the x-ray and neutron optical systems. It is based on the joint research activities of specialists in x-ray and neutron optics, working together under the framework of the European Programme for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST, Action P7) in the period 2002-2006.
Category: Technology & Engineering

X Rays In Nanoscience

Author : Jinghua Guo
ISBN : 9783527632305
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.89 MB
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An up-to-date overview of the different x-ray based methods in the hot fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, including methods for imaging nanomaterials, as well as for probing the electronic structure of nanostructured materials in order to investigate their different properties. Written by authors at one of the world's top facilities working with these methods, this monograph presents and discusses techniques and applications in the fields of x-ray scattering, spectroscopy and microscope imaging. The resulting systematic collection of these advanced tools will benefit graduate students, postdocs as well as professional researchers.
Category: Science

Polymer Microscopy

Author : Linda Sawyer
ISBN : 0387726284
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.50 MB
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This extensively updated and revised Third Edition is a comprehensive and practical guide to the study of the microstructure of polymers. It is the result of the authors' many years of academic and industrial experience. Introductory chapters deal with the basic concepts of both polymer morphology and processing and microscopy and imaging theory. The core of the book is more applied, with many examples of specimen preparation and image interpretation leading to materials characterization. Emerging techniques such as compositional mapping in which microscopy is combined with spectroscopy are considered. The book closes with a problem solving guide.
Category: Science

Scanning Electron Microscopy And X Ray Microanalysis

Author : Joseph Goldstein
ISBN : 0306472929
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 77.23 MB
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This text provides students as well as practitioners with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The authors emphasize the practical aspects of the techniques described. Topics discussed include user-controlled functions of scanning electron microscopes and x-ray spectrometers and the use of x-rays for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Separate chapters cover SEM sample preparation methods for hard materials, polymers, and biological specimens. In addition techniques for the elimination of charging in non-conducting specimens are detailed.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

X Ray Optics And X Ray Microanalysis

Author : H. H. Pattee
ISBN : 9781483277035
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.16 MB
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X-ray Optics and X-ray Microanalysis covers the proceedings of the Symposium on X-ray Optics and X-ray Microanalysis, held at Stanford University on August 22-24, 1962. The book focuses on X-ray microscopy, microradiography, radiation and irradiation, and X-ray microanalysis. The selection first offers information on the methods of X-ray microscopy and X-ray absorption microanalysis. Discussions focus on X-ray scanning microscopy, contact microradiography, point projection microscopy, and total dry-weight determinations. The text then takes a look at X-ray microanalysis in biology and medicine; electron microscopic enlargements of X-ray absorption micrographs; and automation in microradiography. The publication examines the production of Fresnel zone plates for extreme ultraviolet and soft X radiation; quantitative microradiographic studies of human epidermis; and irradiation effect on total organic nerve-cell material determined by integrating X-ray absorption. The manuscript then reviews the calculation of fluorescence excited by characteristic radiation in the X-ray microanalyzer and the method for calculating the absorption correction in electron-probe microanalysis. The selection is a valuable reference for readers interested in X-ray technology.
Category: Science

Microanalysis Of Solids

Author : B.G. Yacobi
ISBN : 030644433X
Genre : Science
File Size : 72.16 MB
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This book systematically describes the most widely used techniques for the microanalysis of the physical, structural, and compositional properties of solids. Covering electron beams, ion beams, photon beams, and acoustic waves, it will provide physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, chemists, and their students with a comprehensive reference source.
Category: Science

Focus On Multidimensional Microscopy

Author : Ping-chin Cheng
ISBN : 9810239912
Genre : Science
File Size : 33.51 MB
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This book covers various aspects of modern microscopy, with emphasis on multidimensional (three-dimensional and higher) and multimodality microscopy. The topics discussed include multiphoton fluorescent microscopy, confocal microscopy, x-ray microscopy and microtomography, electron microscopy, probe microscopy and multidimensional image processing for microscopy. In addition, there are chapters demonstrating typical microscopical applications, both biological and material.
Category: Science

Three Dimensional X Ray Diffraction Microscopy

Author : Henning Friis Poulsen
ISBN : 3540223304
Genre : Science
File Size : 54.77 MB
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Three-dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy is a novel experimental method for structural characterisation of polycrystalline materials. The position, morphology, phase, strain and crystallographic orientation of hundreds of grains or sub-grain embedded within mm-cm thick specimens can be determined simultaneously. Furthermore, the dynamics of the individual structural elements can be monitored during typical processes such as deformation or annealing. The book gives a comprehensive account of the methodology followed by a summary of selected applications. The method is presented from a mathematical/crystallographic point-of-view but with sufficient hands-on details to enable the reader to plan his or her own experiments. The scope of applications includes work in materials science and engineering, geophysics, geology, chemistry and pharmaceutical science.
Category: Science