World Development Report

Download World Development Report ebook PDF or Read Online books in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to World Development Report book pdf for free now.

World Development Report 2020

Author : World Bank
ISBN : 9781464814952
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57.58 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 925
Read : 662

Global value chains (GVCs) powered the surge of international trade after 1990 and now account for almost half of all trade. This shift enabled an unprecedented economic convergence: poor countries grew rapidly and began to catch up with richer countries. Since the 2008 global financial crisis, however, the growth of trade has been sluggish and the expansion of GVCs has stalled. Meanwhile, serious threats have emerged to the model of trade-led growth. New technologies could draw production closer to the consumer and reduce the demand for labor. And trade conflicts among large countries could lead to a retrenchment or a segmentation of GVCs. World Development Report 2020: Trading for Development in the Age of Global Value Chains examines whether there is still a path to development through GVCs and trade. It concludes that technological change is, at this stage, more a boon than a curse. GVCs can continue to boost growth, create better jobs, and reduce poverty provided that developing countries implement deeper reforms to promote GVC participation; industrial countries pursue open, predictable policies; and all countries revive multilateral cooperation.
Category: Business & Economics

World Development Report 2013

Author : World Bank
ISBN : 9780821395769
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 67.10 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 279
Read : 911

Jobs provide higher earnings and better benefits as countries grow, but they are also a driver of development. Poverty falls as people work their way out of hardship and as jobs empowering women lead to greater investments in children. Efficiency increases as workers get better at what they do, as more productive jobs appear, and less productive ones disappear. Societies flourish as jobs bring together people from different ethnic and social backgrounds and provide alternatives to conflict. Jobs are thus more than a byproduct of economic growth. They are transformational —they are what we earn, what we do, and even who we are. High unemployment and unmet job expectations among youth are the most immediate concerns. But in many developing countries, where farming and self-employment are prevalent and safety nets are modest are best, unemployment rates can be low. In these countries, growth is seldom jobless. Most of their poor work long hours but simply cannot make ends meet. And the violation of basic rights is not uncommon. Therefore, the number of jobs is not all that matters: jobs with high development payoffs are needed. Confronted with these challenges, policy makers ask difficult questions. Should countries build their development strategies around growth, or should they focus on jobs? Can entrepreneurship be fostered, especially among the many microenterprises in developing countries, or are entrepreneurs born? Are greater investments in education and training a prerequisite for employability, or can skills be built through jobs? In times of major crises and structural shifts, should jobs, not just workers, be protected? And is there a risk that policies supporting job creation in one country will come at the expense of jobs in other countries? The World Development Report 2013: Jobs offers answers to these and other difficult questions by looking at jobs as drivers of development—not as derived labor demand—and by considering all types of jobs—not just formal wage employment. The Report provides a framework that cuts across sectors and shows that the best policy responses vary across countries, depending on their levels of development, endowments, demography, and institutions. Policy fundamentals matter in all cases, as they enable a vibrant private sector, the source of most jobs in the world. Labor policies can help as well, even if they are less critical than is often assumed. Development policies, from making smallholder farming viable to fostering functional cities to engaging in global markets, hold the key to success.
Category: Business & Economics

World Development Report 1979

Author :
ISBN : 9780821372814
Genre : Adaptation (Biology)
File Size : 25.73 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 385
Read : 440

Structural transformation is particularly important for middle income countries. In dealing with the appropriate policies to be associated with structural changes, this report analyzes the processes of industrialization, urbanization, and the sectoral deployment of labor. The challenges identified, analyzed, and presented for consideration are: (i) creation of job opportunities for an additional half billion people that will join the labor force in the developing countries by 2000; (ii) accommodation of an additional one billion people in the same time perspective in the urban areas of the developing countries in socially acceptable and economically productive conditions; (iii) creation of an international trade environment that is supportive of the development efforts; and (iv) significant steps to the elimination of absolute poverty.
Category: Adaptation (Biology)

World Development Report 2005

Author : World Bank
ISBN : 0821357247
Genre : Economic development
File Size : 69.13 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 823
Read : 770

The 'World Development Report 2005' is a useful guide to the economic, social and environmental state of the world today. It provides an in-depth analysis of a specific aspect of development.
Category: Economic development

World Development Report 2017

Author : World Bank Group
ISBN : 1464809526
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 45.74 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 749
Read : 860

The World Development Report (WDR) 2017 on Governance and the Law seeks to shed light on how a better understanding of governance can bring about more effective policy interventions to achieve sustainable improvements in welfare. Many governance reform efforts have focused on transplanting idealized institutional forms, strengthening state capacity, and establishing the rule of law. However, history has shown us that these types of changes in governance do not necessarily lead to improvements in development outcomes in every context, nor are they always feasible to bring about. The WDR 2017 proposes three key principles for rethinking the relationship between governance and development in order to strengthen reform efforts: think about function not only form, think about power not only capacity, and think about the role of law not only the rule of law. These principles imply that in order to improve development, reform efforts need to consider (i) how institutional forms are (or are not) able to solve commitment, cooperation, and coordination problems by making policy promises credible and effectively influencing behavior; (ii) how the relative bargaining power of actors can be shifted by enabling the entry of new actors into the bargaining arena, changing the incentives of actors, or reshaping their preferences; (iii) what role the formal and informal rules play in shaping that bargaining process. The Report applies these principles in the context of security, growth, and equity to better understand the policy implications and trade-offs for different development goals. The Report concludes by exploring the conditions under which these types of changes can be brought about looking at the conditions under which elites may choose to establish limits on their own power, how citizens can overcome collective action problems to support reform, and how international influences can reshape local bargaining dynamics.
Category: Business & Economics

World Development Report 2010

Author : World Bank
ISBN : 0821379887
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 66.16 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 345
Read : 954

In the crowded field of climate change reports, 'WDR 2010' uniquely: emphasizes development; takes an integrated look at adaptation and mitigation; highlights opportunities in the changing competitive landscape; and proposes policy solutions grounded in analytic work and in the context of the political economy of reform.
Category: Political Science

World Development Report 2009

Author : World Bank
ISBN : 082137608X
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 77.34 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 352
Read : 855

Rising densities of human settlements, migration and transport to reduce distances to market, and specialization and trade facilitated by fewer international divisions are central to economic development. The transformations along these three dimensions density, distance, and division are most noticeable in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, but countries in Asia and Eastern Europe are changing in ways similar in scope and speed. 'World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography' concludes that these spatial transformations are essential, and should be encouraged. The conclusion is not without controversy. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. Globalization is believed to benefit many, but not the billion people living in lagging areas of developing nations. High poverty and mortality persist among the world's 'bottom billion', while others grow wealthier and live longer lives. Concern for these three billion often comes with the prescription that growth must be made spatially balanced. The WDR has a different message: economic growth is seldom balanced, and efforts to spread it out prematurely will jeopardize progress. The Report: documents how production becomes more concentrated spatially as economies grow. proposes economic integration as the principle for promoting successful spatial transformations. revisits the debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration and shows how today's developers can reshape economic geography.
Category: Political Science

World Development Report 2016

Author : World Bank Group
ISBN : 9781464806728
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 68.54 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 724
Read : 799

Digital technologies are spreading rapidly, but digital dividends--the broader benefits of faster growth, more jobs, and better services--are not. If more than 40 percent of adults in East Africa pay their utility bills using a mobile phone, why can’t others around the world do the same? If 8 million entrepreneurs in China--one third of them women--can use an e-commerce platform to export goods to 120 countries, why can’t entrepreneurs elsewhere achieve the same global reach? And if India can provide unique digital identification to 1 billion people in five years, and thereby reduce corruption by billions of dollars, why can’t other countries replicate its success? Indeed, what’s holding back countries from realizing the profound and transformational effects that digital technologies are supposed to deliver? Two main reasons. First, nearly 60 percent of the world’s population are still offline and can’t participate in the digital economy in any meaningful way. Second, and more important, the benefits of digital technologies can be offset by growing risks. Startups can disrupt incumbents, but not when vested interests and regulatory uncertainty obstruct competition and the entry of new firms. Employment opportunities may be greater, but not when the labor market is polarized. The internet can be a platform for universal empowerment, but not when it becomes a tool for state control and elite capture. The World Development Report 2016 shows that while the digital revolution has forged ahead, its 'analog complements'--the regulations that promote entry and competition, the skills that enable workers to access and then leverage the new economy, and the institutions that are accountable to citizens--have not kept pace. And when these analog complements to digital investments are absent, the development impact can be disappointing. What, then, should countries do? They should formulate digital development strategies that are much broader than current information and communication technology (ICT) strategies. They should create a policy and institutional environment for technology that fosters the greatest benefits. In short, they need to build a strong analog foundation to deliver digital dividends to everyone, everywhere.
Category: Business & Economics

World Development Report 2011

Author : World Bank
ISBN : 9780821384404
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 33.1 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 580
Read : 1182

The 2011 WDR on Conflict, Security and Development underlines the devastating impact of persistent conflict on a country or region's development prospects - noting that the 1.5 billion people living in conflict-affected areas are twice as likely to be in poverty. Its goal is to contribute concrete, practical suggestions on conflict and fragility.
Category: Business & Economics

World Development Report 2021 Data For Better Lives

Author : World Bank
ISBN : 1464816077
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 30.74 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 325
Read : 216

The unprecedented growth of data and its ubiquity in our daily lives signal that the digital revolution is transforming the world. But much of the value of data remains untapped, waiting to be realized. Data collected for one particular purpose has the potential to generate economic value in applications far beyond those originally anticipated. However, many barriers stand in the way of the beneficial reuse of data, ranging from misaligned incentives and incompatible data systems to a fundamental lack of trust. The World Development Report 2021: Data for Better Lives will explore the tremendous potential of the changing data landscape to improve the lives of poor people, but also to open backdoors that can harm individuals, businesses, and societies. The first part of the report assesses how better use and reuse of data can enhance the design of public policies, programs, and service delivery, as well as improve market efficiency and job creation through private sector growth. The second part of the report focuses on issues of governance, law, and policy that can help realize data's potential benefits while safeguarding against harmful outcomes. By examining these issues, the report aims to show how data can be leveraged to benefit the lives of poor people.
Category: Business & Economics

World Development Report 2008

Author : World Bank
ISBN : 0821368095
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 58.19 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 202
Read : 1085

The world's demand for food is expected to double within the next 50 years, while the natural resources that sustain agriculture will become increasingly scarce, degraded, and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In many poor countries, agriculture accounts for at least 40 percent of GDP and 80 percent of employment. At the same time, about 70 percent of the world's poor live in rural areas and most depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. 'World Development Report 2008' seeks to assess where, when, and how agriculture can be an effective instrument for economic development, especially development that favors the poor. It examines several broad questions: How has agriculture changed in developing countries in the past 20 years? What are the important new challenges and opportunities for agriculture? Which new sources of agricultural growth can be captured cost effectively in particular in poor countries with large agricultural sectors as in Africa? How can agricultural growth be made more effective for poverty reduction? How can governments facilitate the transition of large populations out of agriculture, without simply transferring the burden of rural poverty to urban areas? How can the natural resource endowment for agriculture be protected? How can agriculture's negative environmental effects be contained? This year's report marks the 30th year the World Bank has been publishing the 'World Development Report'.
Category: Business & Economics

World Development Report 1997

Author :
ISBN : 0195211146
Genre : Adaptation (Biology)
File Size : 33.48 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 873
Read : 1090

This is the twentieth in the annual series assessing major development issues. The report is devoted to the role and effectiveness of the state:what it should do, how it should do it, and how it can improve in a rapidly changing world. Governments with both centrally-planned and mixed economies are shrinking their market role because of failed state interventions. This report takes an opposite stance:that state's role in the institutional environment underlying the economy, that is, its ability to enforce a rule of law to underpin transactions, is vital to making government contribute more effectively to development. It argues against reducing government to a minimalist state, explaining that development requires an effective state that plays a facilitator role in encouraging and complementing the activities of private businesses and individuals. The report presents a state reform framework strategy:First, focus the state's activities to match its capabilities; and second, look for ways to improve the state's capability by re-invigorating public institutions. Successful and unsuccessful examples of states and state reform provide illustrations.
Category: Adaptation (Biology)

States Scarcity And Civil Strife In The Developing World

Author : Colin H. Kahl
ISBN : 9780691138350
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 59.7 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 620
Read : 598

Over the past several decades, civil and ethnic wars have undermined prospects for economic and political development, destabilized entire regions of the globe, and left millions dead. States, Scarcity, and Civil Strife in the Developing World argues that demographic and environmental stress--the interactions among rapid population growth, environmental degradation, inequality, and emerging scarcities of vital natural resources--represents one important source of turmoil in today's world. Kahl contends that this type of stress places enormous strains on both societies and governments in poor countries, increasing their vulnerability to armed conflict. He identifies two pathways whereby this process unfolds: state failure and state exploitation. State failure conflicts occur when population growth, environmental degradation, and resource inequality weaken the capacity, legitimacy, and cohesion of governments, thereby expanding the opportunities and incentives for rebellion and intergroup violence. State exploitation conflicts, in contrast, occur when political leaders themselves capitalize on the opportunities arising from population pressures, natural resource scarcities, and related social grievances to instigate violence that serves their parochial interests. Drawing on a wide array of social science theory, this book argues that demographically and environmentally induced conflicts are most likely to occur in countries that are deeply split along ethnic, religious, regional, or class lines, and which have highly exclusive and discriminatory political systems. The empirical portion of the book evaluates the theoretical argument through in-depth case studies of civil strife in the Philippines, Kenya, and numerous other countries. The book concludes with an analysis of the challenges demographic and environmental change will pose to international security in the decades ahead.
Category: Political Science

World Development Report 1978

Author :
ISBN : 9780821372821
Genre : Adaptation (Biology)
File Size : 67.46 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 268
Read : 1181

This first report deals with some of the major development issues confronting the developing countries and explores the relationship of the major trends in the international economy to them. It is designed to help clarify some of the linkages between the international economy and domestic strategies in the developing countries against the background of growing interdependence and increasing complexity in the world economy. It assesses the prospects for progress in accelerating growth and alleviating poverty, and identifies some of the major policy issues which will affect these prospects.
Category: Adaptation (Biology)

World Development Report 1987

Author :
ISBN : 9780195205633
Genre : Adaptation (Biology)
File Size : 47.9 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 198
Read : 1015

This report, consisting of two parts, is the tenth in the annual series assessing development issues. Part I reviews recent trends in the world economy and their implications for the future prospects of developing countries. It stresses that better economic performance is possible in both industrial and developing countries, provided the commitment to economic policy reforms is maintained and reinforced. In regard to the external debt issues, the report argues for strengthened cooperation among industrial countries in the sphere of macroeconomic policy to promote smooth adjustment to the imbalances caused by external payments (in developing countries). Part II reviews and evaluates the varied experience with government policies in support of industrialization. Emphasis is placed on policies which affect both the efficiency and sustainability of industrial transformation, especially in the sphere of foreign trade. The report finds that developing countries which followed policies that promoted the integration of their industrial sector into the international economy through trade have fared better than those which insulated themselves from international competition.
Category: Adaptation (Biology)

World Development Report 1985

Author :
ISBN : 9780195204827
Genre : Access to Finance
File Size : 26.25 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 453
Read : 843

This report focuses on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development. While the report pays close attention to the events of the recent past, it also places the use of foreign capital in a broader and longer-term perspective. Using such a perspective, the report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international community has dealt with financial crises. This report concludes that the developing countries will have a continuing need for external finance. It demonstrates that many of the policies required to attract external finance and promote economic growth are either being implemented or planned already.
Category: Access to Finance

World Bank East Asia And Pacific Economic Update October 2019

Author : World Bank
ISBN : 9781464815089
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 68.28 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 645
Read : 880

Growth in the developing East Asia and Pacific region slowed in the first half of 2019 given weakening global demand and heightened policy uncertainty amid ongoing trade tensions. Steady consumption growth helped to partly offset the effects of weakening exports and investment on growth. The region’s growth prospects face intensified downside risks, including further escalation of trade disputes, a sharper-than-expected slowdown in China, the United States and the Euro Area, along with a disorderly Brexit, and an abrupt change in global financing conditions. In some countries, rising indebtedness and other vulnerabilities, such as the constrained capacity for foreign debt rollover, could amplify the negative effects of external shocks. The regional growth moderation underscores the need to address key vulnerabilities and preserve economic dynamism among developing East Asia and Pacific economies. In the short run, countries with sufficient policy space should use available policy tools to stimulate domestic activities. Better quality spending, together with prudent debt management, is needed to safeguard fiscal sustainability. Deepening regional integration would help offset the negative impact of global protectionism. In the medium to long term, pursuing structural reforms that raise competitiveness, support trade and investment, and encourage innovation is critical to boosting productivity and growth.
Category: Business & Economics

The Growth Report

Author : Commission on Growth and Development
ISBN : 0821374923
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 26.67 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 497
Read : 346

The result of two years work by 19 experienced policymakers and two Nobel prize-winning economists, 'The Growth Report' is the most complete analysis to date of the ingredients which, if used in the right country-specific recipe, can deliver growth and help lift populations out of poverty.
Category: Business & Economics

World Development Report 1981

Author :
ISBN : 9780195029987
Genre : Adaptation (Biology)
File Size : 28.10 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 455
Read : 531

This is the fourth in the World Bank's annual series assessing key development issues. Adjustment, global and national, to promote sustainable growth in the changing world economy is the main theme of this report. Recession and inflation in the industrial countries, together with the rise in oil prices, have been the main forces at work in the world economy in the 1970s. The report examines their effect on developing countries to see how adjustment has been managed and what lessons may be learned for the 1980s. Adjustment occurs through international trade and capital flows and through changes in national production and consumption patterns. The earlier chapters of the report present global and regional projections for the 1980s and consider international aspects of adjustment in trade, energy and finance. It then turns to adjustment problems of different groups of developing countries and a consideration of the prospects for human development. The report also includes the 1981 World Development Indicators, a set of 25 tables of economic and social indicators for 124 countries.
Category: Adaptation (Biology)

World Development Report 1982

Author :
ISBN : 9780195032253
Genre : Adaptation (Biology)
File Size : 68.88 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 426
Read : 1251

This report reviews development prospects in the international economy and supplements the extensive discussion of adjustment issues in the 1981 World Development Report. It finds that, although international prospects have worsened over the past year, during the remainder of the decade the middle-income countries should be able to continue narrowing the income gap between themselves and the industrial countries. The prospects for many of the low-income countries, however, remain a matter of grave concern. The report concentrates on agriculture, which remains the chief source of income for close to two-thirds of the population in developing countries and for the vast majority of the world's poor. Informing the discussion is the experience gained by the World Bank in helping to finance some 800 agricultural and rural development projects in more than 70 countries - experience supported by its broad, intensive programs of economic, scientific, and social research. Numerous tables and multicolor maps and graphics supplement the main body of the report; case studies are interspersed to provide analyses directly related to the substance of the text. The final portion of the report comprises world development indicators, 25 two-page tables containing economic and social profiles of more than 120 countries.
Category: Adaptation (Biology)