WHY SOCIETY IS A COMPLEX MATTER

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Why Society Is A Complex Matter

Author : Philip Ball
ISBN : 9783642290008
Genre : Science
File Size : 34.30 MB
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Society is complicated. But this book argues that this does not place it beyond the reach of a science that can help to explain and perhaps even to predict social behaviour. As a system made up of many interacting agents – people, groups, institutions and governments, as well as physical and technological structures such as roads and computer networks – society can be regarded as a complex system. In recent years, scientists have made great progress in understanding how such complex systems operate, ranging from animal populations to earthquakes and weather. These systems show behaviours that cannot be predicted or intuited by focusing on the individual components, but which emerge spontaneously as a consequence of their interactions: they are said to be ‘self-organized’. Attempts to direct or manage such emergent properties generally reveal that ‘top-down’ approaches, which try to dictate a particular outcome, are ineffectual, and that what is needed instead is a ‘bottom-up’ approach that aims to guide self-organization towards desirable states. This book shows how some of these ideas from the science of complexity can be applied to the study and management of social phenomena, including traffic flow, economic markets, opinion formation and the growth and structure of cities. Building on these successes, the book argues that the complex-systems view of the social sciences has now matured sufficiently for it to be possible, desirable and perhaps essential to attempt a grander objective: to integrate these efforts into a unified scheme for studying, understanding and ultimately predicting what happens in the world we have made. Such a scheme would require the mobilization and collaboration of many different research communities, and would allow society and its interactions with the physical environment to be explored through realistic models and large-scale data collection and analysis. It should enable us to find new and effective solutions to major global problems such as conflict, disease, financial instability, environmental despoliation and poverty, while avoiding unintended policy consequences. It could give us the foresight to anticipate and ameliorate crises, and to begin tackling some of the most intractable problems of the twenty-first century.
Category: Science

Complex Systems In Medicine

Author : David C. Aron
ISBN : 9783030245931
Genre : Medical
File Size : 89.7 MB
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This unique title explores complex systems in clinical medicine and the subsequent implementation of that knowledge into practice. Written conversationally and as a reflection on the journey of learning about complex systems, the book explores how knowledge of these systems can be applied to four key roles in academic medicine: clinical practice, education, research, and administration. Further, this title emphasizes how gaining an understanding of complex systems can greatly help a physician deal with the many challenges found in academic medicine. Unlike other books on complexity in medicine, which tend to focus on only one aspect of the management of patients, Complex Systems in Medicine deals with the multifaceted roles of a physician. The approach in this book is uniquely qualitative rather than mathematical, and is written to make it not only of interest to physicians, trainees, and allied health providers, but also to make it more accessible to a non-medical audience. The inclusion of personal anecdotes by the author provides concrete examples of the application of knowledge of complex systems in academic medicine. A first-of-its-kind contribution to the literature, Complex Systems in Medicine: A Hedgehog’s Tale of Complexity in Clinical Practice, Research, Education, and Management is not only a novel reference for medical professionals, it is an accessible tool for the non-medical audience hoping to learn more about complex systems and their direct relevance to medicine, a field that deals with the infinite variety of humans and their ills. It illustrates the consequences of the interactive elements of patient care that make medicine both a science and an art.
Category: Medical

Complexity In Language

Author : Salikoko S. Mufwene
ISBN : 9781107054370
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 64.21 MB
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This book is about dynamical, social-interactional aspects of the emergence of complexity in language, explained by linguists, cognitivists, and modelers.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Bilingualism And Minority Languages In Europe

Author : Fraser Lauchlan
ISBN : 9781443891660
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 28.82 MB
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This collection considers such issues as the cognitive, linguistic and emotional benefits of speaking two languages, the perceptions, attitudes and issues relating to identity in minority language areas, and the number of grammatical aspects amongst those who speak these minority languages. The premise of the book is based on the fact that these minority languages have, in the past, been in danger of becoming obsolete, mainly because of negative attitudes regarding the benefits of speaking languages that are considered irrelevant internationally. However, in recent times, the benefits of speaking two languages, including where one is a minority language, have been recognised in ways that were not previously understood. Perhaps because of this, alongside the introduction of legislation in some areas in Europe that has been designed to support the preservation of some of these languages, there has been a re-emergence of many minority languages throughout the continent. Questions remain whether this has led to the languages becoming more widely spoken and whether there are specific benefits that can be gained from speaking them. Exploring these questions has led to an increasing amount of research being undertaken on various aspects of bilingualism in minority language areas in Europe. The book contributes to this debate and underlines the relevance and significance of bilingualism in the specific context where European minority languages are still spoken.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Personal Analytics And Privacy An Individual And Collective Perspective

Author : Riccardo Guidotti
ISBN : 9783319719702
Genre : Computers
File Size : 52.76 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the First International Workshop on Personal Analytics and Privacy, PAP 2017, held in Skopje, Macedonia, in September 2017. The 14 papers presented together with 2 invited talks in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this book and handle topics such as personal analytics, personal data mining and privacy in the context where real individual data are used for developing a data-driven service, for realizing a social study aimed at understanding nowadays society, and for publication purposes.
Category: Computers

Why Music Matters

Author : David Hesmondhalgh
ISBN : 9781118535813
Genre : Music
File Size : 37.38 MB
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Listen to David Hesmondhalgh discuss the arguments at the core of 'Why Music Matters' with Laurie Taylor on BBC Radio 4's Thinking Allowed here. In what ways might music enrich the lives of people and of societies? What prevents it from doing so? Why Music Matters explores the role of music in our lives, and investigates the social and political significance of music in modern societies. First book of its kind to explore music through a variety of theories and approaches and unite these theories using one authoritative voice Combines a broad yet theoretically sophisticated approach to music and society with real clarity and accessibility A historically and sociologically informed understanding of music in relation to questions of social power and inequality By drawing on both popular and academic talk about a range of musical forms and practices, readers will engage with a wide musical terrain and a wealth of case studies
Category: Music

Why Knowledge Matters In Curriculum

Author : Leesa Wheelahan
ISBN : 9780415522007
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 67.43 MB
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What should we teach in our schools and vocational education and higher education institutions? Is theoretical knowledge still important? This book argues that providing students with access to knowledge should be the raison d'être of education. Its premise is that access to knowledge is an issue of social justice because society uses it to conduct its debates and controversies. Theoretical knowledge is increasingly marginalised in curriculum in all sectors of education, particularly in competency-based training which is the dominant curriculum model in vocational education in many countries. This book uses competency-based training to explore the negative consequences that arise when knowledge is displaced in curriculum in favour of a focus on workplace relevance. The book takes a unique approach by using the sociology of Basil Bernstein and the philosophy of critical realism as complementary modes of theorising to extend and develop social realist arguments about the role of knowledge in curriculum. Both approaches are increasingly influential in education and the social sciences and the book will be helpful for those seeking an accessible introduction to these complex subjects. Why Knowledge Matters in Curriculum is a key reading for those interested in the sociology of education, curriculum studies, work-based learning, vocational education, higher education, adult and community education, tertiary education policy and lifelong learning more broadly.
Category: Social Science

Why Sports Morally Matter

Author : William Morgan
ISBN : 9781134246793
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 74.85 MB
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When we accept that advertisers and sponsors dictate athletic schedules, that success in sport is measured by revenue, that athletes’ loyalties lie with their commercial agents instead of teams and that game rules exist to be tested and broken in the pursuit of a win, what does our regard for sport say about the moral and political well-being of our society? Why Sports Morally Matter is a deeply critical examination of pressing ethical issues in sports – and in society as a whole. Exploring the broad historical context of modern America, William J. Morgan argues that the current state of sports is a powerful indictment of our wealth-driven society and hyper-individualistic way of life. Taking on critics from all sides of the political debate, Morgan makes the case that, despite the negating effect of free market values, sport still possesses important features that encourage social, moral and political values crucial to the flourishing of a democratic polity. It is this potential to transform society and the individual that makes sport a key battleground in the struggle for the moral soul of twenty-first century America.
Category: Business & Economics

Why Yemen Matters

Author : Helen Lackner
ISBN : 9780863567827
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 39.67 MB
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In November 2011, an agreement brokered by the GCC brought an end to Yemen's tumultuous uprising. The National Dialogue Conference has opened a window of opportunity for change, bringing Yemen's main political forces together with groups that were politically marginalized. Yet, the risk of collapse is serious, and if Yemen is to remain a viable state, it must address numerous political, social and economic challenges. In this invaluable volume, experts with extensive Yemen experience provide innovative analysis of the country's major crises: centralized governance, the role of the military, ethnic conflict, separatism, Islamism, foreign intervention, water scarcity and economic development. This is essential reading for academi, journalists, development workers, diplomats, politicians and students alike. 'Essential reading ... The authors shed light on the context of the Yemeni uprising in a way that not only helps us understand the current transitional period but also the outlines of Yemen's future.' Charles Schmitz, President of the American Institute of Yemeni Studies 'An up to date and wide-ranging guide to what is arguably the Arab world's least known and most misunderstood state. Edited by one of Britain's foremost authorities on Yemen ... brings together an impressive range of experts on the country to examine the contemporary reality of Yemen.' Michael Willis, Director of the Middle East Centre, St Antony's College, Oxford University 'Thoughtful and well-researched, Why Yemen Matters unearths a wealth of information about contemporary Yemeni society.' Baghat Korany, Professor of International Relations, American University in Cairo
Category: Political Science

Why Race And Culture Matter In Schools

Author : Tyrone C. Howard
ISBN : 9780807778074
Genre : Education
File Size : 21.28 MB
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Issues tied to race and culture continue to be a part of the landscape of America’s schools and classrooms. Given the rapid demographic transformation in the nation’s states, cities, counties, and schools, it is essential that all school personnel acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and dispositions to talk, teach, and think across racial and cultural differences. The second edition of Howard’s bestseller has been updated to take a deeper look at how schools must be prepared to respond to disparate outcomes among students of color. Tyrone Howard draws on theoretical constructs tied to race and racism, culture and opportunity gaps to address pressing issues stemming from the chronic inequalities that remain prevalent in many schools across the country. This time-honored text will help educators at all levels respond with greater conviction and clarity on how to create more equitable, inclusive, and democratic schools as sites for teaching and learning. “If you thought the first edition of Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools was impactful, this second edition is even more of a force to be reckoned with in the fight for social justice. By pushing the boundaries of the ordinary and the normative, this book teaches as it transforms. Every educator, preservice and inservice, working with racially, linguistically, and culturally diverse young people should read this book.” —H. Richard Milner IV, Cornelius Vanderbilt Distinguished Professor of Education, Vanderbilt University “On the 10th anniversary of this groundbreaking book, Tyrone Howard not only reminds me of the salient role that race and culture play in education, but also moves beyond a Black–White binary that reflect the nuances and contours of diversity. This book should be in the hands of all teachers and teacher educators.” —Maisha T. Winn, Chancellor’s Leadership Professor, School of Education, University of California, Davis
Category: Education