WHAT-LANGUAGE-IS

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What Language Is

Author : John McWhorter
ISBN : 9781101644454
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 28.94 MB
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New York Times bestselling author and renowned linguist, John McWhorter, explores the complicated and fascinating world of languages. From Standard English to Black English; obscure tongues only spoken by a few thousand people in the world to the big ones like Mandarin - What Language Is celebrates the history and curiosities of languages around the world and smashes our assumptions about "correct" grammar. An eye-opening tour for all language lovers, What Language Is offers a fascinating new perspective on the way humans communicate. From vanishing languages spoken by a few hundred people to major tongues like Chinese, with copious revelations about the hodgepodge nature of English, John McWhorter shows readers how to see and hear languages as a linguist does. Packed with Big Ideas about language alongside wonderful trivia, What Language Is explains how languages across the globe (the Queen's English and Surinam creoles alike) originate, evolve, multiply, and divide. Raising provocative questions about what qualifies as a language (so-called slang does have structured grammar), McWhorter also takes readers on a marvelous journey through time and place-from Persian to the languages of Sri Lanka- to deliver a feast of facts about the wonders of human linguistic expression.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Language As Behaviour Language As Code

Author : Lynne Young
ISBN : 9789027250186
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 76.9 MB
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This work arose from the desire to teach foreign students in North America a particular variety of language used in their disciplines (speech situations), whereupon the inadequacy or non-existence of previous study became apparent. Given this raison d'etre, the work first illustrates one approach to the analysis of language in order to test whether something of significance can be said about the typology of texts and discourse. The approach chosen is Systemic Functional Grammar, with its roots in the Prague School of Linguistics and the London School of J.R. Firth, a theory that is particularly able to show how situational factors affect codal choices. Secondly, the author proceeds to use this theory and one language variety (academic speech) to illustrate the influence of speech situational components on the codal selections in the language variety. Since the impetus for the work is pedagogical, the book concludes with a brief reappraisal of the analysis model and a discussion of some of the pedagogical implications stemming from the analysis. Since the work is also theoretical, the implications of the study for the model of grammar are thoroughly explored.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Deconstructing Ergativity

Author : Maria Polinsky
ISBN : 9780190256609
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 73.35 MB
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Nominative-accusative and ergative are two common alignment types found across languages. In the former type, the subject of an intransitive verb and the subject of a transitive verb are expressed the same way, and differently from the object of a transitive. In ergative languages, the subject of an intransitive and the object of a transitive appear in the same form, the absolutive, and the transitive subject has a special, ergative, form. Ergative languages often follow very different patterns, thus evading a uniform description and analysis. A simple explanation for that has to do with the idea that ergative languages, much as their nominative-accusative counterparts, do not form a uniform class. In this book, Maria Polinsky argues that ergative languages instantiate two main types, the one where the ergative subject is a prepositional phrase (PP-ergatives) and the one with a noun-phrase ergative. Each type is internally consistent and is characterized by a set of well-defined properties. The book begins with an analysis of syntactic ergativity, which as Polinsky argues, is a manifestation of the PP-ergative type. Polinsky discusses diagnostic properties that define PPs in general and then goes to show that a subset of ergative expressions fit the profile of PPs. Several alternative analyses have been proposed to account for syntactic ergativity; the book presents and outlines these analyses and offers further considerations in support of the PP-ergativity approach. The book then discusses the second type, DP-ergative languages, and traces the diachronic connection between the two types. The book includes two chapters illustrating paradigm PP-ergative and DP-ergative languages: Tongan and Tsez. The data used in these descriptions come from Polinsky's original fieldwork hence presenting new empirical facts from both languages.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Heideggerian Theologies

Author : Hue Woodson
ISBN : 9781532647758
Genre : Religion
File Size : 67.95 MB
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In light of Martin Heidegger’s contextualized influence upon them, John Macquarrie, Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich, and Karl Rahner engage in theologies that, in their respective tasks and scopes, venture into existential theology, following Heideggerian pathmarks toward the primordiality of being on the way to unconcealment, or “aletheia.” By way of each pathmark, each existential theologian assumes a specific theological stance that utilizes a decidedly existential lens. While the former certainly grounds them fundamentally in a kind of theology, the latter, by way of Heideggerian influences, allows them to venture beyond any traditional theological framework with the use of philosophical suppositions and propositions. In an effort at explaining the relationship between humanity’s “being” and God’s “Being,” each existential theologian examines what it means to be human, not strictly in terms of theology, but as it is tied inextricably to an understanding of the philosophy of existence: the concept of what being is.
Category: Religion

Intercultural Language Teaching And Learning

Author : Anthony J. Liddicoat
ISBN : 9781118482100
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 47.36 MB
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This wide-ranging survey of issues in intercultural languageteaching and learning covers everything from core concepts toprogram evaluation, and advocates a fluid, responsive approach toteaching language that reflects its central role in fosteringintercultural understanding. Includes coverage of theoretical issues defining language,culture, and communication, as well as practice-driven issues suchas classroom interactions, technologies, programs, and languageassessment Examines systematically the components of language teaching:language itself, meaning, culture, learning, communicating, andassessments, and puts them in social and cultural context Features numerous examples throughout, drawn from variouslanguages, international contexts, and frameworks Incorporates a decade of in-depth research and detaileddocumentation from the authors’ collaborative work withpracticing teachers Provides a much-needed addition to the sparse literature onintercultural aspects of language education
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Excitable Speech

Author : Judith Butler
ISBN : 0415915880
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57.25 MB
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Excitable Speech examines the issue of the threatening action of words. Negotiating the work of Austin, Derrida and Bourdieu, Butler offers a theory of the political performativity of language and illuminates the efficacy of injurious language.
Category: Social Science

Unity And Diversity Of Languages

Author : Piet van Sterkenburg
ISBN : 9789027290090
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 37.48 MB
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The Permanent International Committee of Linguists (Comité International Permanent des Linguistes, CIPL) has organized the 18th Congress of Linguists in Seoul (July 21-26, 2008), in close collaboration with the Linguistic Society of Korea. In this book one finds the invited talks which address hot topics in various subdisciplines presented by outstanding and internationally well known experts. In addition, the state-of-the-art papers provide an overview of the most important research areas of contemporary linguistics.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Areal Diffusion And Genetic Inheritance

Author : Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
ISBN : 0199283087
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 59.29 MB
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Two languages can resemble each other in the categories, constructions, and types of meaning they use; and in the forms they employ to express these. Such resemblances may be the consequence of universal characteristics of language, of chance or coincidence, of the borrowing by one language ofanother's words, or of the diffusion of grammatical, phonetic, and phonological characteristics that takes place when languages come into contact. Languages sometimes show likeness because they have borrowed not from each other but from a third language. Languages that come from the same ancestormay have similar grammatical categories and meanings expressed by similar forms: such languages are said to be genetically affiliated. This book considers how and why forms and meanings of different languages at different times may resemble one another. Its editors and authors aim (a) to explain and identify the relationship between areal diffusion and the genetic development of languages, and (b) to discover the means ofdistinguishing what may cause one language to share the characteristics of another. The introduction outlines the issues that underlie these aims, introduces the chapters which follow, and comments on recurrent conclusions by the contributors. The problems are formidable and the pitfalls numerous:for example, several of the authors draw attention to the inadequacy of the family tree diagram as the main metaphor for language relationship. The authors range over Ancient Anatolia, Modern Anatolia, Australia, Amazonia, Oceania, Southeast and East Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. The book includes an archaeologist's view on what material evidence offers to explain cultural and linguistic change, and a general discussion of which kinds oflinguistic feature can and cannot be borrowed. The chapters are accessibly-written and illustrated by twenty maps. The book will interest all students of the causes and consequences of language change and evolution.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines