WHAT ENGINEERS KNOW AND HOW THEY KNOW IT

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What Engineers Know And How They Know It

Author : Walter G. Vincenti
ISBN : 0801845882
Genre : Science
File Size : 54.56 MB
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To solve their design problems, engineers draw on a vast body of knowledge about how things work. Examining previously unstudied historical cases, this author shows how engineering knowledge is obtained and presents a model to help explain the growth of such knowledge.
Category: Science

Technological Development And Science In The Industrial Age

Author : P. Kroes
ISBN : 9789401580106
Genre : History
File Size : 82.88 MB
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Historians and philosophers of technology are searching for new approaches to the study of the interaction between science and technology. New conceptual frameworks are necessary since the idea that technology is simply applied science is nothing short of a myth. The papers contained in this volume deal primarily with cognitive and social aspects of the science-technology issue. One of the most salient features of these papers is that they show a major methodological shift in studying the interaction between science and technology. Discussions of the science-technology issue have long been dominated by the demarcartion problem and related semantic issues about the notions `science' and `technology', and the `technology is applied science' thesis. Instead of general `global' interpretation schemes and models of the interaction between science and technology, detailed empirical case studies of cognitive and institutional connections between `science' and `technology' constitute the hard core of this book. The book will be of interest to philosophers of science, historians and philosophers of technology and science and sociologists of science.
Category: History

Atmospheric Flight In The Twentieth Century

Author : P. Galison
ISBN : 9789401143790
Genre : Science
File Size : 51.70 MB
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All technologies differ from one another. They are as varied as humanity's interaction with the physical world. Even people attempting to do the same thing produce multiple technologies. For example, John H. White discovered more than l 1000 patents in the 19th century for locomotive smokestacks. Yet all technologies are processes by which humans seek to control their physical environment and bend nature to their purposes. All technologies are alike. The tension between likeness and difference runs through this collection of papers. All focus on atmospheric flight, a twentieth-century phenomenon. But they approach the topic from different disciplinary perspectives. They ask disparate questions. And they work from distinct agendas. Collectively they help to explain what is different about aviation - how it differs from other technologies and how flight itself has varied from one time and place to another. The importance of this topic is manifest. Flight is one of the defining technologies of the twentieth century. Jay David Bolter argues in Turing's Man that certain technologies in certain ages have had the power not only to transform society but also to shape the way in which people understand their relationship with the physical world. "A defining technology," says Bolter, "resembles a magnifying glass, which collects and focuses seemingly disparate ideas in a culture into one bright, sometimes piercing ray." 2 Flight has done that for the twentieth century.
Category: Science

Chains Of Opportunity

Author : Mark D. Bowles
ISBN : 9781931968539
Genre : Science
File Size : 34.20 MB
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While ""plastics"" was a one-word joke in the 1967 movie The Graduate, plastics and other polymers have never been a laughing matter at the University of Akron, with its world-renowned College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering. Chains of Opportunity: The University of Akron and the Emergence of the Polymer Age, 1909-2007 tells the story of the university's rise to prominence in the field, beginning with the world's first academic course in rubber chemistry almost a century ago. Chains of Opportunity explores the university's pioneering contributions to rubber chemistry, polymer science, and polymer engineering. It traces the school's interaction with Akron rubber giants such as Goodyear and Firestone, recounts its administration of the federal government's synthetic rubber program during World War II, and describes its role in the development and professionalization of the academic discipline in polymers. The University of Akron has been an essential force in establishing the polymer age that has become a pervasive part of our material lives, in everything from toys to biotechnology.
Category: Science

Philosophy And Design

Author : Pieter E. Vermaas
ISBN : 9781402065910
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 75.10 MB
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This volume provides the reader with an integrated overview of state-of-the-art research in philosophy and ethics of design in engineering and architecture. It contains twenty-five essays that focus on engineering designing in its traditional sense, on designing in novel engineering domains, and on architectural and environmental designing. This volume enables the reader to overcome the traditional separation between engineering designing and architectural designing.
Category: Philosophy

New Trends In Software Methodologies Tools And Techniques

Author : H. Fujita
ISBN : 9781607502067
Genre : Computers
File Size : 26.20 MB
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Software is the essential enabler for the new economy and science. It creates new markets and new directions for a more reliable, flexible, and robust society. It empowers the exploration of our world in ever more depth. However, software often falls short behind our expectations. Current software methodologies, tools, and techniques remain expensive and not yet reliable for a highly changeable and evolutionary market. Many approaches have been proven only as case-by-case oriented methods. This book presents a number of new trends and theories in the direction in which we believe software science and engineering may develop to transform the role of software and science in tomorrow’s information society. This publication is an attempt to capture the essence of a new state of art in software science and its supporting technology. Is also aims at identifying the challenges such a technology has to master.
Category: Computers

The Oxford Companion To The History Of Modern Science

Author : John L. Heilbron
ISBN : 0195112296
Genre : Science
File Size : 67.36 MB
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Containing 609 encyclopedic articles written by more than 200 prominent scholars, The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science presents an unparalleled history of the field invaluable to anyone with an interest in the technology, ideas, discoveries, and learned institutions that have shaped our world over the past five centuries. Focusing on the period from the Renaissance to the early twenty-first century, the articles cover all disciplines (Biology, Alchemy, Behaviorism), historical periods (the Scientific Revolution, World War II, the Cold War), concepts (Hypothesis, Space and Time, Ether), and methodologies and philosophies (Observation and Experiment, Darwinism). Coverage is international, tracing the spread of science from its traditional centers and explaining how the prevailing knowledge of non-Western societies has modified or contributed to the dominant global science as it is currently understood. Revealing the interplay between science and the wider culture, the Companion includes entries on topics such as minority groups, art, religion, and science's practical applications. One hundred biographies of the most iconic historic figures, chosen for their contributions to science and the interest of their lives, are also included. Above all The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science is a companion to world history: modern in coverage, generous in breadth, and cosmopolitan in scope. The volume's utility is enhanced by a thematic outline of the entire contents, a thorough system of cross-referencing, and a detailed index that enables the reader to follow a specific line of inquiry along various threads from multiple starting points. Each essay has numerous suggestions for further reading, all of which favor literature that is accessible to the general reader, and a bibliographical essay provides a general overview of the scholarship in the field. Lastly, as a contribution to the visual appeal of the Companion, over 100 black-and-white illustrations and an eight-page color section capture the eye and spark the imagination.
Category: Science

The Making Of An Expert Engineer

Author : James Trevelyan
ISBN : 9781315742281
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 64.31 MB
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This book sets out the principles of engineering practice, knowledge that has come to light through more than a decade of research by the author and his students studying engineers at work. Until now, this knowledge has been almost entirely unwritten, passed on invisibly from one generation of engineers to the next, what engineers refer to as “experience”. This is a book for all engineers. It distils the knowledge of many experts in one volume. The book will help engineers enjoy a more satisfying and rewarding career and provide more valuable results for their employers and clients. The book focuses on issues often seen as “non-technical” in the world of engineering, yet it shows how these issues are thoroughly technical. Engineering firms traditionally have sought expert advice on these aspects from management schools, often regarding these aspects of engineering practice as something to do with psychology or organisational behaviour. The results are normally disappointing because management schools and psychologists have limited insight and understanding of the technical dimensions in engineering work. Little if any of the material in this book can be obtained from management texts or courses. Management schools have avoided the technical dimension of workplace practices and that is precisely what characterises engineering practice. The technical dimension infuses almost every aspect of an engineer’s working day and cannot be avoided. That’s why this book is so necessary: there has not yet been any authoritative source or guidance to bridge the gap between inanimate technical issues and organisational behaviour. This book fills this gap in our knowledge, is based on rigorous research, and yet is written in a style which is accessible for a wide audience.
Category: Technology & Engineering

An Anthology Of Theories And Models Of Design

Author : Amaresh Chakrabarti
ISBN : 9781447163381
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22.69 MB
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While investigations into both theories and models has remained a major strand of engineering design research, current literature sorely lacks a reference book that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date anthology of theories and models, and their philosophical and empirical underpinnings; An Anthology of Theories and Models of Design fills this gap. The text collects the expert views of an international authorship, covering: · significant theories in engineering design, including CK theory, domain theory, and the theory of technical systems; · current models of design, from a function behavior structure model to an integrated model; · important empirical research findings from studies into design; and · philosophical underpinnings of design itself. For educators and researchers in engineering design, An Anthology of Theories and Models of Design gives access to in-depth coverage of theoretical and empirical developments in this area; for practitioners, the book will provide exposure to theoretical and empirical foundations to methods and tools that are currently practiced as well as those in the process of development.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Air Conditioning America

Author : Gail Cooper
ISBN : 0801871131
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.20 MB
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Cooper demonstrates how the lure of the open air, from rooftop schoolrooms to open-air theaters to the front porch, challenged air conditioning. Americans were slow to give up the social rituals of hot-weather living - the cold drink, the cool clothes, the summer vacation - for the comforts of either the window air conditioner or the central system.
Category: Science