WHAT ALGORITHMS WANT

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What Algorithms Want

Author : Ed Finn
ISBN : 9780262035927
Genre : Computers
File Size : 81.24 MB
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The gap between theoretical ideas and messy reality, as seen in Neal Stephenson, Adam Smith, and Star Trek. We depend on—we believe in—algorithms to help us get a ride, choose which book to buy, execute a mathematical proof. It's as if we think of code as a magic spell, an incantation to reveal what we need to know and even what we want. Humans have always believed that certain invocations—the marriage vow, the shaman's curse—do not merely describe the world but make it. Computation casts a cultural shadow that is shaped by this long tradition of magical thinking. In this book, Ed Finn considers how the algorithm—in practical terms, “a method for solving a problem”—has its roots not only in mathematical logic but also in cybernetics, philosophy, and magical thinking. Finn argues that the algorithm deploys concepts from the idealized space of computation in a messy reality, with unpredictable and sometimes fascinating results. Drawing on sources that range from Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash to Diderot's Encyclopédie, from Adam Smith to the Star Trek computer, Finn explores the gap between theoretical ideas and pragmatic instructions. He examines the development of intelligent assistants like Siri, the rise of algorithmic aesthetics at Netflix, Ian Bogost's satiric Facebook game Cow Clicker, and the revolutionary economics of Bitcoin. He describes Google's goal of anticipating our questions, Uber's cartoon maps and black box accounting, and what Facebook tells us about programmable value, among other things. If we want to understand the gap between abstraction and messy reality, Finn argues, we need to build a model of “algorithmic reading” and scholarship that attends to process, spearheading a new experimental humanities.
Category: Computers

Nocturnes Popular Music And The Night

Author : Geoff Stahl
ISBN : 9783319997865
Genre : Music
File Size : 79.17 MB
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The night and popular music have long served to energise one another, such that they appear inextricably bound together as trope and topos. This history of reciprocity has produced a range of resonant and compelling imaginaries, conjured up through countless songs and spaces dedicated to musical life after dark. Nocturnes: Popular Music and the Night is one of the first volumes to examine the relationship between night and popular music. Its scope is interdisciplinary and geographically diverse. The contributors gathered here explore how the problems, promises, and paradoxes of the night and music play off of one another to produce spaces of solace and sanctuary as well as underpinning strategies designed to police, surveil and control movements and bodies. This edited collection is a welcome addition to debates and discussions about the cultures of the night and how popular music plays a continuing role in shaping them.
Category: Music

Transatlantic Television Drama

Author : Matt Hills
ISBN : 9780190663155
Genre : Performing Arts
File Size : 74.92 MB
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In 2014, the UK science-fiction television series Black Mirror was released on Netflix worldwide, quickly becoming a hit with US audiences. Like other beloved British imports, this series piqued Americans' interest with hints of dark comedy, clever plotlines, and six-episode seasons that left audiences frantic for more. In Transatlantic Television Drama, volume editors Michele Hilmes, Matt Hills, and Roberta Pearson team up with leading scholars in TV studies and transnational television to look at how serial dramas like Black Mirror captivate US audiences, and what this reveals about the ways Americans and Brits relate to each other on and off the screen. Focusing on production strategies, performance styles, and audience reception, chapters delve into some of the most widely-discussed programs on the transatlantic circuit, from ongoing series like Game of Thrones, Downton Abbey, Orphan Black, and Sherlock, to those with long histories of transnational circulation like Masterpiece and Doctor Who, to others whose transnational success speaks to the process of exchange, adaptation, and cooperation such as Rome, Parade's End, Broadchurch, and Gracepoint. The book's first section investigates the platforms that support British/American exchange, from distribution partnerships and satellite providers to streaming services. The second section concentrates on the shift in meaning across cultural contexts, such as invocations of heritage, genre shifts in adaptation, performance styles, and, in the case of Episodes, actual dramatized depiction of the process of transatlantic television production. In section three, attention turns to contexts of audience reception, ranging from fan conventions and fiction to television criticism, the effects of national branding on audiences, and the role of social media in de- or re-contextualizing fans' response to transnational programs.
Category: Performing Arts

The Humanities In Transition From Postmodernism Into The Digital Age

Author : Nigel A. Raab
ISBN : 9781000091489
Genre : History
File Size : 43.40 MB
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The Humanities in Transition explores how the basic components of the digital age will have an impact on the most trusted theories of humanists. Over the past two generations, humanists have come to take basic postmodern theories for granted whether on language, knowledge or time. Yet Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and similar philosophers developed their ideas when the impact of this digital world could barely be imagined. The digital world, built on algorithms and massive amounts of data, operates on radically different principles. This volume analyzes these differences, demonstrating where an aging postmodernism cannot keep pace with today’s technologies. The book first introduces the major influence postmodern had on global thought before turning to algorithms, digital space, digital time, data visuals and the concept to digital forgeries. By taking a closer look at these themes, it establishes a platform to create more robust humanist theories for the third millennium. This book will appeal to graduate students and established scholars in the Digital Humanities who are looking for diverse and energetic theoretical approaches that can truly come to terms with the digital world.
Category: History

Principles Of Distributed Systems

Author : Giuseppe Prencipe
ISBN : 9783540363217
Genre : Computers
File Size : 72.11 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems, OPODIS 2005, held in Pisa, Italy in December 2005.The 30 revised full papers presented together with abstracts of 2 invited talks were carefully selected from 109 submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers are organized in topical sections on nonblocking synchronization, fault-tolerant broadcast and consensus, self-stabilizing systems, peer-to-peer systems and collaborative environments, sensor networks and mobile computing, security and verification, real-time systems, and peer-to-peer systems.
Category: Computers

Information Retrieval

Author : David A. Grossman
ISBN : 1402030045
Genre : Computers
File Size : 37.77 MB
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Interested in how an efficient search engine works? Want to know what algorithms are used to rank resulting documents in response to user requests? The authors answer these and other key information retrieval design and implementation questions. This book is not yet another high level text. Instead, algorithms are thoroughly described, making this book ideally suited for both computer science students and practitioners who work on search-related applications. As stated in the foreword, this book provides a current, broad, and detailed overview of the field and is the only one that does so. Examples are used throughout to illustrate the algorithms. The authors explain how a query is ranked against a document collection using either a single or a combination of retrieval strategies, and how an assortment of utilities are integrated into the query processing scheme to improve these rankings. Methods for building and compressing text indexes, querying and retrieving documents in multiple languages, and using parallel or distributed processing to expedite the search are likewise described. This edition is a major expansion of the one published in 1998. Besides updating the entire book with current techniques, it includes new sections on language models, cross-language information retrieval, peer-to-peer processing, XML search, mediators, and duplicate document detection.
Category: Computers

What Chinese Want

Author : Tom Doctoroff
ISBN : 9781137000545
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 21.19 MB
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Today, most Americans take for granted that China will be the next global superpower. But despite the nation's growing influence, the average Chinese person is still a mystery - or, at best, a baffling set of seeming contradictions - to Westerners who expect the rising Chinese consumer to resemble themselves. Here, Tom Doctoroff, the guiding force of advertising giant J. Walter Thompson's (JWT) China operations, marshals his 20 years of experience navigating this fascinating intersection of commerce and culture to explain the mysteries of China. He explores the many cultural, political, and economic forces shaping the twenty-first-century Chinese and their implications for businesspeople, marketers, and entrepreneurs - or anyone else who wants to know what makes the Chinese tick. Dismantling common misconceptions, Doctoroff provides the context Westerners need to understand the distinctive worldview that drives Chinese businesses and consumers, including: - why family and social stability take precedence over individual self-expression and the consequences for education, innovation, and growth; - their fundamentally different understanding of morality, and why Chinese tolerate human rights abuses, rampant piracy, and endemic government corruption; and - the long and storied past that still drives decision making at corporate, local, and national levels. Change is coming fast and furious in China, challenging not only how the Western world sees the Chinese but how they see themselves. From the new generation's embrace of Christmas to the middle-class fixation with luxury brands; from the exploding senior demographic to what the Internet means for the government's hold on power, Doctoroff pulls back the curtain to reveal a complex and nuanced picture of a facinating people whose lives are becoming ever more entwined with our own.
Category: Business & Economics

Machine Learning

Author : Jason Bell
ISBN : 9781118889497
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 73.68 MB
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Dig deep into the data with a hands-on guide to machinelearning Machine Learning: Hands-On for Developers and TechnicalProfessionals provides hands-on instruction and fully-codedworking examples for the most common machine learning techniquesused by developers and technical professionals. The book contains abreakdown of each ML variant, explaining how it works and how it isused within certain industries, allowing readers to incorporate thepresented techniques into their own work as they follow along. Acore tenant of machine learning is a strong focus on datapreparation, and a full exploration of the various types oflearning algorithms illustrates how the proper tools can help anydeveloper extract information and insights from existing data. Thebook includes a full complement of Instructor's Materials tofacilitate use in the classroom, making this resource useful forstudents and as a professional reference. At its core, machine learning is a mathematical, algorithm-basedtechnology that forms the basis of historical data mining andmodern big data science. Scientific analysis of big data requires aworking knowledge of machine learning, which forms predictionsbased on known properties learned from training data. MachineLearning is an accessible, comprehensive guide for thenon-mathematician, providing clear guidance that allows readersto: Learn the languages of machine learning including Hadoop,Mahout, and Weka Understand decision trees, Bayesian networks, and artificialneural networks Implement Association Rule, Real Time, and Batch learning Develop a strategic plan for safe, effective, and efficientmachine learning By learning to construct a system that can learn from data,readers can increase their utility across industries. Machinelearning sits at the core of deep dive data analysis andvisualization, which is increasingly in demand as companiesdiscover the goldmine hiding in their existing data. For the techprofessional involved in data science, Machine Learning:Hands-On for Developers and Technical Professionals providesthe skills and techniques required to dig deeper.
Category: Mathematics

Active Learning

Author : Burr Settles
ISBN : 9781608457267
Genre : Computers
File Size : 24.17 MB
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The key idea behind active learning is that a machine learning algorithm can perform better with less training if it is allowed to choose the data from which it learns. An active learner may pose "queries," usually in the form of unlabeled data instances to be labeled by an "oracle" (e.g., a human annotator) that already understands the nature of the problem. This sort of approach is well-motivated in many modern machine learning and data mining applications, where unlabeled data may be abundant or easy to come by, but training labels are difficult, time-consuming, or expensive to obtain. This book is a general introduction to active learning. It outlines several scenarios in which queries might be formulated, and details many query selection algorithms which have been organized into four broad categories, or "query selection frameworks." We also touch on some of the theoretical foundations of active learning, and conclude with an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches in practice, including a summary of ongoing work to address these open challenges and opportunities. Table of Contents: Automating Inquiry / Uncertainty Sampling / Searching Through the Hypothesis Space / Minimizing Expected Error and Variance / Exploiting Structure in Data / Theory / Practical Considerations
Category: Computers