Viruses Plagues And History

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Viruses Plagues And History

Author : Michael B. A. Oldstone
ISBN : 9780190056803
Genre : Medical
File Size : 67.85 MB
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More people were killed by smallpox during the twentieth century--over 300 million--than by all of the wars of that period combined. In 1918 and 1919, influenza virus claimed over 50 million lives. A century later, influenza is poised to return, ongoing plagues of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis infect millions, and Ebola, Zika, and West Nile viruses cause new concern and panic. The overlapping histories of humans and viruses are ancient. Earliest cities became both the cradle of civilization and breeding grounds for the first viral epidemics. This overlap is the focus of virologist/immunologist Michael Oldstone in Viruses, Plagues and History. Oldstone explains principles of viruses and epidemics while recounting stories of viruses and their impact on human history. This fully updated second edition includes engrossing new chapters on hepatitis, Zika, and contemporary threats such as the possible return of a catastrophic influenza, and the impact of fear of autism on vaccination efforts. This is a fascinating panorama of humankind's longstanding conflict with unseen viral enemies, both human successes--such as control of poliomyelitis, measles, smallpox and yellow fever, and continued dangers--such as HIV and Ebola. Impeccably researched and accessibly written, Viruses, Plagues and History will fascinate all with an interest in how viral illnesses alter the course of human history.
Category: Medical

Viruses Plagues And History

Author : Michael B. A. Oldstone
ISBN : UOM:39015047080752
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 54.32 MB
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Looks at outbreaks of viral diseases throughout history, recounts how researchers found cures for smallpox and polio, and describes the current challenges facing scientists in the form of ebola, mad cow disease, and AIDS
Category: Fiction

Cattle Plague

Author : Clive Spinage
ISBN : 9781441989017
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55.55 MB
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Cattle Plague: A History is divided into five sections, dealing with the nature of the virus, followed by a chronological history of its occurrence in Europe from the Roman Empire to the final 20th century outbreaks; then administrative control measures through legislation, the principal players from the 18th century, followed by an analysis of some effects, political, economic and social. Then follows attempts at cure from earliest times encompassing superstition and witchcraft, largely Roman methods persisting until the 19th century; the search for a cure through inoculation and the final breakthrough in Africa at the end of the 19th century. The last section covers the disease in Asia and Africa. Appendices cover regulations now in force to control the disease as well as historical instructions, decrees and statutes dating from 1745-1878.
Category: Medical

The Episodes Of World Pandemics And Plagues

Author : Annie Wills
ISBN : 9798647537133
Genre :
File Size : 52.89 MB
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One thing that history is quite familiar with is the outbreak of disease pandemics. It has reshaped the entire timeline of history and at some point, people have thought that those diseases were to end civilization as they knew it then. Here are some episodes of most of the worst pandemics and epidemics that ever hit mankind. We have covered from ancient prehistoric times up till today. And if you want to know the history of pandemics that has happened of old, you should relax and read through.
Category:

The Great Influenza

Author : John M Barry
ISBN : 9780241991572
Genre : Medical
File Size : 32.52 MB
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THE #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER 'Everything you need to know about one of the deadliest outbreaks in human history' Bill Gates 'Easily our fullest, richest, most panoramic history of the subject' New York Times Book Review In 1918, the world faced the deadliest pandemic in human history. What can the story of the so-called Spanish Flu teach us about the fight against present day crises, and how to prepare for future outbreaks? At the height of WWI, history's most lethal influenza virus erupted in an army camp in Kansas, moved east with American troops, then exploded, killing as many as 100 million people worldwide. It killed more people in twenty-four months than AIDS killed in twenty-four years, more in a year than the Black Death killed in a century. But this was not the Middle Ages, and 1918 marked the first collision of science and epidemic disease. Magisterial in its breadth of perspective and depth of research, The Great Influenza is ultimately a tale of triumph amid tragedy, which provides us with a precise and sobering model as we confront the aftermath of Covid-19 and future pandemics looming on the horizon.
Category: Medical

The Power Of Plagues

Author : Irwin W. Sherman
ISBN : 9781683670001
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.4 MB
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The Power of Plagues presents a rogues' gallery of epidemic- causing microorganisms placed in the context of world history. Author Irwin W. Sherman introduces the microbes that caused these epidemics and the people who sought (and still seek) to understand how diseases and epidemics are managed. What makes this book especially fascinating are the many threads that Sherman weaves together as he explains how plagues past and present have shaped the outcome of wars and altered the course of medicine, religion, education, feudalism, and science. Cholera gave birth to the field of epidemiology. The bubonic plague epidemic that began in 1346 led to the formation of universities in cities far from the major centers of learning (and hot spots of the Black Death) at that time. And the Anopheles mosquito and malaria aided General George Washington during the American Revolution. Sadly, when microbes have inflicted death and suffering, people have sometimes responded by invoking discrimination, scapegoating, and quarantine, often unfairly, against races or classes of people presumed to be the cause of the epidemic. Pathogens are not the only stars of this book. Many scientists and physicians who toiled to understand, treat, and prevent these plagues are also featured. Sherman tells engaging tales of the development of vaccines, anesthesia, antiseptics, and antibiotics. This arsenal has dramatically reduced the suffering and death caused by infectious diseases, but these plague protectors are imperfect, due to their side effects or attenuation and because microbes almost invariably develop resistance to antimicrobial drugs. The Power of Plagues provides a sobering reminder that plagues are not a thing of the past. Along with the persistence of tuberculosis, malaria, river blindness, and AIDS, emerging and remerging epidemics continue to confound global and national public health efforts. West Nile virus, Lyme disease, and Ebola and Zika viruses are just some of the newest rogues to plague humans. The argument that civilization has been shaped to a significant degree by the power of plagues is compelling, and The Power of Plagues makes the case in an engaging and informative way that will be satisfying to scientists and non-scientists alike.
Category: Science

Viruses And Man A History Of Interactions

Author : Milton W. Taylor
ISBN : 9783319077581
Genre : Medical
File Size : 57.15 MB
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Milton Taylor, Indiana University, offers an easy-to-read and fascinating text describing the impact of viruses on human society. The book starts with an analysis of the profound effect that viral epidemics had on world history resulting in demographic upheavals by destroying total populations. It also provides a brief history of virology and immunology. Furthermore, the use of viruses for the treatment of cancer (viral oncolysis or virotherapy) and bacterial diseases (phage therapy) and as vectors in gene therapy is discussed in detail. Several chapters focus on viral diseases such as smallpox, influenza, polio, hepatitis and their control, as well as on HIV and AIDS and on some emerging viruses with an interesting story attached to their discovery or vaccine development. The book closes with a chapter on biological weapons. It will serve as an invaluable source of information for beginners in the field of virology as well as for experienced virologists, other academics, students, and readers without prior knowledge of virology or molecular biology.
Category: Medical

The End Of Plagues

Author : John Rhodes
ISBN : 9781137381316
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27.18 MB
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At the turn of the twentieth century, smallpox claimed the lives of two million people per year. By 1979, the disease had been eradicated and victory was declared across the globe. Yet the story of smallpox remains the exception, as today a host of deadly contagions, from polio to AIDS, continue to threaten human health around the world. Spanning three centuries, The End of Plagues weaves together the discovery of vaccination, the birth and growth of immunology, and the fight to eradicate the world's most feared diseases. From Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination in 1796, to the early nineteenth-century foundling voyages in which chains of orphans, vaccinated one by one, were sent to colonies around the globe, to the development of polio vaccines and the stockpiling of smallpox as a biological weapon in the Cold War, world-renown immunologist John Rhodes charts our fight against these plagues, and shows how vaccinations gave humanity the upper hand. Today, aid groups including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the World Health Organization have made the eradication of polio a priority, and Rhodes takes us behind the scenes to witness how soon we may be celebrating the eradication of polio.
Category: Medical

Man And Microbes

Author : Arno Karlen
ISBN : 9780684822709
Genre : Medical
File Size : 68.95 MB
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A noted medical historian places recent outbreaks of deadly diseases in historical perspective, with accounts of other alarming and recurring diseases throughout history and of the ways in which humans have adapted. Reprint. 17,500 first printing.
Category: Medical

Plagues In World History

Author : John Aberth
ISBN : 1442207965
Genre : History
File Size : 76.27 MB
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Plagues in World History provides a concise, comparative world history of catastrophic infectious diseases, including plague, smallpox, tuberculosis, cholera, influenza, and AIDS. John Aberth considers not only their varied impact but also the many ways in which people have been able to influence diseases simply through their cultural attitudes. Our ability to alter disease, even without modern medical treatments, is even more crucial lesson now that AIDS, swine flu, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and other seemingly incurable illnesses have raged worldwide. The author's comparative analysis of how different societies have responded in the past to disease illuminates what cultural approaches have been and may continue to be most effective in combating the plagues of today.
Category: History

Plague And Pestilence

Author : Linda Jacobs Altman
ISBN : 0894909576
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 27.41 MB
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Traces the battles that societies have waged against infectious diseases from the Black Death of the fourteenth century to the Ebola virus of more recent times.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Plagues Poxes

Author : Alfred J. Bollet
ISBN : 9781888799798
Genre : Medical
File Size : 86.81 MB
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"Since publication of the initial version of Plagues & Poxes in 1987, which had the optimistic subtitle ""The Rise and Fall of Epidemic Disease,"" the rise of new diseases such as AIDS and the deliberate modification and weaponization of diseases such as anthrax have changed the way we perceive infectious disease. With major modifications to deal with this new reality, the acclaimed author of Civil War Medicine: Challenges and Triumphs has updated and revised this series of essays about changing disease patterns in history and some of the key events and people involved in them. It deals with the history of major outbreaks of disease - both infectious diseases such as plague and smallpox and noninfectious diseases - and shows how they are in many cases caused inadvertently by human actions, including warfare, commercial travel, social adaptations, and dietary modifications. To these must now be added discussion of the intentional spreading of disease by acts of bioterrorism, and the history and knowledge of those diseases that are thought to be potential candidates for intentional spread by bioterrorists. Among the many topics discussed are: How the spread of smallpox and measles among previously unexposed populations in the Americas, the introduction of malaria and yellow fever from Africa via the importation of slaves into the Western hemisphere, and the importation of syphilis to Europe all are related to the modern interchange of diseases such as AIDS. How the ever-larger populations in the cities of Europe and North America gave rise to ""crowd diseases"" such as polio by permitting the existence of sufficient numbers of non-immune people in sufficient numbers to keep the diseases from dying out. How the domestication of animals allowed diseases of animals to affect humans, or perhaps become genetically modified to become epidemic human diseases. Why the concept of deficiency diseases was not understood before the early twentieth century disease, after all, was the presence of something abnormal, how could it be due to the absence of something? In fact, the first epidemic disease in human history probably was iron deficiency anemia. How changes in the availability and nature of specific foods have affected the size of population groups and their health throughout history. The introduction of potatoes to Ireland and corn to Europe, and the relationship between the modern technique of rice milling and beriberi, all illustrate the fragile nutritional state that results when any single vegetable crop is the main source of food. Why biological warfare is not a new phenomenon. There have been attempts to intentionally cause epidemic disease almost since the dawn of recorded history, including the contamination of wells and other water sources of armies and civilian populations of course, the spread of smallpox to Native Americans during the French and Indian War is known to every schoolchild. With our increased technology, it is not surprising that we now have to deal with problems such as weaponized spores of anthrax. "
Category: Medical

Epidemics And Pandemics

Author : J. N. Hays
ISBN : 9781851096589
Genre : History
File Size : 75.70 MB
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This book is a comprehensive examination of 50 epidemics, from ancient Greece to the present. Each chapter presents basic facts about an epidemic, discussion of its historical significance, contemporary understanding and responses, and effects on demographics, politics, economics, and religion.
Category: History

A Manufactured Plague

Author : Abigail Woods
ISBN : 9781849770309
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27.8 MB
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Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is currently regarded as one of the world's worst animal plagues. But how did this label become attached to a curable disease that poses little threat to human health? And why, in the epidemic of 2001, did the government's control strategy still rely upon Victorian trade restrictions and mass slaughter? This groundbreaking and well-researched book shows that, for over a century, FMD has brought fear, tragedy and sorrow- damaging businesses and affecting international relations. Yet these effects were neither inevitable nor caused by FMD itself but were, rather, the product of the legislation used to control it, and in this sense FMD is a 'manufactured' plague rather than a natural one. A Manufactured Plague turns the spotlight on this process of manufacture, revealing a rich history beset by controversy, in which party politics, class relations, veterinary ambitions, agricultural practices, the priorities of farming and the meat trade, fears for national security and scientific progress all made FMD what it is today.
Category: Medical

Transforming America Perspectives On U S Immigration 3 Volumes

Author : Michael C. LeMay
ISBN : 9780313396441
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 55.91 MB
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Utilizing multiple perspectives of related academic disciplines, this three-volume set of contributed essays enables readers to understand the complexity of immigration to the United States and grasp how our history of immigration has made this nation what it is today.
Category: Social Science

Something New Under The Sun An Environmental History Of The Twentieth Century World The Global Century Series

Author : J. R. McNeill
ISBN : 0393075893
Genre : Science
File Size : 38.6 MB
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"Refreshingly unpolemical and at times even witty, McNeill's book brims with carefully sifted statistics and brilliant details."—Washington Post Book World The history of the twentieth century is most often told through its world wars, the rise and fall of communism, or its economic upheavals. In his startling new book, J. R. McNeill gives us our first general account of what may prove to be the most significant dimension of the twentieth century: its environmental history. To a degree unprecedented in human history, we have refashioned the earth's air, water, and soil, and the biosphere of which we are a part. Based on exhaustive research, McNeill's story—a compelling blend of anecdotes, data, and shrewd analysis—never preaches: it is our definitive account. This is a volume in The Global Century Series (general editor, Paul Kennedy).
Category: Science

Pandemic History

Author : Adam Ford
ISBN : 9798667232032
Genre :
File Size : 58.34 MB
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"There is no battle between human beings and nature, unless we attempt to ruin it or disturb the equilibrium of natural forces and resources." --- Adam Ford, 2020 A pandemic is defined as "an epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries and usually affecting a large number of people" (World Health Organization,2009). By this definition, pandemics can be said to occur annually in each of the temperate southern and northern hemispheres, given that seasonal epidemics cross international boundaries and affect a large number of people.However, seasonal epidemics are not considered pandemics. In this historically accurate essay, Adam Ford, with his usual expertise reconstructs through an accurate elaboration of historical sources, the cyclical alternation of the great pandemics, like the "Black Plague" and the "Spanish Flu",that have afflicted the globe and the human society. The shocking truth that emerges is that evidence recommends that the probability of pandemics has increased exponentially over the past century. This is due to globalization (frequent intercontinental travel with too little regulations), reckless urbanization, and unbalanced exploitation of natural resources (air, water and land) These trends will likely continue and so the risk for pandemics will also intensify. With the analisys proposed by Ford in this essay, we will retrace with the author what were the causes and factors that triggered these terrible pandemics and the effects they had on humanity as a whole. Epidemics that, like the "Black Plague" and the "Spanish Flu", have afflicted almost all the inhabitants of the globe, in historical moments that already had very hard and dangerous living conditions, such as the Middle Ages or the period immediately after the WW1. Retrace with Ford the events that led to the great pandemics of human history: Smallpox The Black Plague Malaria Cholera Tuberculosis Spanish Influenza (1918-20) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Ebola Virus Would you like to know more? Click the Buy Now button!
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Global Institutions And The Hiv Aids Epidemic

Author : Franklyn Lisk
ISBN : 9781135226121
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 65.35 MB
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Written by a leading expert in the field, this book provides a clear and incisive analysis of the different perspectives of the global response to HIV/AIDS, and the role of the different global institutions involved. The text highlights HIV/AIDS as an exceptional global epidemic in terms of the severity of its impact as a humanitarian tragedy of unprecedented proportion, its multi-dimensional characteristics, and its continuous evolution over more than two decades. The careful analysis in this volume critically reviews key issues in the global response, including: HIV/AIDS as a development challenge North-South power relationships and tensions international and regional partnerships between donor governments and recipient countries governance of global institutions and impact on the capacity of developing countries to respond effectively to the epidemic prevention versus treatment as options in HIV/AIDS services how to make the money work in support of effective AIDS financing. Providing a comprehensive but easy to read and compact overview of history, trends and impacts of HIV/AIDS and the global efforts to respond effectively this book is essential reading for all students of international relations, health studies and international organizations.
Category: Health & Fitness

Plagues And Peoples

Author : William Hardy McNeill
ISBN : 9780385121224
Genre : History
File Size : 70.84 MB
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A distinguished historian probes the critical impact of infectious diseases on the development of world civilizations
Category: History

Ebola

Author : David Quammen
ISBN : 9781473522084
Genre : Science
File Size : 72.96 MB
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In 1976 a deadly virus emerged from the Congo forest. As swiftly as it came, it disappeared, leaving no trace. Over the four decades since, Ebola has emerged sporadically, each time to devastating effect. It can kill up to 90% of its victims. In between these outbreaks, it is untraceable, hiding deep in the jungle. The search is on to find Ebola’s elusive host animal. And until we find it, Ebola will continue to strike. Acclaimed science writer and explorer David Quammen first came near the virus whilst travelling in the jungles of Gabon, accompanied by local men whose village had been devastated by a recent outbreak. Here he tells the story of Ebola, its past, present and its unknowable future.
Category: Science