Variety And Variability

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Variety And Variability

Author : Imran Ho-Abdullah
ISBN : 3034305826
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 21.1 MB
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Research into varieties of Englishes around the world has received much attention from scholars. This book offers a new perspective from a cognitive inter and intra lexemic analysis of prepositional variations in Malaysian English and contrasts them with similar prepositions in New Zealand and British English. Based on corpora data from the three varieties, the author provides usage types analysis of the prepositions at, in and on. The analysis exploits cognitive approaches to prepositional polysemy and gives a motivated account of prepositional variations across varieties. The book offers a wealth of corpus based linguistic data and explanation to our understanding of variations in prepositional usage in different varieties of English. The distributional frequencies of various usage types are provided to illustrate the variation.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Division Of Labor Variability Coordination And The Theory Of Firms And Markets

Author : A. Camacho
ISBN : 9789401586580
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 37.15 MB
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A new approach to explaining the existence of firms and markets, focusing on variability and coordination. It stands in contrast to the emphasis on transaction costs, and on monitoring and incentive structures, which are prominent in most of the modern literature in this field. This approach, called the variability approach, allows us to: show why both the need for communication and the coordination costs increase when the division of labor increases; explain why, while the firm relies on direction, the market does not; rigorously formulate the optimum divisionalization problem; better understand the relationship between technology and organization; show why the `size' of the firm is limited; and to refine the analysis of whether the existence of a sharable input, or the presence of an external effect leads to the emergence of a firm. The book provides a wealth of insights for students and professionals in economics, business, law and organization.
Category: Business & Economics

Adaptation To Climate Change And Variability In Rural West Africa

Author : Joseph A. Yaro
ISBN : 9783319314990
Genre : Science
File Size : 59.83 MB
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This book presents conceptual and empirical discussions of adaptation to climate change/variability in West Africa. Highlighting different countries’ experiences in adaptation by different socio-economic groups and efforts at building their adaptive capacity, it offers readers a holistic understanding of adaptation on the basis of contextual and generic sources of adaptive capacity. Focusing on adaptation to climate change/variability is critical because the developmental challenges West Africa faces are increasingly intertwined with its climate history. Today, climate change is a major developmental issue for agrarian rural communities with high percentages of the population earning a living directly or indirectly from the natural environment. This makes them highly vulnerable to climate-driven ecological change, in addition to threats in the broader political economic context. It is imperative that rural people adapt to climate change, but their ability to successfully do so may be limited by competing risks and vulnerabilities. As such, elucidating those vulnerabilities and sources of strength with regard to the adaptive capacities needed to support successful adaptation and avoid maladaptation is critical for future policy formulation. Though the empirical discussion is geographically based on West Africa, its applicability in terms of the processes, structures, needs, strategies, and recommendations for policy transcends the region and provides useful lessons for understanding adaptation broadly in the developing world.
Category: Science

Intergroup Cognition And Intergroup Behavior

Author : Constantine Sedikides
ISBN : 9781134797653
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 75.42 MB
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Social psychology has maintained a keen interest over the years in issues related to intergroup behavior, such as ingroup favoritism and discrimination. The field has also been preoccupied with ways to reduce prejudice and discrimination. Intergroup contact has been offered as the main mechanism for prejudice and discrimination reduction. In the last 15 years, the social cognitive perspective has been applied to the study of intergroup relations. Theoretical advances have been made regarding such issues as the representation of information about ingroup and outgroup members, the structural properties of stereotypes, the relation between cognitive representation and judgment, and the ways in which cognition, effect, and motivation interactively influence the perception, judgment, and memory of ingroup and outgroup members. The first volume in this new series, this book seeks to bring the above two traditions together. Focusing on the interplay between cognition and behavior in intergroup settings, it addresses four general questions: * How does intergroup cognition (perceptions, judgments, and memories) influence intergroup behavior (ingroup favoritism and discrimination)? * How does intergroup behavior subsequently change intergroup cognition? * What is the mediational role of effect, motivational processes, and social context? * How effective can change in intergroup cognition be in altering intergroup behavior? This volume focuses not on a specific theory but rather on an approach. This approach is the interface between intergroup cognition and intergroup behavior. The various contributors are leading investigators in these areas and share the belief that the field has reached a level of maturity where it can start asking the hard questions regarding the complex and multifaceted ways in which intergroup cognition and behavior are related. The investigators do not just summarize their work. Instead, they connect aspects of their work to the theme of the volume and integrate their work with existing approaches in the relevant literature.
Category: Psychology

The Economics Of Biodiversity Conservation

Author : K. N. Ninan
ISBN : 9781849772976
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 74.68 MB
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Economic valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services is possibly the most powerful tool for halting the loss of biodiversity while maintaining incomes and livelihoods. Yet rarely have such approaches been applied to tropical forest ?hotspots?, which house the vast majority of the planets plant and animal species. This ground-breaking work is the most comprehensive and detailed examination of the economics of environmental valuation and biodiversity conservation to date. Focusing on the Western Ghats of India, one of the top biodiversity hotspots in the world, this volume looks at a cross-section of local communities living within or near sanctuaries and reserve forests such as coffee growers, indigenous people and farmers-cum-pastoralists to assess the use and non-use values that people derive from tropical forests. It also looks at the extent of their dependence on forests for various goods and services, and examines their perceptions and attitudes towards biodiversity conservation and wildlife protection. The book concludes with an assessment of the institutional alternatives and policies for promoting biodiversity conservation through economic valuation methods.Related titlesEconomics for Collaborative Environmental Management (2005) 1-84407-095-6
Category: Business & Economics

Efficient Conservation Of Crop Genetic Diversity

Author : Detlef Virchow
ISBN : 3540000062
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 31.20 MB
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The book deals with the economics of conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in low income countries. This is done by developing concepts and discussing case studies. Only discussing the issues of access to and benefit sharing of plant genetic resources, unfortunately public discussion has neglected the serious problem of financing the conservation efforts because to date the issues of access to and benefit sharing of plant genetic resources have merely been discussed. The global situation of the conserved genetic resources is alarming, mainly due to the fact that the institutes, above all those in developing countries, do not have enough financial resources. Hence, it is imperative that the costs are taken into consideration. The contributions are grouped around theoretical approaches and empirical studies. The estimation of conservation costs help to allocate the appropriate financial assistance to the relevant countries for conserving their natural resources and assist in rationing scarce resources among competing crops which need to be covered under the conservation programmes.
Category: Business & Economics

Intraseasonal Variability In The Atmosphere Ocean Climate System

Author : William K.-M. Lau
ISBN : 354027250X
Genre : Science
File Size : 76.67 MB
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This is the first comprehensive review of intra-seasonal variability (ISV); the contents are balanced between observation, theory and modeling. Starting with an overview of ISV and historical observations, the book addresses the coupling between ocean and atmosphere, and the worldwide role of ISV in monsoon variability. Also considered are the connections between oscillations like the Madden, Julian and El Nino/Southern and short-term climate.
Category: Science

Aesthetic Values

Author : T. Pawlowski
ISBN : 9789400924529
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 46.18 MB
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What is aesthetic value? A property in an object? An experience of a perceiving person? An ideal object existing in a mysterious sphere, inaccessible to normal cognition? Does it appear in one form only, or in many forms, perhaps infinitely many? Is it something constant, immutable, or rather something susceptible to change, depending on the individual, the cultural milieu, or the epoch? Is a rational defence of aesthetic value judgements possible, or is any discussion of this topic meaningless? The above questions arise out of the most complicated philosophic problems. Volumes have been written on each of them. The discussions which continue over the centuries, the plurality of views and suggested solutions, indicate that all issues are controversial and contestable. Each view can adduce some arguments supporting it; each has some weaknesses. Another source of difficulty is the vagueness and ambiguity of the language in which the problems are discussed. This makes it hard to understand the ideas of particular thinkers and sometimes makes it impossible to decide whether different formulations express the actual divergence of views or only the verbal preferences of their authors. Let us add that this imperfection does not simply spring from inaccuracy on the part of scholars, but also results from the complexity of the problems themselves. The matter is further complicated by important factors of a social character.
Category: Philosophy

State Of The World 2005

Author : The Worldwatch Institute
ISBN : 9781610916349
Genre : Nature
File Size : 44.7 MB
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In State of the World 2005, Worldwatch researchers explore underlying sources of global insecurity including poverty, infectious disease, environmental degradation, and rising competition over oil and other resources. Find out why terrorism is just symptomatic of a far broader set of complex problems that require more than a military response.
Category: Nature

Marine Resource Damage Assessment

Author : F. Maes
ISBN : 1402033699
Genre : Law
File Size : 77.26 MB
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The main focus of this important book is on civil liability regimes to compensate for ecological/environmental damage, the impact of EC decision-making on the international regime for oil pollution damage, the use of environmental funds in this respect, the economic valuation of damage to the environment from a theoretical perspective and the application of the Contingent Valuation Method in Belgium for ecological damage at sea.
Category: Law

Biodiversity

Author : PRABODH K. MAITI
ISBN : 9788120343801
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.80 MB
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Biodiversity is the variety of life in a given range. The world today is under tremendous threat of unprecedented loss of biodiversity. Issues like global warming, environmental pollution, recurrent natural calamities, etc. are of major concern for scientists all over the world. This comprehensive text provides a complete coverage of the subject. Beginning with a detailed introduction of biodiversity, its meaning, history and importance, the text discusses the topics such as species diversity, systematics, determination of the status of bioresources, pattern of distribution of global species, genetic biodiversity and ecosystem biodiversity. Proceeding further, the book gives an elaborate account on various drivers that lead to biodiversity loss and the impact of this loss on the global climate. This book also covers the topics of biopiracy and various laws and policies associated with it. Finally, the text describes the importance of indigenous knowledge of several communities that provide clues for biodiversity conservation. The use of biotechnology based methods and various measures to preserve natural resources and conserve biodiversity is the highlight of the text. This book is primarily designed for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Environmental Science, Zoology and Botany. Besides, it will also be useful to the students pursuing P.G. Diploma or other professional and technical courses in Environmental Science. The text is of immense use to academicians, researchers and for all those who have concern for the environmental issues including its conservation. KEY FEATURES : Illustrated profusely with numerous photographs, flow charts and diagrams. Incorporates a number of tables to acquaint the readers with a quick view of data related to biodiversity. Provides review questions at the end of every chapter to help students check their understanding of the subject. Explains the contemporary topics like green accounting, sustainable management of natural resources, etc. in an easy to understand manner. Gives an elaborate glossary of technical terms to acquaint the students with the terminologies associated with the subject.
Category: Science

The Eu Environmental Liability Directive

Author : Lucas Bergkamp
ISBN : 9780191648939
Genre : Law
File Size : 65.68 MB
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Similar to the United States (US) Natural Resource Damage (NRD) program, defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA), the European Union's (EU) Environmental Liability Directive (ELD)imposes liability for, and requires remediation of, significant damage to natural habitats and species protected at Community and national levels, surface and ground waters covered by the Water Framework Directive, and land.The ELD was first published in 2004 and has since been transposed into the national laws of all EU Member States. However there is little guidance available to authorities and industry in interpreting and applying the ELD and meeting its prevention and restoration objectives. This volume is the first to describe the EU's ELD and to examine the emerging issues and practices in its application. While there are differences between the US and EU regimes, some of the underlying concepts, approaches and definitions embedded in NRD are also mirrored in the text of the ELD. The book includes a comparison of similarities and differences as well as synergies in practice; hence, this book will be of interest to both US and European readers. The ELD imposes liability for significant damage to natural habitats and species protected at Community and national levels, surface and ground waters covered by the Water Framework Directive, and land. Prior to the ELD's adoption many Member States had programs in place for the restoration of soil and groundwater contamination, but none had a regime for addressing harm to unowned natural resources. This volume presents a comprehensive legal commentary on the legal issues arising under the ELD, as well as an overview of administrative, technical, and legal issues and practices in applying the ELD regimes to cases of actual or threatened environmental damage. In doing so, it discusses both substantive issues and important procedural and process-related issues. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the issues and practical solutions. In addition, emerging best practices relating to practical ELD application are identified and presented. Identifying and discussing a wide range of emerging administrative, technical, and economic practice issues arising under member state legislation transposing and implementing the ELD, this book will be a valuable resource for all those whose work is affected by the ELD.
Category: Law

Introducing Microsoft Azure Hdinsight

Author : Avkash Chauhan
ISBN : 9780133965919
Genre : Computers
File Size : 23.35 MB
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Microsoft Azure HDInsight is Microsoft’s 100 percent compliant distribution of Apache Hadoop on Microsoft Azure. This means that standard Hadoop concepts and technologies apply, so learning the Hadoop stack helps you learn the HDInsight service. At the time of this writing, HDInsight (version 3.0) uses Hadoop version 2.2 and Hortonworks Data Platform 2.0. In Introducing Microsoft Azure HDInsight, we cover what big data really means, how you can use it to your advantage in your company or organization, and one of the services you can use to do that quickly–specifically, Microsoft’s HDInsight service. We start with an overview of big data and Hadoop, but we don’t emphasize only concepts in this book–we want you to jump in and get your hands dirty working with HDInsight in a practical way. To help you learn and even implement HDInsight right away, we focus on a specific use case that applies to almost any organization and demonstrate a process that you can follow along with. We also help you learn more. In the last chapter, we look ahead at the future of HDInsight and give you recommendations for self-learning so that you can dive deeper into important concepts and round out your education on working with big data.
Category: Computers

U S Census Of Business 1948

Author : United States. Bureau of the Census
ISBN : PSU:000073244127
Genre : Retail trade
File Size : 65.88 MB
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Category: Retail trade