Variation In Non Finite Constructions In English

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Variation In Non Finite Constructions In English

Author : Mark Kaunisto
ISBN : 3030190439
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 42.17 MB
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This book sheds new light on the nature of gerunds in English, utilizing data from very large electronic corpora in order to compare pairs of patterns viewed as constructions. It serves as a contribution to the study of complementation, an under-researched area of investigation which bridges observations at the intersection of lexico-grammar, syntax and semantics. As a result, the reader develops their understanding of the meaning and use of each pattern within the system of English predicate complementation as it has evolved in recent times. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of English linguistics, especially English grammar.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Variation In English And German Nominal Coreference

Author : Kerstin Anna Kunz
ISBN : 3631610173
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 23.65 MB
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The topic of this work is nominal coreference in English and German. Its focus is on coreference relations that establish textual coherence and continuity above the local level of the clause. The book shows how linguistic options for creating coreference in English and German can be interpreted against the background of their motivating factors. It discusses mental text processing, German-English systemic contrasts and register peculiarities as possible sources for variation on different linguistic levels. Hermeneutic and example-based observations are complemented by a corpus-linguistic analysis of English and German political essays and German translations from the English originals. The study finally highlights linguistic and functional correlations of coreference instantiations in English and German texts, additionally shedding light on coreference strategies employed in translations. It thus yields an incentive for future research as well as providing a wealth of insights for language and translation teaching.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Infinitives And Gerunds In Recent English

Author : Juhani Rudanko
ISBN : 9783319463131
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 81.76 MB
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This book explores the grammar of to infinitives and gerundial -ing clauses, which is a central area at the interface of syntax and semantics, against the background of what has been called the Great Complement Shift. Over the course of six chapters, the author explores the semantic properties of constructions where the general spread of gerundial -ing clauses occurs at the expense of to infinitives. The author draws on large electronic corpora, ensuring that new perspectives are opened on the basis of authentic corpus evidence. He identifies trends of variation and change in the use of the two constructions and proposes The Choice Principle, an innovative perspective on the semantics of to infinitives and gerundial -ing complements. This book will be of interest to researchers and students working on English grammar or the recent history of English grammar.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Contrastive Register Variation

Author : Stella Neumann
ISBN : 9783110238594
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 63.30 MB
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The book provides the first comparison of usage preferences across registers in the language pair English-German. Due to the innovative quantitative approach and broad coverage, the volume is an excellent resource for scholars working in contrastive linguistics and translation studies as well as for corpus linguists.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Corpus Based Studies On Non Finite Complements In Recent English

Author : Paul Rickman
ISBN : 9783319729893
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 34.27 MB
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This book showcases fresh research into the underexplored territory of complementation through a detailed analysis of gerunds and ‘to’ infinitives involving control in English. Drawing on large electronic corpora of recent English, it examines subject control in adjectival predicate constructions with ‘scared’, ‘terrified’ and ‘afraid’, moving on to a study of object control with the verbal predicate ‘warn’. In each chapter a case study is presented of a matrix adjective that selects both infinitival and gerundial complements, and a central theme is the application of the Choice Principle as a novel factor bearing on complement selection. The authors argue that it is helpful to view the patterns in question as constructions, as combinations of form and meaning, within the system of English predicate complementation, and convincingly demonstrate how a new gerundial pattern has emerged and spread in the course of the last two centuries. This book will appeal to scholars of semantics, corpus linguistics, and historical linguistics as well as those with an interest in variation and change in recent English more generally.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Language Change And Variation From Old English To Late Modern English

Author : Merja Kytö
ISBN : 3034303726
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 51.26 MB
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This collection reflects Minoji Akimoto's concern with studies of change in English that are theoretically-informed, but founded on substantial bodies of data. Some of the contributors focus on individual texts and text-types, among them literature and journalism, others on specific periods, from Old English to the nineteenth century, but the majority trace a linguistic process - such as negation, passivisation, complementation or grammaticalisation - through the history of English. While several papers take a fresh look at manuscript evidence, the harnessing of wideranging electronic corpora is a recurring feature methodologically. The linguistic fields treated include word semantics, stylistics, orthography, word-order, pragmatics and lexicography. The volume also contains a bibliography of Professor Akimoto's writings and an index of linguistic terms.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Noun Phrase Complexity In English

Author : Eva Berlage
ISBN : 9781107015128
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 32.76 MB
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What makes the noun phrase 'the man I saw' more complex than 'the man'? This book explores that question.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Studies In The History Of The English Language Ii

Author : Anne Curzan
ISBN : 9783110897661
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 85.33 MB
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Studies in the History of the English Language II: Unfolding Conversations contains selected papers from the SHEL-2 conference held at the University of Washington in Spring 2002. In the volume, scholars from North America and Europe address a broad spectrum of research topics in historical English linguistics, including new theories/methods such as Optimality Theory and corpus linguistics, and traditional fields such as phonology and syntax. In each of the four sections - Philology and linguistics; Corpus- and text-based studies; Constraint-based studies; Dialectology - a key article provides the focal point for a discussion between leading scholars, who respond directly to each other's arguments within the volume. In Section 1, Donka Minkova and Lesley Milroy explore the possibilities of historical sociolinguistics as part of a discussion of the distinction between philology and linguistics. In Section 2, Susan M. Fitzmaurice and Erik Smitterberg provide new research findings on the history and usage of progressive constructions. In Section 3, Geoffrey Russom and Robert D. Fulk reanalyze the development of Middle English alliterative meter. In Section 4, Michael Montgomery, Connie Eble, and Guy Bailey interpret new historical evidence of the pen/pin merger in Southern American English. The remaining articles address equally salient problems and possibilities within the field of historical English linguistics. The volume spans topics and time periods from Proto-Germanic sound change to twenty-first century dialect variation, and methodologies from painstaking philological work with written texts to high-speed data gathering in computerized corpora. As a whole, the volume captures an ongoing conversation at the heart of historical English linguistics: the question of evidence and historical reconstruction.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Syntax Of Scientific English

Author : Kok Cheong Lee
ISBN : UCAL:B4320403
Genre : Anglais (Langue) - Anglais technique
File Size : 90.88 MB
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Category: Anglais (Langue) - Anglais technique

Non Finite Relativization A Typological Study In Accessibility

Author : Ladislav Drozdík
ISBN : 9788080950668
Genre :
File Size : 64.13 MB
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The monograph is dealing with the non-finite relativization formally marked by the absence of dependent clauses. The traditional grammar tends to classify these constructions in terms of sentences with multiple attribute. In a number of languages, however, such constructions represent the unique way to express relativity (Turkic languages, Korean, Japanese, among others). The primary aim of the study is to establish the relation between subject and non-subject non-finite relatives in database languages: Arabic, Hungarian, Turkish and Korean. In contrast to Indo-European languages, like English, German and Russian, where the non-finite relativization is reduced to subject, that of all database languages involves non-subject as well. This monograph explores the structural parameters controlling the relation betweem subject and non-subject relatives (mainly the type of relativizer and word-order) which may considerably vary.

The Limits Of Syntactic Variation

Author : Theresa Biberauer
ISBN : 9789027290663
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 60.96 MB
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Against the background of the past half century’s typological and generative work on comparative syntax, this volume brings together 16 papers considering what we have learned and may still be able to learn about the nature and extent of syntactic variation. More specifically, it offers a multi-perspective critique of the Principles and Parameters approach to syntactic variation, evaluating the merits and shortcomings of the pre-Minimalist phase of this enterprise and considering and illustrating the possibilities opened up by recent empirical and theoretical advances. Contributions focus on four central topics: firstly, the question of the locus of variation, whether the attested variation may plausibly be understood in parametric terms and, if so, what form such parameters might take; secondly, the fate of one of the most prominent early parameters, the Null Subject Parameter; thirdly, the matter of parametric clusters more generally; and finally, acquisition issues.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Determinants Of Grammatical Variation In English

Author : Günter Rohdenburg
ISBN : 9783110900019
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 58.50 MB
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What factors influence the choice between alternative grammatical structures such as the following: a lit / a lighted cigarette, more full / fuller of convincing arguments, the main thesis of the book / the book's main thesis, take hostage a group of 15 holiday makers / take a group of 15 holidaymakers hostage, conceding that the argument is convincing / conceding the argument to be convincing? This is the central issue explored in this volume, which contains a unique selection of innovative in-depth empirical studies written in a broadly functional framework. The factors investigated include the following: phonological influences (such as the principle of rhythmic alternation and optimal syllable structure), frequency, pervasive semantic and pragmatic aspects (including iconicity, markedness, grammaticalization and typological tendencies), information structure, processing complexity and horror aequi (the avoidance of identity effects).
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Language Structure And Variation

Author : Magnus Ljung
ISBN : UOM:39015050772089
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 64.92 MB
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Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

English Adjective Comparison

Author : Victorina González-Díaz
ISBN : 9789027248152
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 78.82 MB
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The present work contributes to a better understanding of the English system of degree by means of a study of a number of aspects in the evolution of adjective comparison that have so far either been considered controversial or not been ccounted for at all. As will be shown, the diachronic aspects analysed will also have synchronic implications. Furthermore, unlike previous synchronic as well as diachronic accounts of adjective comparison, this monograph does not concentrate on the 'standard' comparative strategies (i.e. inflectional and periphrastic forms) only, but also deals with double periphrastic comparatives, thus providing an analysis of the whole range of comparative structures in English.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Aspects Of English Negation

Author : Yoko Iyeiri
ISBN : 9789027232311
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 83.55 MB
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This book contains eleven carefully selected papers, all discussing negative constructions in English. The aim of this volume is to bring together empirical research into the development of English negation and analyses of syntactic variations in Present-day English negation. The first part "Aspects of Negation in the History of English" includes six contributions, that focus on the usages of the negative adverbs ne and not, the decline of negative concord, and the development of the auxiliary do in negation. Most of the themes discussed here are then linked to the second part "Aspects of Negation in Present-day English". Especially, the issue of negative concord is repeatedly explored by three of the five papers in this part, one related to British English dialects in general, another to Tyneside English, and the other to African American Vernacular English. This book uniquely highlights the importance of continuity from Old English to Present-day English, while, in its introduction, it provides a useful detailed survey of previous studies on English negation.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Understanding Syntax

Author : Maggie Tallerman
ISBN : 9781317635109
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 55.54 MB
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Assuming no prior knowledge, Understanding Syntax illustrates the major concepts, categories and terminology associated with the study of cross-linguistic syntax. A theory-neutral and descriptive viewpoint is taken throughout. Starting with an overview of what syntax is, the book moves on to an explanation of word classes (such as noun, verb, adjective) and then to a discussion of sentence structure in the world’s languages. Grammatical constructions and relationships between words in a clause are explained and thoroughly illustrated, including grammatical relations such as subject and object; function-changing processes such as the passive and antipassive; case and agreement processes, including both ergative and accusative alignments; verb serialization; head-marking and dependent-marking grammars; configurational and non-configurational languages; questions and relative clauses. The final chapter explains and illustrates the principles involved in writing a brief syntactic sketch of a language, enabling the reader to construct a grammatical sketch of a language known to them. Data from approximately 100 languages appears in the text, with languages representing widely differing geographical areas and distinct language families. The book will be essential for courses in cross-linguistic syntax, language typology, and linguistic fieldwork, as well as for basic syntactic description.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

On The Acquisition Of Negation What Role Does Universal Grammar Play In First And Second Language Acquisition

Author : Lars Berghaus
ISBN : 9783638794831
Genre :
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Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject American Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,3, University of Cologne, 14 Literaturquellen entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The ability to learn and produce natural language and move beyond the communication of sign and body language is unique to human beings. The acquisition of language is possible since grammar is assumed to be universal. Universal Grammar (UG) defines properties of language itself. CHOMSKY'S theory of grammar is constrained, first, by universal grammatical principles which determine the broad outline of grammar and are generally true and, second, by grammatical parameters which are language-specific dimensions of a particular language and allow crosslinguistic variation. The first doesn't have to be learned since it is part of the innate language faculty; the latter needs to be acquired and is assumed to be linked to individual items in the lexicon (CAPDEVILA I BATET ET AL. 1995, 31). The central task of acquisition is thus the construction of the grammar of the target language, in other words, the setting of parameters, which is also referred to as grammatical learning (versus lexical learning). One of the parameters that needs to be set is the construction of negation. In this paper, I look at the nature and operation of negation (part I) and how children and adults acquire it during their first and second language acquisition process of different languages (parts II and III). Moreover, underlying principles and mechanisms of L1 and L2 acquisition will be discussed and compared. I want to investigate the way in which the principles and parameters of UG (do not) operate over time as the individual's grammar gradually develops and find out if the children's and adults' grammars conform to these. An individual acquiring L1 has to access the innate grammatical principals of UG in the initial state and learn the language-specific grammatical parameters. L1 acquisition is rapid, un