VALVE REGULATED LEAD ACID BATTERIES

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Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries

Author : Patrick T. Moseley
ISBN : 008047473X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 53.23 MB
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For many decades, the lead-acid battery has been the most widely used energy-storage device for medium- and large-scale applications (approximately 100Wh and above). In recent years, the traditional, flooded design of the battery has begun to be replaced by an alternative design. This version - the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery - requires no replenishment of the water content of the electrolyte solution, does not spill liquids, and can be used in any desired orientation. Since the VRLA battery operates in a somewhat different manner from its flooded counterpart, considerable technological development has been necessary to meet the exacting performance requirements of the full range of applications in which rechargeable batteries are used. The valve-regulated design is now well established in the industrial battery sector, and also appears set to be adopted widely for automotive duty. This book provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses. In the future, all industrial processes - including the manufacture of batteries - will be required to conform to the conventions of sustainability. Accordingly, the crucial areas of the environmental impact associated with the production and use of VRLA batteries and the recycling of spent units are also treated thoroughly. Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries gives an essential insight into the science that underlies the development and operation of VRLA batteries and is a comprehensive reference source for those involved in the practical use of the technology in key energy-storage applications. Covers all major advances in the field Provides a comprehensive account of VRLA technology and its uses First book dedicated to this technology
Category: Technology & Engineering

Development In Valve Regulated Lead Acid Vrla Batteries

Author : P. G. Balakrishnan
ISBN : 1604562692
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.68 MB
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Although Gaston Planté invented the lead-acid battery in 1859 in France, it took about a century to make it maintenance-free in the sense that there is no necessity for topping up the battery with water. This was made possible by the invention of a hermetically sealed nickel oxyhydroxide-cadmium battery. Though such batteries were variously called in the beginning as maintenance-free battery, sealed battery, starved electrolyte battery, absorbed electrolyte battery, etc., due to heavy litigation, particularly in the U.K., the term valve-regulated lead-acid battery (VRLAB) was coined to obviate the legal battle. The VRLAB operates on the principle of "internal oxygen cycle" without resorting to the use of catalytic recombination plugs. The binary alloys used in the initial periods of development of VRLAB had no aluminium or silver. After the introduction of Ca-Al master alloy for preparing the Pb-Ca-Al alloy, the grid casting problems were minimised. The introduction of tin to alleviate the problem of premature capacity loss helped to a very great extent in increasing the market share of VRLAB, particularly in the stationary market segment. Developments in the absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator also gave a great impetus to the popularisation of the VRLAB. The work done by the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) paved the way for increasing the Electric Vehicle (EV) market for VRLAB. Rapid charging of VRLAB not only helped in extending the range of EVs by reducing the down time of EVs, but also increased the life of fast-charged VRLAB. The VRLA battery technology being a comparatively new one, a lot of teething troubles were encountered in the initial periods of its introduction. A detailed analysis of the failure modes of VRLAB and remedial measures adopted by the industry is critically analysed. Extensive trials of VRLAB have been carried out to prove the utility of automotive VRLAB in Australia, Italy, Germany and Japan. Aircraft VRLAB have been proved immune to thermal runaway even though the temperature rises to 72°C. A new idea of a hybrid AGM-Gel VRLAB for use in high temperature operation is under investigation and field trial.
Category: Science

Battery Technology Handbook

Author : H.A. Kiehne
ISBN : 0203911857
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 86.28 MB
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This practical reference remains the most comprehensive guide to the fundamental theories, techniques, and strategies used for battery operation and design. It includes new and revised chapters focusing on the safety, performance, quality, and enhancement of various batteries and battery systems. From automotive, electrochemical, and high-energy applications to system implementation, selection, and standardization, the Second Edition presents expert discussions on electrochemical energy storage, the advantages of battery-powered traction, the disposal and recycling of used batteries, hazard prevention, and the chemistry and physics of lithium primary batteries.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Encyclopedia Of Electrochemical Power Sources

Author : Jürgen Garche
ISBN : 9780444527455
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.58 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources is a truly interdisciplinary reference for those working with batteries, fuel cells, electrolyzers, supercapacitors, and photo-electrochemical cells. With a focus on the environmental and economic impact of electrochemical power sources, this five-volume work consolidates coverage of the field and serves as an entry point to the literature for professionals and students alike. Covers the main types of power sources, including their operating principles, systems, materials, and applications Serves as a primary source of information for electrochemists, materials scientists, energy technologists, and engineers Incorporates nearly 350 articles, with timely coverage of such topics as environmental and sustainability considerations
Category: Science

Advances In Batteries For Medium And Large Scale Energy Storage

Author : C Menictas
ISBN : 9781782420224
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 73.79 MB
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As energy produced from renewable sources is increasingly integrated into the electricity grid, interest in energy storage technologies for grid stabilisation is growing. This book reviews advances in battery technologies and applications for medium and large-scale energy storage. Chapters address advances in nickel, sodium and lithium-based batteries. Other chapters review other emerging battery technologies such as metal-air batteries and flow batteries. The final section of the book discuses design considerations and applications of batteries in remote locations and for grid-scale storage. Reviews advances in battery technologies and applications for medium and large-scale energy storage Examines battery types, including zing-based, lithium-air and vanadium redox flow batteries Analyses design issues and applications of these technologies
Category: Technology & Engineering

Lead Acid Batteries Science And Technology

Author : D. Pavlov
ISBN : 0080931685
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 49.46 MB
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The book presents a comprehensive overview of the theory of the technological processes of lead-acid battery manufacture and their influence on battery performance parameters. It summarizes the current knowledge about the technology of lead-acid battery production and presents it in the form of an integral theory. This theory is supported by ample illustrative material and experimental data, thus allowing technologists and engineers to control the technological processes in battery plants and providing university lecturers with a toll for clear and in-depth presentation of the technology of lead-acid battery production in their courses. The relationship between the technological processes and the performance characteristics of the batteries is disclosed too. Disclosure of the structures of the lead and lead dioxide active masses, ensuring reversibility of the processes during charge and discharge and thus long cycle life of the battery Proposal of optimum conditions for individual technological processes which would yield appropriate structures of the lead and lead dioxide active masses Disclosure of the influence of H2SO4 concentration on battery performance parameters Discussion of the processes involved in the closed oxygen cycle in VRLAB and the thermal phenomena leading to thermal runaway (TRA) Elucidation of the relationship between technology of battery manufacture and battery capacity and cycle life performance
Category: Technology & Engineering

An Introduction To Electric Storage Batteries

Author : J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A.
ISBN :
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52.52 MB
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Technical guidance for electrical engineers and construction managers interested in electric storage batteries. Here is what is discussed: 1. BATTERY USAGE 2. BATTERY TYPES 3. BATTERY SAFETY 4. GENERAL BATTERY MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES 5. VISUAL INSPECTIONS OF BATTERIES 6. MEASUREMENTS OF BATTERY CONDITION 7. BATTERY MAINTENANCE SPECIFICS 8. TESTING OF BATTERIES 9. FLOODED LEAD-ACID BATTERY CHARGING PRECAUTIONS 10. BATTERY CHARGING CONSIDERATIONS 11. NORMAL FLOATING BATTERY CHARGE 12. EQUALIZING BATTERY CHARGE 13. VALVE-REGULATED LEAD-ACID CELL BATTERIES 14. CHARGING OF VALVE-REGULATED CELLS 15. TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION FOR VALVE REGULATEDCELLS 16. NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES 17. REQUIREMENTS FOR NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES.
Category: Technology & Engineering