United In Europe

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Manchester United In Europe

Author : Ken Ferris
ISBN : 9781780578026
Genre : Sports & Recreation
File Size : 63.51 MB
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Manchester United's quest to win the European Cup was forged amidst the charred remains of an Elizabethan airliner that crashed on take-off at Munich's Riem Airport on 6 February 1958. Twenty-three people died in the tragedy, including eight of the famous Busby Babes. From that moment manager Matt Busby's goal of winning the European Cup became an obsession that permeated the whole club.Ten years after the Munich disaster, Busby achieved his dream when United - inspired by Bobby Charlton and George Best - beat Benfica 4-1 in extra time to lift the European Cup at Wembley. Some felt the ghosts of Munich were there to witness the club's joy. It seemed to be United's destiny finally to honour those who had lost their lives in pursuit of the gleaming silver trophy. But that triumph was to hang over the club for the next 31 years as United failed to regain those heights. Alex Ferguson's arrival spawned a flood of trophies, but the European Cup - by then known as the Champions League - remained elusively outside their grasp. Then came the last final of the twentieth century, against Bayern Munich in the towering splendour of Barcelona's Nou Camp, when United snatched a 2-1 victory from the jaws of defeat to complete the impossible Treble. Manchester United in Europe: Tragedy, Destiny, History recounts the course of those three European campaigns. Using first-hand accounts of the dramatic events, the book describes the sadness and the joy that have run through United's pursuit of European glory and considers the club's chances of ever repeating the European triumphs of the past.
Category: Sports & Recreation

United States Troop Levels In Europe

Author : United States. Department of State. Office of Media Services
ISBN : UCSD:31822021789805
Genre : United States
File Size : 74.20 MB
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Category: United States

Europe United

Author : Sebastian Rosato
ISBN : 0801461464
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 27.49 MB
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The construction of the European Community (EC) has widely been understood as the product of either economic self-interest or dissatisfaction with the nation-state system. In Europe United, Sebastian Rosato challenges these conventional explanations, arguing that the Community came into being because of balance of power concerns. France and the Federal Republic of Germany—the two key protagonists in the story—established the EC at the height of the cold war as a means to balance against the Soviet Union and one another. More generally, Rosato argues that international institutions, whether military or economic, largely reflect the balance of power. In his view, states establish institutions in order to maintain or increase their share of world power, and the shape of those institutions reflects the wishes of their most powerful members. Rosato applies this balance of power theory of cooperation to several other cooperative ventures since 1789, including various alliances and trade pacts, the unifications of Italy and Germany, and the founding of the United States. Rosato concludes by arguing that the demise of the Soviet Union has deprived the EC of its fundamental purpose. As a result, further moves toward political and military integration are improbable, and the economic community is likely to unravel to the point where it becomes a shadow of its former self.
Category: Political Science

Migration Policies In Europe And The United States

Author : Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
ISBN : 0792325370
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 63.12 MB
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The themes of migration and economic development are traditionally related. The debate over these issues has recently gained much relevance, particularly in Europe, as the phenomenon of migration tends to be seen as a possible consequence (and cause) of political and environmental unrest. This volume gives an important contribution to the move towards migration policies which increase total welfare, both in the host countries and in the countries of origin. It also explains problems specific to Europe and stresses the need for co-ordinated national policies.
Category: Business & Economics

Pension Strategies In Europe And The United States

Author : Robert Fenge
ISBN : 9780262062725
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 49.23 MB
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Leading economists analyze topical issues in pension policy, including structuralreform of pay-as-you-go systems, the political sustainability of pension reforms, and the need forprivate, funded systems.
Category: Business & Economics

The Evolution Of Legal Business Forms In Europe And The United States

Author : Erik M. Vermeulen
ISBN : 9789041120571
Genre : Law
File Size : 84.33 MB
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The evolution of partnership forms is stimulated by powerful economic forces that can lead to widespread prosperity and wealth creation for a society. Given the importance of closely held firms in the United States and Europe, The Evolution of Legal Business Forms in Europe and the United States argues that partnership law should trouble itself less with historical and descriptive arguments about the legal rules and structure of the partnership form and focus much more on the new analytical apparatus of the economics of organizational form as well the fundamental economic learning that informs the debates on limited liability, partnership rules regarding management and control, conflict resolution and fiduciary duties. Introducing and extending the best available theories from law and economics, particularly those from the theory of the firm, This book?s analysis demonstrates that the patterns of European partnership law and its recent history are best understood from an economic and comparative law perspective. By examining the economic theories of the firm and the economics of organization choice, The Evolution of Legal Business Forms in Europe and the United States conceives partnership-type business forms as contractual entities. The key feature of the modern partnership form is that partners have significant flexibility and power to limit their liability, transfer all of their rights, and to freely exit the firm. Another key feature of partnership law is the insight that lawmakers should provide the rules and enforcement mechanisms to regulate the important relationships within the partnership. This book applies an efficiency test to determine which sets of default rules are likely to resolve the main problems in partnerships. Having identified partnership law with the economic theory of organization, The Evolution of Legal Business Forms in Europe and the United States then goes to argue that most of partnership law is directed at offering bundles of legal rules for different types of firms. Lawmakers should promote partnership rules that attract investors and can be expected to be efficient if they allow entrepreneurs to freely select the bundle of rules that best match their priorities. In a modern vision of partnership law, lawmakers promote economic welfare through creating non-mandatory rules that allow multiple businesses to switch to a favourable business form without significant costs. Jurisdictions plagued by falling incorporations and low levels of small and medium business activity, should abandon the mandatory and standardized framework and the `lock in? effect that it promotes, and focus on the mechanisms of legal evolution and rules that tend to mimic the market. This innovation work will have ramifications felt across European jurisdictions, and will be debated by a large audience of policymakers and academic lawyers involved in law reform. Moreover, the book will receive serious attention from students of law and economics, as well as practising lawyers involved in resolving complex issues of organizational law. Review (s) ?Vermeulen?s work makes a significant contribution to the dialogue between legal scholars and policy makers from Europe and the United States on the matter of business entity law reform. The volume is ambitious in scope, thoughtful in approach, and accurate in result. It shows a well-read and nuanced view of the recent American partnership law reform debates. He moves with assurance between different systems of law and analysis, and has a confident sense of what his diverse readers need to know to come to the ultimate discussion with a common sense of the issues and alternatives at hand. Vermeulen?s work should serve as a starting point for a robust discussion among scholars and policy makers.?
Category: Law

When Islam And Democracy Meet Muslims In Europe And In The United States

Author : Jocelyne Cesari
ISBN : 9781403978561
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 33.44 MB
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Exploring the woefully neglected reality of Islam as a major cultural and relgious facet of American and European politics and societies, Cesari examines how Muslims in the West are challenging the notion of an inevitable clash or confrontation. With nearly twelve million Muslims living in the larger countries of Western Europe and almost six million in America, the challenges of integrating newcomers within different countries, and the place of Islam in democratic and secular context in the post 9/11 context, have become more pertinent. Comparing the interaction of Muslims with their new countries, this book addresses the implications of increased Islamic visability, violent clashes, beneficial cooperation, and questions within the Muslim community about their role and the role of Islam in democratic states. Pursuing a holistic approach to Muslims as a new minority within western democracy, Cesari provides important insights.
Category: Social Science

Single Markets Economic Integration In Europe And The United States

Author : Michelle Egan
ISBN : 9780191557583
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 49.32 MB
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This timely book provides in-depth analytical comparison of the nineteenth century evolution of the American single market with corresponding political, economic, and social developments in post-WWII European efforts to create a single European market. Building the regulatory framework needed for successful adoption of an integrated single market across diverse political units represents one of the most important issues in comparative political economy. What accounts for the political success or failure in creating integrated markets in their respective territories? When social discontent threatens market integration with populist backlash, what must be done to create political support and greater legitimacy? Single Markets focuses on the creation of integrated economies, in which the United States and European Union experienced sharply contested ideas about the operation of their respective markets, conflict over the allocation of institutional authority, and pressure from competing political, economic, and social forces over the role and consequences of increased competition. Drawing upon four case studies, the book highlights the contestation surrounding the US and EUs efforts to create common currencies, expand their borders and territories, and deal with the pressures of populist parties, regional interests and varied fiscal and economic challenges. Theoretically, the book draws on work in European integration and American Political Development (APD) to illustrate that the consolidation of markets in the US and EU took place in conjunction with the expansion of state regulatory power and pressure for democratic reform. Single Markets situates the consolidation of single markets in the US and EU in a broader comparative context that draws on research in economics, public administration, political science, law, and history.
Category: Political Science

Contingent Employment In Europe And The United States

Author : Ola Bergström
ISBN : 1781008124
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 88.40 MB
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'Bergström and Storrie are to be praised for what stands as a highly readable, engaging account of the development of temporary work, and also one that breaks new ground. The focus here is not just on profiling national trends, but also on locating them in a broader regulatory context. At a time when even the most passive regulation is derided for undermining "flexibility" and holding back growth, the insights contained in this book are of considerable value. In my view, Contingent Employment in Europe and the United States should be essential reading both for academics and policymakers.' - Ian Kirkpatrick, Industrial Relations Journal Contingent Employment in Europe and the United States examines the developments in labour markets in advanced economies in the 21st century, as regards contingent employment. This is defined as employment relationships that can be terminated with minimal costs within a predetermined period of time. This includes fixed-term contracts, temporary agency work and self-employment. Contingent employment has been the subject of much legislative activity in the last decade, at both the national and European level. Temporary agency work, in particular, has recently been extensively deregulated in most European countries and currently we await the fate of a proposed EU directive on agency work. The book is therefore highly topical.
Category: Political Science

Corporate Networks In Europe And The United States

Author : Paul Windolf
ISBN : 0199256977
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 25.62 MB
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Corporate networks form part of the institutional structure of markets and enable firms to coordinate their behaviour and regulate competition. This text evaluates comparative data on interlocking directories and capital networks between the large corporations in six countries.
Category: Business & Economics

Growing Up Muslim In Europe And The United States

Author : Medhi Bozorgmehr
ISBN : 9781315279077
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 63.19 MB
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This volume brings together scholarship from two different, and until now, largely separate literatures—the study of the children of immigrants and the study of Muslim minority communities—in order to explore the changing nature of ethnic identity, religious practice, and citizenship in the contemporary western world. With attention to the similarities and differences between the European and American experiences of growing up Muslim, the contributing authors ask what it means for young people to be both Muslim and American or European, how they reconcile these, at times, conflicting identities, how they reconcile the religious and gendered cultural norms of their immigrant families with the more liberal ideals of the western societies that they live in, and how they deal with these issues through mobilization and political incorporation. A transatlantic research effort that brings together work from the tradition in diaspora studies with research on the second generation, to examine social, cultural, and political dimensions of the second-generation Muslim experience in Europe and the United States, this book will appeal to scholars across the social sciences with interests in migration, diaspora, race and ethnicity, religion and integration.
Category: Social Science

Trade Mark Dilution In Europe And The United States

Author : Ilanah Simon Fhima
ISBN : 9780199563203
Genre : Law
File Size : 83.43 MB
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The only comparison of EU and US protection against trade mark dilution, this book provides a complete overview of the dilution action, enabling practitioners to better protect trade marks against dilution or to combat dilution claims. Through clear and practical tests for the different types of dilution, this book demonstrates how to prove that a mark is famous, how to prove blurring, tarnishment and unfair advantage and how to prove lack of due cause. It gives clear guidance on the meaning of association and the role of similarity of goods, as well as the US dilution defences, the level of proof required and the 'actual versus likely' dilution question. By examining the justifications offered for dilution, the book places the dilution action in the wider context of the trade mark system, allowing readers to understand the issues behind the law and to consider whether the law appropriately meets these justifications. It considers the fundamental questions raised about trade marks, including whether the main aim of trade marks is to protect the public from being confused, or the investment of trade mark owners in building up their reputations. The book also considers how well the EU and the US take these questions into account in balancing the interests of trade mark owners, their competitors and the public through the dilution action. Dilution is at the cutting edge of trade mark law, extending its protection beyond traditional boundaries to situations where defendants using trade marks are not causing confusion. This book provides practitioners with all the information they need both to protect trade marks against dilution and to prevent them being the subject of dilution claims.
Category: Law

Crises Of Political Development In Europe And The United States Spd 9

Author : Raymond Grew
ISBN : 9781400868438
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57.96 MB
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As the last volume in the series sponsored by the SSRC Committee on Comparative Politics, this book reflects—as does the preceding volume—the Committee's decision to devote renewed attention to the original state building experiences of the West, after having studied political development in the newer countries of the Third World. The contributors attempt to discern patterns of historical change in the different sequences of crises that affect all states in their development. Following an introductory and theoretical statement by Raymond Grew, each chapter focuses on a different country or area. Each of these essays applies and evaluates the Committee's concept of crises of development, i.e., crises of identity, legitimacy, participation, penetration, and distribution. The distinguished historians and political scientists who contribute to the volume are: Keith Thomas (on the United Kingdom), Aristide R. Zolberg (on Belgium), Folke Dovring (on Scandinavia), J. Rogers Hollingsworth (on the United States), Stanley G. Payne (on Spain and Portugal), David D. Bien (on France), Raymond Grew (on France and Italy), John R. Gillis (on Germany), Walter M. Pintner (on Russia), and Roman Szporluk (on Poland), with Lucian W. Pye providing the Preface. Originally published in 1979. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Category: Political Science

Divergences In Productivity Between Europe And The United States

Author : Gilbert Cette
ISBN : 1782541888
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 81.88 MB
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Papers from a seminar held at the Royaumont Abbey on 22 and 23 March 2004, and organized by the Banque de France, CEPII, and the Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
Category: Business & Economics