Understanding Ancient Fortifications

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Understanding Ancient Fortifications

Author : Ariane Ballmer
ISBN : 1785707485
Genre :
File Size : 29.14 MB
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Important new collection of papers looking at the development of fortified sites in Europe from the Neolithic through to the Late Iron Age, examining evidence for common trends, cultural and ideological backgrounds, structural and functional attributes across the continent and through time and regional differences and developments
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Focus On Fortifications

Author : Rune Frederiksen
ISBN : 9781785701320
Genre : History
File Size : 53.39 MB
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With a collection of 57 articles in English, French and German, presenting the most recent research on ancient fortifications, this book is the most substantial publication ever to have issued on the topic for many years. While fortifications of the ancient cultures of the middle east and ancient Greek and Roman worlds were noticed by travelers and scholars from the very beginning of research on antiquity from the late 18th century onwards, the architectural, economic, logistical, political, urban and other social aspects of fortifications have been somewhat overlooked and underestimated by scholarship in the 20th century. The book presents the research of a new generation of scholars who have been analyzing those aspects of fortifications, many of them with years of experience in fieldwork on city walls. Much new evidence and a fresh look at this important category of built structure is now made available, and the publication will be of interest not only to the field of ancient architecture, but also to other sub-disciplines of archaeology and ancient history. The papers were presented at a conference in Athens in December 2012, and they all present material and discuss topics under seven headings that represent the most central themes in the study of fortification in antiquity: the origins of fortification, physical surroundings and building technique, function and semantics, historical context, the fortification of regions and regionally confined phenomena, the fortifications of Athens and new field research. The book is Volume 2 in the new series Fokus Fortifikation Studies, created by the German based international research network Fokus Fortifikation. The topics included have been identified by the network over many previous conferences and workshops as being the most important and as needing research and discussion beyond the network members. Volume 1 in the series, Ancient Fortifications: a compendium of theory and practice (Oxbow Books) will also appear in 2015 and together the two volumes bring the field of fortification studies up-to-date and will be an essential resource for many years to come.
Category: History

Ancient Fortifications

Author : Silke Muth
ISBN : 9781785701429
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 50.60 MB
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Dedicated to the investigation of fortifications as important and integral elements of ancient built space, the present volume results from the activity of the German based international research network Fokus Fortifikation. Ancient Fortifications in the Eastern Mediterranean and is intended as a guide to research on ancient fortifications and a source of inspiration for new research. Ancient city walls and other fortification structures have long been underestimated. Since the early years of the 21st century, research on ancient fortifications has experienced an international boom, particularly amongst young researchers. They approached the study of fortifications with fresh ideas and new aims, and felt the need to discuss the problems and potentials of these monuments and to develop harmonized research methods and objectives. The outcome is the present bilingual (English and German) book, which offers a condensed view of the network’s extended conversations. The goal is not so much to offer an overview on the development of ancient fortifications, but rather to present versatile and diverse approaches to their research and interpretation and to serve as a kickoff for a new understanding of this category of ancient buildings. The book is divided into two parts: the first part includes 12 chapters on methods of interpretation, documentation, and field project organization; the systematic description and presentation of fortifications; the ‘building experience’; masonry forms and techniques; defensive, symbolic, and urbanistic functions and aspects; on fortifications in written sources, the visual arts, and as a historical source; and on regional and rural fortifications, and regionally confined phenomena. Part two is a catalogue that offers exemplary presentations of fortifications studied by network members; it is arranged in four sections: regions, sites, architectural elements and architectural details. The book is Volume 1 in the new series Fokus Fortifikation Studies. Volume 2 in the series, Focus on Fortification: New Research on Fortifications in the Ancient Mediterranean and the Near East (Oxbow Books), the proceedings of an international conference held in Athens in December 2012, will also appear in 2015.
Category: Social Science

Ancient Greek Fortifications 500 300 Bc

Author : Nic Fields
ISBN : 1841768847
Genre : History
File Size : 50.13 MB
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The development of the city-state in the Classical period of Greek history ensured a shift in the nature of fortifications in the region. No longer were fortresses designed to defend a ruler and his entourage, rather the whole of the citizen body had to be protected against any outside threats. The enceintes of these Greek city-states did not have to be very high or strong as city-state conflict was still decided by spear and shield, though some thought was still given to the science of fortification. This book details the construction and ongoing development of the defences that protected some of the most illustrious sites in Greece during the most famous period of her history.
Category: History

Fortified Cities Of Ancient India

Author : Dieter Schlingloff
ISBN : 9781783083497
Genre : History
File Size : 65.45 MB
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Authored by one of the leading scholars of German Indology, “Fortified Cities in Ancient India” offers a comparative exploration of the development of towns and cities in ancient India. Based on in-depth textual and archeological research, Professor Dieter Schlingloff’s work presents for the first time the striking outcomes of intertwining data garnered from a wide range of sources. This volume scrutinizes much of the established knowledge on urban fortifications in South Asia, advancing new conceptions based on an authoritative, far-reaching study.
Category: History

History Of Fortification From 3000 Bc To Ad 1700

Author : Sidney Toy
ISBN : 9781844153589
Genre : History
File Size : 89.57 MB
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The necessity to defend territory from strong points has been a fact of life since mankind first settled into agricultural communities. Sidney Toy traces the development of the art of fortification from the period of earliest historical examples down to the forts designed for defense by artillery, noting the salient features of the military works as well as the siege operations mounted against them. The castle is considered in its military aspect, as a fortress, and its domestic arrangements only in so far as they are ancillary to its function as a fortification and are necessary in its residence. This book is a product of a lifetime of travel, exploration and architectural study. The author himself surveyed most of the places described, and has drawn clear and fascinating ground maps and cross sections. There are also 200 superb photographs, maps and plans.
Category: History

The Fortifications Of Pompeii And Ancient Italy

Author : Ivo Van der Graaff
ISBN : 9780429868405
Genre : History
File Size : 29.38 MB
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The fortifications of Pompeii stand as the ancient city’s largest, oldest, and best preserved public monument. Over its 700-year history, Pompeii invested significant amounts of money, resources, and labor into re-building, maintaining, and upgrading the walls. Each intervention on the fortifications marked a pivotal event of social and political change, signalling dramatic shifts in Pompeii’s urban, social, and architectural framework. Viewing the role of the defences as purely military in nature is over-simplified. Their fate was intertwined with that of Pompeii; their construction materials, methods and aesthetics reflect the political, social, and urban development of the city. This study redefines Pompeii’s fortifications, as a central monument that physically and symbolically shaped the city. It considers the internal and external forces that morphed its appearance, and traces how the fortifications served to foster a sense of community. The defences emerge as a dynamic, ideologically freighted monument, subject to manipulation and appropriation that was critical to the image and identity of Pompeii. The book is a unique narrative of the social and urban development of the city from foundation to the eruption of Vesuvius, through the lens of the monument most critical to its independence and survival.
Category: History

An Inventory Of The Ancient Monuments In Brecknock Brycheiniog Hill Forts And Roman Remains

Author : Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales
ISBN : 9780113000036
Genre : Social Science
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This publication forms Part ii of the first Inventory volume planned for the county of Brycheiniog, Anglice Brecknock. The volume will deal with the Prehistoric and Roman monuments of the county, Part i being an inventory of Neolithic and Bronze Age sites and all undefended settlements of probable pre-Norman date, and the present Part describing those enclosures which can be classed broadly as hill-forts or related structures, and all Roman remains. Altogether 77 monuments are described in detail in this Part, and the staff concerned have investigated nearly 100 sites during the course of the work. There is also a thorough examination of the probable routes of Roman roads in the County. Table of Contents List of Figures Chairman's Preface Editorial Note Report, with List of Monuments selected by the Commissioners as especially worthy of Preservation List of Commissioners and Staff List of Ecclesiastical Parishes, with incidence of Monuments List of Civil Parishes, with incidence of Monuments Abbreviated Titles of References Presentation of Material Inventory Part ii: Hill-forts and Related Structures and Roman Remains Introductory Note The Physical Background Hill-forts and Related Structures Hill-forts: Inventory Hill-forts: Omitted Sites Roman Remains Forts Other Military Works Roads Civil Sites Sites of Uncertain Status Other Remains Suggested Sites and Finds Omitted Sites and Finds Index of National Grid References Glossary: General Glossary: Welsh Place-name Elements General Index
Category: Social Science

An Ancient Roman Fort

Author : Stephen Johnson
ISBN : 1904194702
Genre :
File Size : 80.88 MB
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This text presents an insight into the organisation and structure of the powerful army of ancient Rome. Find out what went on on a daily basis within the fort, and discover how the Roman army used ingenious techniques to defend the fort.
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Frontier Forts Of Iowa

Author : William E. Whittaker
ISBN : 9781587298820
Genre : History
File Size : 45.32 MB
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At least fifty-six frontier forts once stood in, or within view of, what is now the state of Iowa. The earliest date to the 1680s, while the latest date to the Dakota uprising of 1862. Some were vast compounds housing hundreds of soldiers; others consisted of a few sheds built by a trader along a riverbank. Regardless of their size and function—William Whittaker and his contributors include any compound that was historically called a fort, whether stockaded or not, as well as all military installations—all sought to control and manipulate Indians to the advantage of European and American traders, governments, and settlers. Frontier Forts of Iowa draws extensively upon the archaeological and historical records to document this era of transformation from the seventeenth-century fur trade until almost all Indians had been removed from the region. The earliest European-constructed forts along the Mississippi, Des Moines, and Missouri rivers fostered a complex relationship between Indians and early traders. After the Louisiana Purchase of 1804, American military forts emerged in the Upper Midwest, defending the newly claimed territories from foreign armies, foreign traders, and foreign-supported Indians. After the War of 1812, new forts were built to control Indians until they could be moved out of the way of American settlers; forts of this period, which made extensive use of roads and trails, teamed a military presence with an Indian agent who negotiated treaties and regulated trade. The final phase of fort construction in Iowa occurred in response to the Spirit Lake massacre and the Dakota uprising; the complete removal of the Dakota in 1863 marked the end of frontier forts in a state now almost completely settled by Euro-Americans. By focusing on the archaeological evidence produced by many years of excavations and by supporting their words with a wealth of maps and illustrations, the authors uncover the past and connect it with the real history of real places. In so doing they illuminate the complicated and dramatic history of the Upper Midwest in a time of enormous change. Past is linked to present in the form of a section on visiting original and reconstructed forts today. Contributors: Gayle F. Carlson Jeffrey T. Carr Lance M. Foster Kathryn E. M. Gourley Marshall B. McKusick Cindy L. Nagel David J. Nolan Cynthia L. Peterson Leah D. Rogers Regena Jo Schantz Christopher M. Schoen Vicki L. Twinde-Javner William E. Whittaker
Category: History