Ultrathin Metal Films

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Ultrathin Metal Films

Author : Matthias Wuttig
ISBN : 3540583599
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 43.81 MB
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This research monograph discusses the close correlation between the magnetic and structural properties of thin films in the context of numerous examples of epitaxial metal films, while emphasis is laid on the stabilization of novel structures compared to the bulk material. Further options, possibilities, and limits for applications are given. Techniques for the characterization of thin films are addressed as well.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Quantum Tuning Of Plasmons In Ultrathin Metal Films

Author : Ao Teng
ISBN : OCLC:1191221128
Genre : Metallic films
File Size : 36.46 MB
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The surface plasmon is a coherent charge density oscillation localized at a metal surface. It can couple with light and the resulting plasmon-polariton hybrid mode is confined to volumes that are much smaller than the classical diffraction limit of light. Nano-plasmonics is a rapidly evolving field where light manipulation at the nanoscale may lead to novel applications. However, as the size of plasmonic devices approaches the quantum-size regime, the macroscopic picture of plasmon may no longer be valid. To elucidate the influence of the discretization of the single particle spectrum on the collective plasmon response, we performed a systematic study of plasmons in ultrathin metal films, using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). We selected two metal systems, Mg(0001) and Pb(111), grown epitaxially on Si(111) and Ge(111) substrates, respectively. The plasmon response of bulk Mg can be captured within jellium theory, while that of bulk Pb is dominated by band structure effects. Surprisingly, the plasmon response of a 4.5 monolayer (ML) thick epitaxial Mg(0001) film on Si(111)-(7 x 7) already resembles that of the semi-infinite jellium model. However, we unveil a direct correlation between the thickness-dependent oscillatory charge spilling of the quantum well states and the linear dispersion coefficient of the monopole surface plasmon. In addition, the spectral intensities of photoemission threshold excitation and multipole surface plasmon follow a similar quantum oscillatory pattern. These results are attributed to the quantum size effects on the surface charge density profile. The 2 eV excitation associated with an interband transition in bulk Pb redshifts to 0.3 eV in ultrathin films. This excitation is attributed to the symmetric surface plasmon branch, which is rarely seen in metallic films. Its appearance may be related to the perfect interfaces in our studies, in conjunction with the quasi one-dimensional nature of the screening response in Pb(111) films. Both the multipole mode in Mg films and the interface mode in Pb films are highly relevant for plasmonics. The fundamental insight gleaned from these studies may thus have practical relevance as nano-plasmonic feature sizes enter the realm of quantum size physics.
Category: Metallic films

Ultrathin Metal Transparent Electrodes For The Optoelectronics Industry

Author : Dhriti Sundar Ghosh
ISBN : 9783319003481
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.84 MB
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Transparent electrodes (TEs) are a class of materials that make it possible to bring electrical current or potentials in close proximity to optically active regions without significant loss of optical energy. However, it is a challenge to decouple the electrical and optical properties of a material, as the property of conductivity is strongly coupled to the imaginary part of the refractive index. An ideal TE has high transparency in combination with very low electrical resistivity. The main objective of the thesis was to develop TEs which can replace expensive, scarce and fragile Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), the most widely used TE material in the industry today. The thesis contains original work on ultrathin metal film (UTMF)-based TEs, which are essential elements in a wide range of optoelectronics, consumer electronics and energy devices. It presents new designs and fabrication methods and demonstrates the efficient use of UTMF-TEs in organic light emitting diodes and solar cells, achieving similar levels of efficiency to that of state-of-the-art ITO.
Category: Science

Electrical Resistivity Of Thin Metal Films

Author : Peter Wissmann
ISBN : 9783540484905
Genre : Science
File Size : 84.58 MB
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The intent of this book is to report on the electrical, optical, and structural properties of silver and gold films in dependence on substrate material, annealing treatment, and gas adsorption. A main point is the calculation of the scattering cross section of the conduction electrons. All results are substantiated by extended experimental data, as well as numerous illustrations and tables.
Category: Science

The Temperature Coefficient Of Resistance In Ultrathin Evaporated Metal Films Investigation Of Metal Thin Film Formation And Structure

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:227281791
Genre :
File Size : 26.25 MB
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It is known that some of the abnormal magnetic properties of ultrathin metal films, and their electrical conduction mechanism, can be explained on the basis of their "island" structure. It can be shown that the electrical conductivity and the temperature coefficient of resistance are controlled principally by the radius of the islands and the distances between them. By suitably adjusting these structural parameters, both of which enter the relation for the film conductivity exponentially, one can be made to predominate over the other. Thus, if the islands and the distances between them are small, very large negative temperature coefficients are observed. On the other hand, if the islands are very large or the thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate is unusually high, positive temperature coefficients can be observed, often several times larger than even the bulk values, even for films of resistances as high as 10 to the 6th power omega/square or higher.

Coatings To Improve Optoelectronic Devices

Author : Selected Articles Published by MDPI
ISBN : 9783039283347
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 56.35 MB
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This selection is focused on coatings and films with applications in optoelectronics, such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and light-based sensors and phenomena. The studies investigate the optimal composition, crystalline structure, and morphology to deliver the different functionalities sought. Obtaining transparent p-type electrodes is challenging but extremely relevant in optoelectronics. Electric conduction mechanisms and the correlations with structure and doping are discussed. The important issue of the degradation pathways in perovskite-based solar cells and the possibilities offered by different types of coatings to encapsulate the devices as well as the beneficial effect of silica coating as an antireflection and antisoiling layer on well-established solar cells are discussed. New designs of nanoplasmonic films for chemical and biological molecule sensing are reviewed, such as the combination of metallic nanoparticles and nanostructured semiconductors and dispersing metallic or bi-metallic nanoparticles in CuO films. The impacts of structure, defects, and morphology on the photoactivated properties of WO3 films and on the shape memory behavior in Cu–Al–Ni thin films are discussed. Aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles on TiO2 layers are shown to enhance optical transmittance and confer a superhydrophilic characteristic. Finally, aspects of the fundamental characterization of thin films, Drude damping in thin films, and laser-induced deflection technique are discussed.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Cathodic Arcs

Author : André Anders
ISBN : 0387791086
Genre : Science
File Size : 69.57 MB
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Cathodic arcs are among the longest studied yet least understood objects in science. Plasma-generating, tiny spots appear on the cathode; they are highly dynamic and hard to control. With an approach emphasizing the fractal character of cathode spots, strongly fluctuating plasma properties are described such as the presence of multiply charged ions that move with supersonic velocity. Richly illustrated, the book also deals with practical issues, such as arc source construction, macroparticle removal, and the synthesis of dense, well adherent coatings. The book spans a bridge from plasma physics to coatings technology based on energetic condensation, appealing to scientists, practitioners and graduate students alike.
Category: Science

Oxide Ultrathin Films

Author : Gianfranco Pacchioni
ISBN : 9783527640188
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 81.5 MB
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A wealth of information in one accessible book. Written by international experts from multidisciplinary fields, this in-depth exploration of oxide ultrathin films covers all aspects of these systems, starting with preparation and characterization, and going on to geometrical and electronic structure, as well as applications in current and future systems and devices. From the Contents: Synthesis and Preparation of Oxide Ultrathin Films Characterization Tools of Oxide Ultrathin Films Ordered Oxide Nanostructures on Metal Surfaces Unusual Properties of Oxides and Other Insulators in the Ultrathin Limit Silica and High-K Dielectrics Thin Films in Microelectronics Oxide Passive Films and Corrosion Protection Oxide Films as Catalytic Materials and as Models of Real Catalysts Oxide Films in Spintronics Oxide Ultrathin Films in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Transparent Conducting and Chromogenic Oxide Films as Solar Energy Materials Oxide Ultrathin Films in Sensor Applications Ferroelectricity in Ultrathin Film Capacitors Titania Thin Films in Biocompatible Materials and Medical Implants Oxide Nanowires for New Chemical Sensor Devices
Category: Technology & Engineering

Optical Characterization Of Real Surfaces And Films

Author : K. Vedam
ISBN : 9781483288932
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72.1 MB
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This new volume of the highly respected Physics of Thin Films Serial discusses inhomogeneity in real films and surfaces. The volume, guest-edited by K. Vedam, follows the growth of thin films both from the surface of the substrate, and from the atomic level, layer by layer. The text features coverage of Real-Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (RTSE) and Reflectance Anisotropy (RA), two major breakthrough optical techniques used to characterize real time and insitu films and surfaces. In six insightful chapters, the contributors assess the impact of these techniques, their strengths and limitations, and their potential for further development.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures Ii

Author : Bretislav Heinrich
ISBN : 354027166X
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.97 MB
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The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism, with profound impact in technology and serving as the basis for a revolution in electronics. Our understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures has also advanced significantly. This rapid development has generated a need for a comprehensive treatment that can serve as an introduction to the field for those entering it from diverse fields, but which will also serve as a timely overview for those already working in this area. The four-volume work Ultra-Thin Magnetic Structures aims to fulfill this dual need. The original two volumes – now available once more – are "An Introduction to the Electronic, Magnetic and Structural Properties" (Vol. I) and Measurement Techniques and Novel Magnetic Properties (this volume). Two new volumes, "Fundamentals of Nanomagnetism" and "Applications of Nanomagnetism," extend and complete this comprehensive work by presenting the foundations of spintronics.
Category: Science

Nanophenomena At Surfaces

Author : Michail Michailov
ISBN : 3642165109
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 23.15 MB
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This book presents the state of the art in nanoscale surface physics. It outlines contemporary trends in the field covering a wide range of topical areas: atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces, molecular films and polymer adsorption, biologically inspired nanophysics, surface design and pattern formation, and computer modeling of interfacial phenomena. Bridging "classical" and "nano" concepts, the present volume brings attention to the physical background of exotic condensed-matter properties. The book is devoted to Iwan Stranski and Rostislaw Kaischew, remarkable scientists, who played a crucial role in setting up the theoretical fundamentals of nucleation and crystal growth phenomena in the last century.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Magnetic Microscopy Of Layered Structures

Author : Wolfgang Kuch
ISBN : 9783662445327
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.46 MB
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This book presents the important analytical technique of magnetic microscopy. This method is applied to analyze layered structures with high resolution. This book presents a number of layer-resolving magnetic imaging techniques that have evolved recently. Many exciting new developments in magnetism rely on the ability to independently control the magnetization in two or more magnetic layers in micro- or nanostructures. This in turn requires techniques with the appropriate spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity. The book begins with an introductory overview, explains then the principles of the various techniques and gives guidance to their use. Selected examples demonstrate the specific strengths of each method. Thus the book is a valuable resource for all scientists and practitioners investigating and applying magnetic layered structures.
Category: Science

Multilayer Thin Films

Author : Gero Decher
ISBN : 9783527605415
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38.89 MB
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Materials scientists are often faced with the problem of modifying surfaces of objects, yet keeping their shape and properties. This book provides a detailed survey on the new technology of adsorption from solution for the fabrication of molecularly ordered multicomposite films in order to replace and expand on the well known Langmuir-Blodgett technology and to open the field of molecular self-assembly to materials and biosciences. The book is aimed at scientists who want to integrate several different functional entities in a single device. To this audience it presents the technique of layer-by-layer assembly as today's most powerful key technology, which is low cost, solution based and very robust. It is already beginning to make the transition from academic research into industrial mass production.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Growth And Properties Of Ultrathin Epitaxial Layers

Author :
ISBN : 0080532675
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.48 MB
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Although there has been steady progress in understanding aspects of epitaxial growth throughout the last 30 years of modern surface science, work in this area has intensified greatly in the last 5 years. A number of factors have contributed to this expansion. One has been the general trend in surface science to tackle problems of increasing complexity as confidence is gained in the methodology, so for example, the role of oxide/metal interfaces in determining the properties of many practical supported catalysts is now being explored in greater detail. A second factor is the recognition of the potential importance of artificial multilayer materials not only in semiconductor devices but also in metal/metal systems because of their novel magnetic properties. Perhaps even more important than either of these application areas, however, is the newly-discovered power of scanning probe microscopies, and most notably scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), to provide the means to study epitaxial growth phenomena on an atomic scale under a wide range of conditions. These techniques have also contributed to revitalised interest in methods of fabricating and exploiting artificial structures (lateral as well as in layers) on a nanometre scale. This volume, on Growth and Properties of Ultrathin Epitaxial Layers, includes a collection of articles which reflects the present state of activity in this field. The emphasis is on metals and oxides rather than semiconductors.
Category: Science

Surface Physics

Author : Marina V. Mamonova
ISBN : 9781466594340
Genre : Science
File Size : 37.6 MB
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The demands of production, such as thin films in microelectronics, rely on consideration of factors influencing the interaction of dissimilar materials that make contact with their surfaces. Bond formation between surface layers of dissimilar condensed solids—termed adhesion—depends on the nature of the contacting bodies. Thus, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of adhesion interaction of different materials from both applied and fundamental perspectives of surface phenomena. Given the difficulty in obtaining reliable experimental values of the adhesion strength of coatings, the theoretical approach to determining adhesion characteristics becomes more important. Surface Physics: Theoretical Models and Experimental Methods presents straightforward and efficient approaches and methods developed by the authors that enable the calculation of surface and adhesion characteristics for a wide range of materials: metals, alloys, semiconductors, and complex compounds. The authors compare results from the proposed theories—developed within the framework of the electron density functional theory and dielectric formalism—to experimental data. The book begins with a discussion of the thermodynamics of surface phenomena and covers experimental and theoretical methods for studying surface characteristics of solids. Chapters describe calculations of surface and adhesion characteristics of metals using the density functional method. They also examine the calculation of adhesion characteristics of metals, semiconductors, and complex compounds based on dielectric formalism. In addition, the text covers dry friction, adsorption of metal atoms, and ferromagnetic films. The principles and methods presented in this book are useful in selecting optimum materials and coatings for various applications, including minimizing friction for increased efficiency of microelectronic components.
Category: Science