Trading Barriers

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Trading Barriers

Author : Margaret E. Peters
ISBN : 9781400885374
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 25.84 MB
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Why have countries increasingly restricted immigration even when they have opened their markets to foreign competition through trade or allowed their firms to move jobs overseas? In Trading Barriers, Margaret Peters argues that the increased ability of firms to produce anywhere in the world combined with growing international competition due to lowered trade barriers has led to greater limits on immigration. Peters explains that businesses relying on low-skill labor have been the major proponents of greater openness to immigrants. Immigration helps lower costs, making these businesses more competitive at home and abroad. However, increased international competition, due to lower trade barriers and greater economic development in the developing world, has led many businesses in wealthy countries to close or move overseas. Productivity increases have allowed those firms that have chosen to remain behind to do more with fewer workers. Together, these changes in the international economy have sapped the crucial business support necessary for more open immigration policies at home, empowered anti-immigrant groups, and spurred greater controls on migration. Debunking the commonly held belief that domestic social concerns are the deciding factor in determining immigration policy, Trading Barriers demonstrates the important and influential role played by international trade and capital movements.
Category: Political Science

Border And Behind The Border Trade Barriers And Country Exports

Author : Mr. Azim M. Sadikov
ISBN : 9781451913088
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 45.45 MB
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How do signatures required for exporting and business registration procedures affect the volume and composition of country''s exports? To answer this question, I develop a model where a country can export two types of products: differentiated and homogeneous. I show that export signatures and registration procedures reduce overall exports by increasing transaction costs. The impact, however, varies across goods according to the product''s degree of differentiation- the lack of price data on differentiated products due to their heterogeneity makes them more sensitive to export signatures. Regressions show that each extra signature exporters have to collect before a shipment can take place reduces aggregate exports by 4.2 percent. The impact is large, equivalent to raising importer''s tariff by 5 percentage points. Furthermore, each signature lowers exports of differentiated products by 4-5 percent more than exports of homogeneous goods. I find evidence that business registration procedures affect exports of differentiated products only.
Category: Business & Economics

Trade Barriers To The Public Good

Author : Alex C. Michalos
ISBN : 9780773578593
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 78.49 MB
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The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT) were designed to strengthen investor's rights at the expense of community rights and environmental protection. Both deals have achieved their aims. Trade Barriers to the Public Good provides a detailed examination of NAFTA and AIT cases involving MMT - a chemical additive brought into Canada by the US company Ethyl Corporation Inc. When the Canadian federal government banned the importation of MMT under the Fuel Additives Act, Ethyl Corp. filed a claim under NAFTA Chapter 11 seeking US $201 million in damages. Alex Michalos uses a case study of MMT to reveal exactly how and why quasi-judicial international dispute processes provide significantly less protection for the public interest than the routine procedures for passing an ordinary Act of Parliament. Trade Barriers to the Public Good illustrates why and how constitutionally protected democratic rights are undermined by trade deals such as the one involving MMT and, failing termination of NAFTA and AIT - the author's first choice for remedial action - recommends precise changes in dispute settlement rules that are needed to protect individuals and the environment.
Category: Political Science

Import Reducing Effect Of Trade Barriers

Author : Mr. Qing Wang
ISBN : 9781452719764
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 87.19 MB
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A comprehensive empirical investigation is carried out to ascertain the import-reducing effect of trade protection barriers. We first present a statistical summary of the status of global trade protection. Then, based on a monopolistic competition trade model and 1994 cross-country data on trade barriers, trade flows, and production, we estimate the import-reducing effect of trade barriers including both tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs). We use the disaggregated cross-country, cross-industry data on manufactured goods and, unlike previous studies, our sample covers a broad range of countries-more than 70 in total-including countries from the most developed ones like those in the Group of Seven to the least developed one, Bangladesh. We specify an empirical model that captures the stylized facts well and helps generate sensible estimates. Our econometric framework is designed to control for the simultaneous determination of trade flows, trade barriers, and production. We find that both tariff and NTBs are quite significant in restricting imports.
Category: Business & Economics

Trade Barriers

Author : United States Tariff Commission
ISBN : UIUC:30112083838695
Genre : Commerce
File Size : 31.81 MB
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Category: Commerce

National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers 25th Ed

Author : Ron Kirk
ISBN : 9781437941326
Genre :
File Size : 36.98 MB
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This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. This annual report presents an inventory of the most important foreign barriers affecting U.S. exports of goods and services, foreign direct investment by U.S. persons, and protection of intellectual property rights. Such an inventory facilitates negotiations aimed at reducing or eliminating these barriers. The report also provides a valuable tool in enforcing U.S. trade laws, with the goal of expanding global trade and strengthening the rules-based trading system, which benefits all nations, and U.S. producers and consumers in particular. The report provides quantitative estimates of the impact of these foreign practices on the value of U.S. exports. Includes info. on some of the actions taken to eliminate foreign trade barriers. Charts and tables.

The Challenge Of Reducing Subsidies And Trade Barriers

Author : Kym Anderson
ISBN : 9780410140916
Genre : Free trade
File Size : 28.35 MB
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"This is one of 10 studies for the Copenhagen Consensus Project that sought to evaluate the most feasible opportunities to improve welfare globally and alleviate poverty in developing countries. Anderson argues that phasing out distortionary government subsidies and barriers to international trade will yield an extraordinarily high benefit-cost ratio. A survey is provided of recent estimates using global economywide simulation models of the benefits of doing that by way of the current Doha round of multilateral trade negotiations. Even if adjustment costs are several times as large as suggested by available estimates, the benefit-cost ratio from seizing this opportunity exceeds 20. That is much higher than the rewards from regional or bilateral trade agreements or from providing preferential access for least-developed countries' exports to high-income countries. Such reform would simultaneously contribute to alleviating several of the other key challenges reflected in the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals"--Abstract.
Category: Free trade

Report On U S Trade And Investment Barriers 1993

Author : DIANE Publishing Company
ISBN : 0788102664
Genre :
File Size : 86.16 MB
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Sets out the barriers and impediments with which European business is faced in trading with and investing in the U.S. Covers: impediments through national security considerations, public procurement, tariffs and equivalent measures, export and other subsidies, tax legislation, standards testing, labeling and certification, services, intellectual property, and investment. Illustrations.

Trading On Commonwealth Ties

Author : Chris Milner
ISBN : 0850928753
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81.52 MB
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What are the characteristics of current intra-Commonwealth trade, and how can it be encouraged to grow?Trading on Commonwealth Ties identifies opportunities for stimulating trade within the Commonwealth, but warns against setting up a free trade agreement across the member states. Chris Milner argues that while the idea of trying to build a Commonwealth free trade agreement may hold enormous appeal, it is fraught with legal, administrative and political difficulties. He identifies improving trade infrastructure - particularly roads, railways and port facilities - as a key means of lowering trading costs and boosting trade both within the Commonwealth and with non-Commonwealth countries.Intra-Commonwealth trade currently generates about US$225 billion a year in export trade for member countries, which is equivalent to about 16 per cent of Commonwealth countries' total exports. This is a substantial volume of trading activity, but overall the bulk of Commonwealth countries' trade is with countries outside the Commonwealth. Nonetheless, for some countries, like Botswana, Namibia, Papua New Guinea and Samoa, intra-Commonwealth trade remains significant as it represents in excess of 70 per cent of their international trade.This book will be of interest to economic planners, researchers and policy-makers in all Commonwealth countries.
Category: Social Science

Research Handbook On The Wto And Technical Barriers To Trade

Author : Tracey Epps
ISBN : 9780857936721
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 60.17 MB
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The bookês comprehensive and accessible approach makes it a first point of reference for all trade law practitioners, policymakers and regulators. For scholars and students, the Handbook will prove essential reading for a deeper understanding of trade
Category: Political Science

Quantifying The Impact Of Technical Barriers To Trade

Author : Keith Eugene Maskus
ISBN : 0472112473
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 20.29 MB
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A discussion of the increasingly contentious debates over national regulations of safety and health in the international trade system
Category: Business & Economics

Japanese Trade Barriers To Forest Products

Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Finance. Subcommittee on International Trade
ISBN : PSU:000017168588
Genre : Competition, Unfair
File Size : 41.96 MB
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Category: Competition, Unfair

Trade And The Environment

Author : Brian R. Copeland
ISBN : 0691124000
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 75.66 MB
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Nowhere has the divide between advocates and critics of globalization been more striking than in debates over free trade and the environment. And yet the literature on the subject is high on rhetoric and low on results. This book is the first to systematically investigate the subject using both economic theory and empirical analysis. Brian Copeland and Scott Taylor establish a powerful theoretical framework for examining the impact of international trade on local pollution levels, and use it to offer a uniquely integrated treatment of the links between economic growth, liberalized trade, and the environment. The results will surprise many. The authors set out the two leading theories linking international trade to environmental outcomes, develop the empirical implications, and examine their validity using data on measured sulfur dioxide concentrations from over 100 cities worldwide during the period from 1971 to 1986. The empirical results are provocative. For an average country in the sample, free trade is good for the environment. There is little evidence that developing countries will specialize in pollution-intensive products with further trade. In fact, the results suggest just the opposite: free trade will shift pollution-intensive goods production from poor countries with lax regulation to rich countries with tight regulation, thereby lowering world pollution. The results also suggest that pollution declines amid economic growth fueled by economy-wide technological progress but rises when growth is fueled by capital accumulation alone. Lucidly argued and authoritatively written, this book will provide students and researchers of international trade and environmental economics a more reliable way of thinking about this contentious issue, and the methodological tools with which to do so.
Category: Business & Economics

The Impact Of Regulations On Agro Food Trade The Technical Barriers To Trade Tbt And Sanitary And Phytosanitary Measures Sps Agreements

Author : OECD
ISBN : 9789264105423
Genre :
File Size : 34.97 MB
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This report examines pertinent issues at the interface between domestic policy objectives, technical regulations and agricultural trade. It also discusses approaches to measuring the trade impacts of food safety and other technical measures.