Time Tense And Quantifiers

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Time Tense And Quantifiers

Author : Christian Rohrer
ISBN : 9783111346069
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 30.10 MB
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Over the past few decades, the book series Linguistische Arbeiten [Linguistic Studies], comprising over 500 volumes, has made a significant contribution to the development of linguistic theory both in Germany and internationally. The series will continue to deliver new impulses for research and maintain the central insight of linguistics that progress can only be made in acquiring new knowledge about human languages both synchronically and diachronically by closely combining empirical and theoretical analyses. To this end, we invite submission of high-quality linguistic studies from all the central areas of general linguistics and the linguistics of individual languages which address topical questions, discuss new data and advance the development of linguistic theory.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Time Tense And Quantifiers

Author : Christian Rohrer
ISBN : STANFORD:36105035766786
Genre : Grammar, Comparative and general
File Size : 24.38 MB
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The book series Linguistische Arbeiten (LA) publishes high-quality work in linguistics that addresses current issues in synchrony and diachrony, theoretically or empirically oriented.
Category: Grammar, Comparative and general

Time Tense And Reference

Author : Professor of Philosophy at Portland State University and Director of the Center for Philosophical Education Aleksandar Jokic
ISBN : 0262600501
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 65.80 MB
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Original essays by philosophers of language and philosophers of time exploring the semantics and metaphysics of tense.
Category: Philosophy

Exploring Time Tense And Aspect In Natural Language Database Interfaces

Author : Ion Androutsopoulos
ISBN : 1588112691
Genre : Computers
File Size : 67.79 MB
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Drawing upon tense and aspect theories, temporal logics, and temporal databases, this cross-discipline book examines relevant issues from the three areas, developing a unified theoretical framework that can be used to build natural language interfaces to temporal databases.
Category: Computers

Time Tense And Causation

Author : Michael Tooley
ISBN : 0198235798
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 34.98 MB
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Finally, addressing the formidable difficulties posed for tensed accounts of time by the Special Theory of Relativity, he suggests that a modified version of the theory, compatible with the account of time in this book, is to be preferred to the standard version.
Category: Philosophy

The Logic Of Time

Author : Johan van Benthem
ISBN : 9789401098687
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 34.65 MB
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That philosophical themes could be studied in an exact manner by logical meanS was a delightful discovery to make. Until then, the only outlet for a philosophical interest known to me was the production of poetry or essays. These means of expression remain inconclusive, however, with a tendency towards profuseness. The logical discipline provides so me intellectual backbone, without excluding the literary modes. A master's thesis by Erik Krabbe introduced me to the subject of tense logic. The doctoral dissertation of Paul N eedham awaked me (as so many others) from my dogmatic slumbers concerning the latter's mono poly on the logical study of Time. Finally, a set of lecture notes by Frank Veltman showed me how classical model theory is just as relevant to that study as more exotic intensional techniques. Of the authors whose work inspired me most, I would mention Arthur Prior, for his irresistible blend of logic and philosophy, Krister Segerberg, for his technical opening up of a systematic theory, and Hans Kamp, for his mastery of all these things at once. Many colleagues have made helpful comments on the two previous versions of this text. I would like to thank especially my students Ed Brinksma, Jan van Eyck and Wilfried Meyer-Viol for their logical and cultural criticism. The drawings were contributed by the versatile Bauke Mulder. Finally, Professor H intikka's kind appreciation provided the stimulus to write this book.
Category: Philosophy

The Nature Of Time

Author : Ulrich Meyer
ISBN : 9780199599332
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 45.21 MB
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The theory of relativity convinced many philosophers that space and time are fundamentally alike, and that they are mere aspects of a more fundamental space-time. Ulrich Meyer argues against this consensus view. Instead of a 'spatial' account of time that treats instants like positions in space, he presents the first comprehensive defense of a 'modal' account that emphasizes the similarities between times and the possible worlds in modal logic. Contrary to popularbelief, such an account does not commit us to the view that there is something metaphysically special about the present moment, and is easily reconciled with the theory of relativity.
Category: Philosophy

Properties Types And Meaning

Author : G. Chierchia
ISBN : 9789400927230
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 48.14 MB
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This collection of papers stems originally from a conference on Property Theory, Type Theory and Semantics held in Amherst on March 13-16 1986. The conference brought together logicians, philosophers, com puter scientists and linguists who had been working on these issues (of ten in isolation from one another). Our intent was to boost debate and exchange of ideas on these fundamental issues at a time of rapid change in semantics and cognitive science. The papers published in this work have evolved substantially since their original presentation at the conference. Given their scope, we thought it convenient to divide the work into two volumes. The first deals primarily with logical and philosophical foundations, the second with more empirical semantic issues. While there is a common set of issues tying the two volumes together, they are both self-contained and can be read independently of one another. Two of the papers in the present collection (van Benthem in volume 1 and Chierchia in volume II) were not actually read at the conference. They are nevertheless included here for their direct relevance to the topics of the volumes. Regrettably, some of the papers that were presented (Feferman, Klein, and Plotkin) could not be included in the present work due to timing problems. We nevertheless thank the authors for their contribu tion in terms of ideas and participation in the debate.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Generalized Quantifiers

Author : Peter Gärdenfors
ISBN : 9789400933811
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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Some fifteen years ago, research on generalized quantifiers was con sidered to be a branch of mathematical logic, mainly carried out by mathematicians. Since then an increasing number of linguists and philosophers have become interested in exploring the relevance of general quantifiers for natural language as shown by the bibliography compiled for this volume. To a large extent, the new research has been inspired by Jon Barwise and Robin Cooper's path-breaking article "Generalized Quantifiers and Natural Language" from 1981. A concrete sign of this development was the workshop on this topic at Lund University, May 9-11, 1985, which was organized by Robin Cooper, Elisabet Engdahl, and the present editor. All except two of the papers in this volume derive from that workshop. Jon Barwise's paper in the volume is different from the one he presented in connection with the workshop. Mats Rooth's contribution has been added because of its close relationship with the rest of the papers. The articles have been revised for publication here and the authors have commented on each other's contributions in order to integrate the collection. The organizers of the workshop gratefully acknowledge support from the Department of Linguistics, the Department of Philosophy and the Faculty of Humanities at Lund University, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (through the Wallenberg Foundation), the Swedish Institute, and the Letterstedt Foundation.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Limits Of Syntactic Variation

Author : Theresa Biberauer
ISBN : 9789027290663
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 25.85 MB
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Against the background of the past half century’s typological and generative work on comparative syntax, this volume brings together 16 papers considering what we have learned and may still be able to learn about the nature and extent of syntactic variation. More specifically, it offers a multi-perspective critique of the Principles and Parameters approach to syntactic variation, evaluating the merits and shortcomings of the pre-Minimalist phase of this enterprise and considering and illustrating the possibilities opened up by recent empirical and theoretical advances. Contributions focus on four central topics: firstly, the question of the locus of variation, whether the attested variation may plausibly be understood in parametric terms and, if so, what form such parameters might take; secondly, the fate of one of the most prominent early parameters, the Null Subject Parameter; thirdly, the matter of parametric clusters more generally; and finally, acquisition issues.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Processing Of Tense

Author : M.W. Dickey
ISBN : 1402001851
Genre : Computers
File Size : 36.49 MB
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This book presents an in-depth study of the processing of tense, more specifically the English past tense. Against a detailed theoretical background, it presents a number of psycholinguistic studies examining how and when the language processor assigns an interpretation to tense morphology. In so doing, it looks at several specific topics: temporal anaphora resolution, adverb preposing and discourse relations, and the sequence-of-tense ambiguity. The picture which emerges is one in which the processor is not guided by preceding context in making interpretive decisions regarding tense, as previous work has suggested. Rather, sentence-level linguistic structure appears to cue the processor in deciding which of multiple possible interpretations to assign to a past-tense marker. The book also offers novel theoretical perspectives on issues of both linguistic (temporal adverbs, sentence- and discourse-level temporal interpretation) and psycholinguistic (models of semantic processing) interest. This work will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in linguistics and psycholinguistics working on semantic processing, temporal interpretation, and discourse processing.
Category: Computers

The German Perfect

Author : R. Musan
ISBN : 9789401005524
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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1. OUTLINE German has the three main perfect constructions which are illustrated in (1. 1). 1 In each of these constructions, the verb appears in the past participial form and is combined with an auxiliary - in this case, haben ('have'); other verbs form their perfect constructions with the auxiliary sein ('be'). 2 The auxiliary can then be com bined with a tense -Le. the present tense as in (Ua), the past tense as in (b), or the future tense as in (c). 3 (1. 1) a. PRESENT PERFECT: Die Eule hat die Schule verlassen. the owl has the school left b. PAST PERFECT: Die Eule hatte die Schule verlassen. the owl had the school left c. FUTURE PERFECT: Die Eule wird die Schule verlassen haben. the owl will the school left have As will shortly become clear, the present perfect is the most intricate of the perfect constructions in German. It has been investigated intensely in the past, with the result that today there is little doubt about what the core problems concerning its semantics are.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

As Time Goes By

Author : Norbert Hornstein
ISBN : 0262581299
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 31.18 MB
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How do humans acquire, at a very early age and from fragmentary and haphazard data, the complex patterns of their native language? This is the logical problem of language acquisition, and it is the question that directs the search for an innate universal grammar. As Time Goes By extends the search by proposing a theory of natural-language tense that will be responsive to the problem of language acquisition. The clearly written discussion proceeds step-by-step from simple observations and principles to far-reaching conclusions involving complex data carefully selected and persuasively presented. Throughout, Hornstein focuses on the logical problem of language acquisition, highlighting the importance of explanatory adequacy and the role of syntactic representations in determining intricate properties of semantic interpretation.
Category: Psychology

Tracking Time

Author : Eleonore Oversteegen
ISBN : UCAL:B3668989
Genre : Dutch language
File Size : 44.36 MB
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Category: Dutch language

Ambiguities In Intensional Contexts

Author : F. Heny
ISBN : 9789400983779
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 65.74 MB
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The essays in this book deal with a number of problems in the analysis of intensional language - more especially with the analysis of the personal modalities in natural language. Together they cover a representative spectrum of the problems of contemporary ,interest in this area, in a way that should make them of interest to linguists, logicians and philosophers concerned with natural language. The contributors are mostly more linguists than logicians or philosophers but some are more logicians or philosophers than linguists. As far as possible, we have tried to conduct the discussion in terms that will enable students from any of these fields to come to grips with the central issues. This volume will provide, I think, material for a very stimulating course. I have used it as the basis for a course at the introductory level in the philosophy of language. The essays in the book led us back to look at the classic texts and a good deal of the intervening literature crept in of its own accord. Out of that experience grew the introduction that follows. In contrast with the rest of the book, the introduction is frankly pedagogical. I hope and believe that many who would otherwise find the papers themselves hard to digest will ~e helped on their way by that summary.
Category: Philosophy

The Semantics Of The Future

Author : Bridget Copley
ISBN : 9781135875589
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 26.80 MB
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This book builds a semantics for several kinds of future-referring expressions, including will sentences, be going to sentences, and futurates. While there exists previous work on future-referring expressions, this is the first treatment of such a variety of expressions in a formal semantic framework. Arguments presented herein explicate the meanings of these expressions, and account for similarities and differences among them. Shared is a future-oriented model with a systematic alternation between inertial and bouletic ordering sources that provide a new way of understanding the age-old future Law of the Excluded Middle, evident in all of the future-referring expressions. A difference found among these meanings is the presence or absence of progressive- or generic-like aspect in a position higher than the future modal. These very high aspectual operators affect the temporal argument of the modal's accessibility relation, with detectable effects that can be used to determine scope relations in future conditionals. Copley's analysis thus addresses a number of issues of great interest to formal semanticists, from modal and aspectual semantics, to the mapping of functional elements in the clause, to the logical form of conditionals.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Configurationality In Hungarian

Author : Katalin E. Kiss
ISBN : 9789400937031
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 71.30 MB
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The purpose of this book is to argue for the claim that Hungarian sentence structure consists of a non-configurational propositional component, preceded by configurationally determined operator positions. In the course of this, various descriptive issues of Hungarian syntax will be analyzed, and various theoretical questions concerning the existence and nature of non configurational languages will be addressed. The descriptive problems to be examined in Chapters 2 and 3 center around the word order of Hungarian sentences. Chapter 2 identifies an invariant structure in the apparently freely permutable Hungarian sentence, pointing out systematic correspondences between the structural position, interpre tation, and stressing and intonation of the different constituents. Chapter 3 analyzes the word order phenomenon traditionally called 'sentence inter- I twining' of complex sentences, and shows that the term, in fact, covers two different constructions (a structure resulting from operator movement, and a base generated pattern) with differences in constituent order, operator scope and V-object agreement. Chapter 4 deals interpretation, case assignment, with the coreference possibilities of reflexives, reciprocals, personal pro nouns, and lexical NPs. Finally, Chapter 5 assigns structures to the two major sentence types containing an infinitive. It analyzes infinitives with an AGR marker and a lexical subject, focusing on the problem of case assignment to the subject, as well as subject control constructions, accounting for their often paradoxical, simultaneously mono- and biclausal behaviour in respect to word order, operator scope, and V-object agreement.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Time Language And Ontology

Author : M. Joshua Mozersky
ISBN : 9780191028007
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 77.40 MB
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This book brings together, in a novel way, an account of the structure of time with an account of our language and thought about time. Joshua Mozersky argues that it is possible to reconcile the human experience of time, which is centred on the present, with the objective conception of time, according to which all moments are intrinsically alike. He defends a temporally centreless ontology along with a tenseless semantics that is compatible with - and indeed helps to explain the need for - tensed language and thought. This theory of time also, it is argued, helps to elucidate the nature of change and temporal passage, neither of which need be denied nor relegated to the realm of subjective experience only. The book addresses a variety of topics including whether the past and future are real; whether temporal passage is a genuine phenomenon or merely a subjective illusion; how the asymmetry of time is to be understood; the nature of representation; how something can change its properties yet retain its identity; and whether objects are three-dimensional or four-dimensional. It is a wide-ranging examination of recent issues in metaphysics, philosophy of language and the philosophy of science and presents a compelling picture of the relationship of human beings to the spatiotemporal world.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines