The Social Context Of Technological Change

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The Social Context Of Technological Change

Author : Andrew Shortland
ISBN : 9781785705663
Genre : History
File Size : 33.62 MB
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The technological capabilities of the ancient world have long fascinated scholars and the general public alike, though scholarly debate has often seen material culture not as the development of technology, but as a tool for defining chronology and delineating the level of interactions of neighbouring societies. These fourteen papers, arising from a conference held in Oxford in September 2000, take the approach that technology plays a vital role in past socio-economic systems. They cover the Near East and associated areas, including Greece, Crete, Cyprus, Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia and Egypt from the end of the Middle Bronze Age to the Late Bronze Age (1650-1150 BC), a period when many technological innovations appear for the first time.
Category: History

The Social Context Of Technological Change

Author : Andrew J. Shortland
ISBN : 1842170503
Genre : History
File Size : 49.40 MB
Format : PDF
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The technological capabilities of the ancient world have long fascinated scholars and the general public alike, though scholarly debate has often seen material culture not as the development of technology, but as a tool for defining chronology and delineating the level of interactions of neighbouring societies. These fourteen papers, arising from a conference held in Oxford in September 2000, take the approach that technology plays a vital role in past socio-economic systems. They cover the Near East and associated areas, including Greece, Crete, Cyprus, Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia and Egypt from the end of the Middle Bronze Age to the Late Bronze Age (1650-1150 BC), a period when many technological innovations appear for the first time.
Category: History

The Social Context Of Technological Experiences

Author : Anant Kamath
ISBN : 1138324086
Genre :
File Size : 62.88 MB
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This book demonstrates how technology and society shape one another and that there are intrinsic connections between technological experiences and social relationships. It employs an array of theoretical concepts and methodological tools to examine the technology-society nexus among three urban groups in India (traditional caste-based handloom weavers, subaltern Dalit communities, and informal female labour). It provides evidence of how innovations such as industrial technologies, communication technologies, and workplace technologies are not only about strides in science and engineering but also about politics and sociology on the ground. The book contributes to the growing research in innovation studies and technology policy that establishes how technological processes and outcomes are contingent on complex sociological variables and contexts. The author offers an inclusive, holistic, and inter-disciplinary approach in understanding the field of innovation and technological change and development by involving various methodologies (network analysis, archival work, oral histories, focus group discussions, interviews). The book will serve as reference for researchers and scholars in social sciences, especially those interested in development studies, science and technology policy and innovation studies, ICT policy, public policy, management, social work and research methods, economics, sociology, social exclusion and subaltern studies, women's studies, and South Asian studies. It will also be useful to non-governmental organisations, activists and policymakers.
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Technological Change And Organizational Action

Author : Juha Laurila
ISBN : 9781134502011
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 44.99 MB
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In recent decades an extensive array of changes and innovations have taken place in and across work organizations and networks of organizations and workers, facilitated by new technologies and technological forms. This has initiated an interest in technological change as one of the conditions for organizational action and researchers have begun to draw inspiration from a wider spectrum of conceptual issues, perspectives and theoretical traditions. This book is interested in the level of praxis and how this might be understood and theorized. It brings together a comprehensive collection of empirically-grounded and theoretically-informed research projects from studies of organizational practice which explore a number of technological changes in a variety of contexts. These are informed by contemporary debates within and across theoretical approaches including the sociology of technology, work and organizations, actor network theory, technology as text and metaphor, processual and political perspectives, social and business network-based approaches to the analysis of technology and innovation, and the social construction and shaping of technology. This book will be essential reading for researchers and advanced students within the field of technology, work and organizations and also organization studies and management studies.
Category: Business & Economics

Creative Technological Change

Author : Ian Mcloughlin
ISBN : 9781134680153
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 88.65 MB
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Creative Technological Change draws upon a wide range of thinking from organisational theory, innovation studies and the sociology of technology. It explores the different ways in which these questions have been framed and answered, especially in relation to new 'virtual' technologies. The idea of metaphor is used to capture the differences between, and strengths and weaknesses of various ways of conceptualising the technology/organisation relationship. This approach offers the possibility of developing new ways of thinking about, viewing and ultimately responding creatively to the organisational challenges posed by technological change.
Category: Business & Economics

New Communication Technologies In Developing Countries

Author : Jarice Hanson
ISBN : 9781135439460
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 66.48 MB
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This volume explores how a number of developing countries -- including India, Malaysia, Columbia, Brazil, and Saudi Arabia -- are responding to the pressures of the information society. Infrastructural development, policies, and social systems are investigated, and models of information technologies and society are proposed in order to better reference the differences and similarities among the nations profiled. The authors identify the social technology perspective via the assimilation of technology in lifestyles and social systems. From this perspective, the diffusion of technologies is analyzed with a critical eye for theories of culture lag, diffusion and innovation, and technological determinism and liberalism. The social perspective is a new addition to development studies, and the reader may see how, as the global information society comes into focus, the social dimensions are more important than some theorists originally envisioned.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Organizational Learning And Technological Change

Author : Cristina Zucchermaglio
ISBN : 9783642795503
Genre : Computers
File Size : 44.77 MB
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What the Book Is About This book is about the problem of organizational learning, that is the analysis of organizations conceived as learning systems. In order to survive in a period of a rapid change, organizations must innovate and than to develop and exploit their abilities to learn. The most innovative organizations are those that can respond with great efficiency to internal and external changes. They respond to and generate technological change by acting as effective learning systems. They maximize the learning potential of ongoing and "normal" work activities. The organizational structure and the technology allow members to learn while the organizations itself learns from its members. So organizations reach high levels of innovation when structured to take advantage of the social, distributed, participative, situated processes of learning developed by its members in interaction with the technological environment. Organizations should consider learning as an explicit "productive" objective. They must create integrated learning mechanisms, that encompass technological tools, reward and incentive systems, human resource practices, belief systems, access to information, communication and mobility patterns, performance appraisal systems, organizational practices and structures. The design of efficient learning organizations requires cognitive, technological and social analyses. All the computer-based technologies (e. g. office automation, communication and group decision support) not only those devoted to and used in training activities, have to be considered as tools for organizational learning and innovation.
Category: Computers

Healthy Work

Author : Namir Khan
ISBN : 0810852853
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 42.98 MB
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This reference provides an overview of relevant literature to engineers, managers, accountants, occupational health and safety specialists, and industrial hygienists, so that they, and other professionals, can understand what has caused our workplaces to become primary sources of physical and mental illness.
Category: Health & Fitness

The Mediterranean Context Of Early Greek History

Author : Nancy H. Demand
ISBN : 9781444342345
Genre : History
File Size : 49.45 MB
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The Mediterranean Context of Early Greek History reveals the role of the complex interaction of Mediterranean seafaring and maritime connections in the development of the ancient Greek city-states. Offers fascinating insights into the origins of urbanization in the ancient Mediterranean, including the Greek city-state Based on the most recent research on the ancient Mediterranean Features a novel approach to theories of civilization change - foregoing the traditional isolationists model of development in favor of a maritime based network Argues for cultural interactions set in motion by exchange and trade by sea
Category: History

European Metals In Native Hands

Author : Kathleen L. Ehrhardt
ISBN : 9780817351465
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 72.6 MB
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The first detailed analysis of Native metalworking in the Protohistoric/Contact Period. From the time of their earliest encounters with European explorers and missionaries, Native peoples of eastern North America acquired metal trinkets and utilitarian items and traded them to other aboriginal communities. As Native consumption of European products increased, their material culture repertoires shifted from ones made up exclusively of items produced from their own craft industries to ones substantially reconstituted by active appropriation, manipulation, and use of foreign goods. These material transformations took place during the same time that escalating historical, political, economic, and demographic influences (such as epidemics, new types of living arrangements, intergroup hostilities, new political alliances, missionization and conversion, changes in subsistence modes, etc.) disrupted Native systems. Ehrhardt's research addresses the early technological responses of one particular group, the Late Protohistoric Illinois Indians, to the availability of European-introduced metal objects. To do so, she applied a complementary suite of archaeometric methods to a sample of 806 copper-based metal artifacts excavated from securely dated domestic contexts at the Illiniwek Village Historic Site in Clark County, Missouri. Ehrhardt's scientific findings are integrated with observations from historical, archaeological, and archival research to place metal use by this group in a broad social context and to critique the acculturation perspective at other Contact Period sites. In revealing actual Native practice, from material selection and procurement to ultimate discard, the author challenges technocentric explanations for Native material and cultural change at contact.
Category: Social Science

Institutional And Technological Change In Japan S Economy

Author : Janet Hunter
ISBN : 9781134206810
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 44.27 MB
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Institutional and technological change is a highly topical subject. At the theoretical level, there is much debate in the field of institutional economics about the role of technological change in endogenous growth theory. At a practical policy level, arguments rage about how Japan and the Japanese economy should plan for the future. In this book, leading economists and economic historians of Japan examine a range of key issues concerning institutional and technological change in Japan, rigorously using discipline-based tools of analysis, and drawing important conclusions as to how the process of change in these areas actually works. In applying these ideas to Japan, the writers in this volume are focusing on an issue which is currently being much debated in the country itself, and are helping our understanding of the world’s second-largest economy.
Category: Business & Economics

The Nature Of Technological Knowledge Are Models Of Scientific Change Relevant

Author : L. Laudan
ISBN : 9789401576994
Genre : Science
File Size : 69.5 MB
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One of the ironies of our time is the sparsity of useful analytic tools for understanding change and development within technology itself. For all the diatribes about the disastrous effects of technology on modern life, for all the equally uncritical paeans to technology as the panacea for human ills, the vociferous pro- and anti-technology movements have failed to illuminate the nature of technology. On a more scholarly level, in the midst of claims by Marxists and non-Marxists alike about the technological underpinnings of the major social and economic changes of the last couple of centuries, and despite advice given to government and industry about managing science and technology by a small army of consultants and policy analysts, technology itself remains locked inside an impenetrable black box, a deus ex machina to be invoked when all other explanations of puzzling social and economic pheoomena fail. The discipline that has probably done most to penetrate that black box in recent years by studying the 1 internal development of technology is history. Historians of technology and certain economic historians have carried out careful and detailed studies on the genesis and impact of technological innovations, and the structu-re of the social systems associated with those innovations. Within the past few decades tentative consensus about the periodization and the major traditions within the history of technology has begun to emerge, at least as far as Britain and America in the eighteenth and nineteenth century are concerned.
Category: Science

The Social And Economic Impact Of New Technology 1978 84 A Select Bibliography

Author : Leslie Grayson
ISBN : 9781468482584
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 30.64 MB
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Silicon chip technology; microprocessor technology; information technology; or quite simply new technology. These are some of the names representing the microelectronics revolution depending upon the audience being addressed by speaker or writer. No previous new industrial development has caused such widespread publicity and discussion amongst users and researchers as the new technology. Concern is being expressed about the effects of new technology on employment, job satisfaction, social life, leisure activities and the economics of commerce and industry. The late 70s saw many doom-laden predictions of those effects but by 1983 both management and trade unions were taking a more objective view of the social and economic impacts, and many correspondents now see the new technology as a means of opening up new industries and overcoming the effects of world recessions. The "chip" has involved the factory floor, the office, the supermarket and the home. Electronic funds transfer, electronic shopping, microelectronic domestic appliances, word processors and microprocessor-controlled machinery mean that the new technology has pervaded all aspects of social and economic life, and the developed countries are now coming to accept it as part of society as a whole. Inevitably the flood of literature on the social and economic impacts of new technology has been overwhelming. Unfortunately the quality of information and arguments propagated at conferences, in journal papers and research reports has indicated that there has been little quantifiable evidence available on the effects of these impacts.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Animals And The Human Imagination

Author : Aaron S. Gross
ISBN : 9780231527767
Genre : Nature
File Size : 41.51 MB
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Human beings have long imagined their subjectivity, ethics, and ancestry with and through animals, yet not until the mid-twentieth century did contemporary thought reflect critically on animals' significance in human self-conception. Thinkers such as French philosopher Jacques Derrida, South African novelist J. M. Coetzee, and American theorist Donna Haraway have initiated rigorous inquiries into the question of the animal, now blossoming in a number of directions. It is no longer strange to say that if animals did not exist, we would have to invent them. This interdisciplinary and cross-cultural collection reflects the growth of animal studies as an independent field and the rise of "animality" as a critical lens through which to analyze society and culture, on a par with race and gender. Essays consider the role of animals in the human imagination and the imagination of the human; the worldviews of indigenous peoples; animal-human mythology in early modern China; and political uses of the animal in postcolonial India. They engage with the theoretical underpinnings of the animal protection movement, representations of animals in children's literature, depictions of animals in contemporary art, and the philosophical positioning of the animal from Aristotle to Derrida. The strength of this companion lies in its timeliness and contextual diversity, which makes it essential reading for students and researchers while further developing the parameters of the discipline.
Category: Nature

Social Implications And Challenges Of E Business

Author : Li, Feng
ISBN : 9781599041070
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 55.3 MB
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"This book explores the social implications and challenges of E-Business and E-Commerce regarding social inclusion and exclusion, the social shaping of e-business technologies, the changing nature and patterns of work and social activities, and online identity, security, risks, trust and privacy. It also explores the applications of E-Business technologies and principles in non-business activities and the challenges involved"--Provided by publisher.
Category: Business & Economics

Work And Technological Change

Author : Stephen R. Barley
ISBN : 9780192514417
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 66.90 MB
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In recent years a growing number of commentators have declared that we are at the beginning of a technical revolution that will see profound changes in the way we live and work. Yet what constitutes a technological revolution, and what logic supports how successive technological revolutions have unfolded in Western societies? How do technologies change organizations and what are the implications of intelligent technologies for work and employment? Here, Stephen R. Barley reflects on over three decades of research to explore both the history of technological change and the approaches used to investigate how technologies are shaping our work and organizations. He begins by placing current developments in artificial intelligence into the historical context of previous technological revolutions, drawing on William Faunce's argument that the history of technology is one of progressive automation of the four components of any production system: energy, transformation, transfer, and control technologies. He then considers how technologies change work, and when those changes will and will not result in organizational change. In doing so he lays out a role-based theory of how technologies produce changes in organizations. He then tackles the issue, alongside Matt Beane, of how to conceptualize a more thorough approach to assessing how intelligent technologies, such as artificial intelligence, can shape work and employment. They identify the main reasons why the current state of research on intelligent technologies in the workplace is inadequate, and provide pointers on how empirical studies in this area may, and must, be improved. He concludes with a discussion with his long-time colleague Diane Bailey about the fears that arise when one sets out to study technical work and technical workers, and the methods that they, and future ethnographers, can use for controlling those fears.
Category: Business & Economics