THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF WHAT

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The Social Construction Of What

Author : Ian Hacking
ISBN : 067481200X
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 84.27 MB
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Often lost in the debate over the validity of social construction is the question of what is being constructed. Particularly troublesome in this area is the status of the natural sciences, where there is conflict between biological and social approaches to mental illness, and in other areas. Ian Hacking looks at the issue of child abuse, and examines the ways in which advanced research on new weapons influences not the content but the form of science. In conclusion, Hacking comments on the "culture wars" in anthropology, in particular the spat between leading enthnographers over Hawaii and Captain Cook.
Category: Philosophy

The Social Construction Of Technological Systems

Author : Wiebe E. Bijker
ISBN : 9780262300872
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 48.1 MB
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This pioneering book, first published in 1987, launched the new field of social studies of technology. It introduced a method of inquiry--social construction of technology, or SCOT--that became a key part of the wider discipline of science and technology studies. The book helped the MIT Press shape its STS list and inspired the Inside Technology series. The thirteen essays in the book tell stories about such varied technologies as thirteenth-century galleys, eighteenth-century cooking stoves, and twentieth-century missile systems. Taken together, they affirm the fruitfulness of an approach to the study of technology that gives equal weight to technical, social, economic, and political questions, and they demonstrate the illuminating effects of the integration of empirics and theory. The approaches in this volume--collectively called SCOT (after the volume's title) have since broadened their scope, and twenty-five years after the publication of this book, it is difficult to think of a technology that has not been studied from a SCOT perspective and impossible to think of a technology that cannot be studied that way.
Category: Technology & Engineering

The Social Construction Of Reality

Author : Peter L. Berger
ISBN : 9781453215463
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 51.78 MB
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The classic work that redefined the sociology of knowledge and has inspired a generation of philosophers and thinkers In this seminal book, Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann examine how knowledge forms and how it is preserved and altered within a society. Unlike earlier theorists and philosophers, Berger and Luckmann go beyond intellectual history and focus on commonsense, everyday knowledge—the proverbs, morals, values, and beliefs shared among ordinary people. When first published in 1966, this systematic, theoretical treatise introduced the term social construction,effectively creating a new thought and transforming Western philosophy.
Category: Social Science

The Social Construction Of Climate Change

Author : Mary E. Pettenger
ISBN : 9781409498094
Genre : Science
File Size : 61.73 MB
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Individuals, international organizations and states are calling for the world to confront climate change. Efforts such as the Kyoto Protocol have produced intractable disputes and are deemed inadequate. This volume adopts two constructivist perspectives – norm-centred and discourse – to explore the social construction of climate change from a broad, theoretical level to particular cases. The contributors contend that climate change must be understood from the context of social settings, and that we ignore at our peril how power and knowledge structures are generated. They offer a greater understanding of why current efforts to mitigate climate change have failed and provide academics and policy makers with a new understanding of this important topic.
Category: Science

Defining Physical Education

Author : David Kirk
ISBN : 9780415508094
Genre : Education
File Size : 61.33 MB
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First published in 1992, David Kirk's book analyses the public debate leading up to the 1987 General Election over the place and purpose of physical education in British schools. By locating this debate in a historical context, specifically in the period following the end of the Second World War, it attempts to illustrate how the meaning of school physical education and its aims, content and pedagogy were contested by a number of vying groups. It stresses the influence of the culture of postwar social reconstruction in shaping these groups' ideas about physical education. Through this analysis, the book attempts to explain how physical education has been socially constructed during the postwar years and, more specifically, to suggest how the subject came to be used as a symbol of subversive, left wing values in the campaign leading to the 1987 election. In more general terms, the book provides a case study of the social construction of school knowledge. The book takes an original approach to the question of curriculum change in physical education, building on increasing interest in historical research in the field of curriculum studies. It adopts a social constructionist perspective, arguing that change occurs through the active involvement of competing groups in struggles over limited material and ideological (discursive) resources. It also draws on contemporary developments in social and cultural theory, particularly the concepts of discourse and ideological hegemony, to explain how the meaning of physical education has been constructed, and how particular definitions of the subject have become orthodoxes. The book presents new historical evidence from a period which had previously been neglected by researchers, despite the fact that 1945 marked a watershed in the development of the understanding and teaching of physical education in schools.
Category: Education

The Social Construction Of Global Corruption

Author : Elitza Katzarova
ISBN : 9783319985695
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 62.8 MB
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This book offers new ways of thinking about corruption by examining the two distinct ways in which policy approaches and discourse on corruption developed in the UN and the OECD. One of these approaches extrapolated transnational bribery as the main form of corrupt practices and advocated a limited scope offense, while the other approach tackled the broader structure of the global economic system and advocated curbing the increasing power of multinational corporations. Developing nations, in particular Chile, initiated and contributed much to these early debates, but the US-sponsored issue of transnational bribery came to dominate the international agenda. In the process, the ‘corrupt corporation’ was supplanted by the ‘corrupt politician’, the ‘corrupt public official’ and their international counterpart: the ‘corrupt country’. This book sheds light on these processes and the way in which they reconfigured our understanding of the state as an economic actor and the multinational corporation as a political actor.
Category: Political Science

The Catholic Faith And The Social Construction Of Religion

Author : Allan M. Savage & Peter Stuart
ISBN : 1449720846
Genre : Religion
File Size : 68.93 MB
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The intent behind this book is to provide grist for the mill for research students and other interested readers. Chapter one, by author Allan Savage, presents an understanding of the social construction of religious activity, which maintains that social construction of religion arises from a dialectical engagement within the world from a phenomenological philosophical point of view. Co-author Peter Stuart presents a classical and traditional point of view, and readers expecting academic accord between the authors will be disappointed. A further rationale for writing this book is that both Savage and Stuart desire to express their personal convictions in the public forum. Both have interests in the ebb and flow of civilization, especially as it pertains to the place of faith, religion, politics, and a variety of social phenomena, including economics, culture, gender, ethnicity, and the family, as well as the ebb and flow of money, power, property, and prestige, as articulated throughout history. They believe that writing about the place of faith and religion in French Canada is crucial if one is to understand the place that this ‘keystone’ civilization occupies within confederation and its enduring ambivalence regarding its belonging, or not, to Canada.
Category: Religion

A Philosophy Of The Social Construction Of Crime

Author : David Polizzi
ISBN : 9781447327325
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 34.24 MB
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This book situates the social construction of crime and criminal behaviour within the philosophical context of phenomenology and explores how these constructions inform, and justify, the policies employed to address them. It is essential reading for academics and students interested in social theory and theories of criminology.
Category: Social Science

Social Construction In Context

Author : Kenneth J Gergen
ISBN : 9781446228685
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 69.70 MB
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This latest book by one the world's leading protagonists in the field will be welcomed not just by psychologists but by students, academics and professionals interested in social constructionism across a wide range of subjects. Social Construction in Context explores the potentials of social constructionist theory when placed in diverse intellectual and practical contexts. It demonstrates the achievements of social constructionism, and what it can now offer various fields of inquiry, both academic, professional and applied, given the proliferation of the theory across the social sciences and humanities. First order issues of concern within the academic world, objectivity, truth, power and ideology, are now being augmented by widespread developments in practice - therapeutic, pedagogical, organizational and political. This book looks closely at these developments and examines both the positive potentials and limitations of social constructionist theory when applied to a variety of domains. It has been written in an accessible and scholarly manner making it suitable for a wide-ranging readership.
Category: Psychology

The Social Construction Of Gender

Author : Judith Lorber
ISBN : STANFORD:36105005938241
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 82.65 MB
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Published in Cooperation with Sociologists for Women in Society "Women are women and men are men"--this old aphorism is being challenged with ever increasing frequency as social researchers focus on the nature of constructed gender roles. Much of the recent work in this area has appeared in the journal Gender & Society, which is the genesis of most of the papers in The Social Construction of Gender. In their collection, Lorber and Farrell present the best of current research on how the constructivist approach has been applied to a number of variables, including family structure, the work place, social class, racial ethnic identity, and politics. Theoretical and methodological implications of the constructed nature of gender roles are highlighted, as well as the existing theories of gender deconstruction. The articles and introductory material in this volume reflect feminist social science theory in concrete ways that make the text accessible to scholars, professionals and students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. This resource is ideal for courses on feminist studies, sociology of gender, and social theory construction. "One of the strengths of this book is that it provides some conceptual tools that we may not have come across elsewhere. . . . A second strength of the book is the welcome addition of racial/ethnic identity and social class to the issue of gender. . . . All in all, the book is a rich offering of ideas, research, and experience. Each article can stand alone as a valuable contribution; as an anthology, the book insists that we look at the realities of gender." --Smith College Studies in Social Work "A fine collection of current research on one of the major topics of the day. Shows that sociology can be both lively and intellectually illuminating." --R. W. Connell, Macquarie University, Sydney "Psychologists have much to gain from attending to a sociological perspective. The Social Construction of Gender provides that perspective intertwined with an excellent integration of feminist theory and relevant psychological literature. Judith Lorber and Susan Farrell have compiled 18 articles that, like sociology, continually challenge the reader to reflect upon the broad structural issues that pervasively influence construction of reality. . . . well articulated. . . . chapters regarding masculinity consider points of view sometimes overlooked by feminist theorists. . . .provides a solid knowledge base for those feminists in psychology without a sociological background. The Social Construction of Gender was a pleasure to read. Informative, clear, and concise, it presents a view of women's position in Western society that bridges psychology, sociology, economics, management, anthropology, history, politics, religion, and public policy." --Association for Women in Psychology Newsletter
Category: Social Science