THE SIEGE OF MECCA

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The Siege Of Mecca

Author : Yaroslav Trofimov
ISBN : 9780307472908
Genre : History
File Size : 58.18 MB
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In The Siege of Mecca, acclaimed journalist Yaroslav Trofimov pulls back the curtain on a thrilling, pivotal, and overlooked episode of modern history, examining its repercussions on the Middle East and the world. On November 20, 1979, worldwide attention was focused on Tehran, where the Iranian hostage crisis was entering its third week. That same morning, gunmen stunned the world by seizing the Grand Mosque in Mecca, creating a siege that trapped 100,000 people and lasted two weeks, inflaming Muslim rage against the United States and causing hundreds of deaths. But in the days before CNN and Al Jazeera, the press barely took notice. Trofimov interviews for the first time scores of direct participants in the siege, and draws upon hundreds of newly declassified documents. With the pacing, detail, and suspense of a real-life thriller, The Siege of Mecca reveals the long-lasting aftereffects of the uprising and its influence on the world today.
Category: History

The Siege At Mecca

Author : John M. Berger
ISBN : OCLC:1091878902
Genre : Mecca (Saudi Arabia)
File Size : 29.6 MB
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The Siege At Mecca is a compilation of declassified State Department documents concerning the 1979 attack on the Grand Mosque by Saudi militants. These documents contain new and never-reported intelligence on the siege, as well as possible links to Osama bin Laden and a religious sect that would later become a significant player in al Qaeda.
Category: Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

Mecca

Author : Francis E. Peters
ISBN : 069103267X
Genre : Religion
File Size : 23.38 MB
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Mecca is the most forbidden of Holy Cities. Many Muslim historians and geographers have studied it--and countless pilgrims and travelers have left behind lively and well-publicized accounts of life in the city. The stories of all these figures--holy men and heathen alike--are collected here to offer a remarkably revealing literary portrait of the city's traditions and urban life.
Category: Religion

War On Sacred Grounds

Author : Ron E. Hassner
ISBN : 0801460409
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 68.45 MB
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Sacred sites offer believers the possibility of communing with the divine and achieving deeper insight into their faith. Yet their spiritual and cultural importance can lead to competition as religious groups seek to exclude rivals from practicing potentially sacrilegious rituals in the hallowed space and wish to assert their own claims. Holy places thus create the potential for military, theological, or political clashes, not only between competing religious groups but also between religious groups and secular actors. In War on Sacred Grounds, Ron E. Hassner investigates the causes and properties of conflicts over sites that are both venerated and contested; he also proposes potential means for managing these disputes. Hassner illustrates a complex and poorly understood political dilemma with accounts of the failures to reach settlement at Temple Mount/Haram el-Sharif, leading to the clashes of 2000, and the competing claims of Hindus and Muslims at Ayodhya, which resulted in the destruction of the mosque there in 1992. He also addresses more successful compromises in Jerusalem in 1967 and Mecca in 1979. Sacred sites, he contends, are particularly prone to conflict because they provide valuable resources for both religious and political actors yet cannot be divided. The management of conflicts over sacred sites requires cooperation, Hassner suggests, between political leaders interested in promoting conflict resolution and religious leaders who can shape the meaning and value that sacred places hold for believers. Because a reconfiguration of sacred space requires a confluence of political will, religious authority, and a window of opportunity, it is relatively rare. Drawing on the study of religion and the study of politics in equal measure, Hassner's account offers insight into the often-violent dynamics that come into play at the places where religion and politics collide.
Category: Political Science

Countering Suicide Terrorism

Author :
ISBN : 9781412844871
Genre : History
File Size : 52.22 MB
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Many nations have been forced to contend with the phenomenon of suicide terrorism on almost a daily basis. Such diverse countries as Turkey, Sri Lanka, Israel, and the United States have all been targeted by terrorists who effectively used suicide terrorism against densely populated civilian and military targets. In this volume, academic experts and counter-terrorism professionals compare ways and means of countering the threat of suicide terrorism. Suicide terrorism constitutes an additional stage in the escalation of terrorist activity. In his ability to implement the attack at precisely the time and place where it will cause the maximum number of casualties and greatest damage, the suicide bomber is virtually guaranteed success. Even the least deadly of such attacks succeeds in striking a devastating blow to public morale. Suicide terrorism is all the more threatening because of the difficulties in confronting it, the large number of casualties, and the religious or ideological zeal it inspires. It is a phenomenon that often, though not always, goes hand in hand with religious extremism, which distorts religion in the service of political aims. In order to find ways of combating the phenomenon of suicide terrorism, the International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism held an international conference on the subject in February 2000 at the Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya. The conference brought together academic experts and counter-terrorism professionals from all over the world in a multi-disciplinary venue. Lecturers included experts from Israel, the Palestinian Authority, Turkey, Sri Lanka, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The conclusion reached was that the phenomenon of religious and nationalist suicide terrorism is likely to become all the more acute in the coming years.
Category: History

War Religion And Empire

Author : Andrew Phillips
ISBN : 9781139494014
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57.53 MB
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What are international orders, how are they destroyed, and how can they be defended in the face of violent challenges? Advancing an innovative realist-constructivist account of international order, Andrew Phillips addresses each of these questions in War, Religion and Empire. Phillips argues that international orders rely equally on shared visions of the good and accepted practices of organized violence to cultivate cooperation and manage conflict between political communities. Considering medieval Christendom's collapse and the East Asian Sinosphere's destruction as primary cases, he further argues that international orders are destroyed as a result of legitimation crises punctuated by the disintegration of prevailing social imaginaries, the break-up of empires, and the rise of disruptive military innovations. He concludes by considering contemporary threats to world order, and the responses that must be taken in the coming decades if a broadly liberal international order is to survive.
Category: Political Science

The Rise And Fall Of Al Qaeda

Author : Fawaz A. Gerges
ISBN : 9780199911714
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 34.35 MB
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In this concise and fascinating book, Fawaz A. Gerges argues that Al-Qaeda has degenerated into a fractured, marginal body kept alive largely by the self-serving anti-terrorist bureaucracy it helped to spawn. In The Rise and Fall of Al-Qaeda, Gerges, a public intellectual known widely for his expertise on radical ideologies, including jihadism, argues that the Western powers have become mired in a "terrorism narrative," stemming from the mistaken belief that America is in danger of a devastating attack by a crippled al-Qaeda. To explain why al-Qaeda is no longer a threat, he provides a briskly written history of the organization, showing its emergence from the disintegrating local jihadist movements of the mid-1990s-not just the Afghan resistance of the 1980s, as many believe-in "a desperate effort to rescue a sinking ship by altering its course." During this period, Gerges interviewed many jihadis, gaining a first-hand view of the movement that bin Laden tried to reshape by internationalizing it. Gerges reveals that transnational jihad has attracted but a small minority within the Arab world and possesses no viable social and popular base. Furthermore, he shows that the attacks of September 11, 2001, were a major miscalculation--no "river" of fighters flooded from Arab countries to defend al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, as bin Laden expected. The democratic revolutions that swept the Middle East in early 2011 show that al-Qaeda today is a non-entity which exercises no influence over Arabs' political life. Gerges shows that there is a link between the new phenomenon of homegrown extremism in Western societies and the war on terror, particularly in Afghanistan-Pakistan, and that homegrown terror exposes the structural weakness, not strength, of bin Laden's al-Qaeda. Gerges concludes that the movement has splintered into feuding factions, neutralizing itself more effectively than any Predator drone. Forceful, incisive, and written with extensive inside knowledge, this book will alter the debate on global terrorism.
Category: Political Science