THE ORIGINS OF VIRTUE

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The Origins Of Virtue

Author : Matt Ridley
ISBN : 9780141927053
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 69.60 MB
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Why are people nice to each other? What are the reasons for altrusim? Matt Ridley explains how the human mind has evolved a special instinct for social exchange, offering a lucid and persuasive argument about the paradox of human benevolence.
Category: Psychology

Moral Origins

Author : Christopher Boehm
ISBN : 9780465029198
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.41 MB
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From the age of Darwin to the present day, biologists have been grappling with the origins of our moral sense. Why, if the human instinct to survive and reproduce is "selfish," do people engage in self-sacrifice, and even develop ideas like virtue and shame to justify that altruism? Many theories have been put forth, some emphasizing the role of nepotism, others emphasizing the advantages of reciprocation or group selection effects. But evolutionary anthropologist Christopher Boehm finds existing explanations lacking, and in Moral Origins, he offers an elegant new theory. Tracing the development of altruism and group social control over 6 million years, Boehm argues that our moral sense is a sophisticated defense mechanism that enables individuals to survive and thrive in groups. One of the biggest risks of group living is the possibility of being punished for our misdeeds by those around us. Bullies, thieves, free-riders, and especially psychopaths--those who make it difficult for others to go about their lives--are the most likely to suffer this fate. Getting by requires getting along, and this social type of selection, Boehm shows, singles out altruists for survival. This selection pressure has been unique in shaping human nature, and it bred the first stirrings of conscience in the human species. Ultimately, it led to the fully developed sense of virtue and shame that we know today.A groundbreaking exploration of the evolution of human generosity and cooperation, Moral Origins offers profound insight into humanity's moral past--and how it might shape our moral future.
Category: Science

The Origins Of War

Author : Matthew A. Shadle
ISBN : 9781589017511
Genre : Religion
File Size : 28.42 MB
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Debate rages within the Catholic Church about the ethics of war and peace, but the simple question of why wars begin is too often neglected. Catholics’ assumptions about the causes of conflict are almost always drawn uncritically from international relations theory—a field dominated by liberalism, realism, and Marxism—which is not always consistent with Catholic theology. In The Origins of War, Matthew A. Shadle examines several sources to better understand why war happens. His retrieval of biblical literature and the teachings of figures from church tradition sets the course for the book. Shadle then explores the growing awareness of historical consciousness within the Catholic tradition—the way beliefs and actions are shaped by time, place, and culture. He examines the work of contemporary Catholic thinkers like Pope John Paul II, Jacques Maritain, John Courtney Murray, Dorothy Day, Brian Hehir, and George Weigel. In the constructive part of the book, Shadle analyzes the movement within international relations theory known as constructivism—which proposes that war is largely governed by a set of socially constructed and cultural influences. Constructivism, Shadle claims, presents a way of interpreting international politics that is highly amenable to a Catholic worldview and can provide a new direction for the Christian vocation of peacemaking.
Category: Religion

Character Strengths And Virtues

Author : Christopher Peterson
ISBN : 0198037333
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 61.93 MB
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"Character" has become a front-and-center topic in contemporary discourse, but this term does not have a fixed meaning. Character may be simply defined by what someone does not do, but a more active and thorough definition is necessary, one that addresses certain vital questions. Is character a singular characteristic of an individual, or is it composed of different aspects? Does character--however we define it--exist in degrees, or is it simply something one happens to have? How can character be developed? Can it be learned? Relatedly, can it be taught, and who might be the most effective teacher? What roles are played by family, schools, the media, religion, and the larger culture? This groundbreaking handbook of character strengths and virtues is the first progress report from a prestigious group of researchers who have undertaken the systematic classification and measurement of widely valued positive traits. They approach good character in terms of separate strengths-authenticity, persistence, kindness, gratitude, hope, humor, and so on-each of which exists in degrees. Character Strengths and Virtues classifies twenty-four specific strengths under six broad virtues that consistently emerge across history and culture: wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence. Each strength is thoroughly examined in its own chapter, with special attention to its meaning, explanation, measurement, causes, correlates, consequences, and development across the life span, as well as to strategies for its deliberate cultivation. This book demands the attention of anyone interested in psychology and what it can teach about the good life.
Category: Psychology

Human Excellence

Author : Daniel A. Putman
ISBN : 0761811621
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 27.34 MB
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Human Excellence introduces the basic ideas of virtue theory, the branch of ethics that analyzes character. The author accomplishes this by systematically and carefully exploring the role of character in ethics through a series of dialogues. He begins by contrasting virtue ethics with other ethical views such as egoism, utilitarianism, and rights theories. Then he explores issues including the nature of courage, the problem of healthy versus unhealthy self-love, character and parenting techniques, the nature of friendship, and the relationship of virtue to the current debate on the 'ethics of care.' The advantage of the author's approach is its practicality, making the material not only understandable, but applicable to exploring the self and systems in place in the world.
Category: Philosophy

History Of American Political Thought

Author : Bryan-Paul Frost
ISBN : 0739106244
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 75.99 MB
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This book is a collection of secondary essays on America's most important philosophic thinkers—statesmen, judges, writers, educators, and activists—from the colonial period to the present. Each essay is a comprehensive introduction to the thought of a noted American on the fundamental meaning of the American regime.
Category: Political Science

Free Thought Faith And Science

Author : Roger Pullin
ISBN : 9781478735700
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 59.44 MB
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This book is about thought—not the basic thought that we use to determine what to eat or wear or buy—but the Free Thought we use to make personal choices about the higher things of life: faith or unbelief, justice, morality, and the development and use of our creativity. Free Thought can have any outcome, including unbelief or faith, which is defined here as personal belief and trust in God, not as a religious affiliation. Free Thought is founded on free will. Everyone is a unique combination of a material body-mind and a spiritual soul. Free Thought is the integrated and iterative processing of information from the material and spiritual realms, in one or more common nonmaterial formats, across a mind-soul interface. Through our Free Thought, God and the spiritual force for evil change us and we change the material realm. All truthful spiritual insights and truthful disclosures through mathematics and science come from God, and it is through faith and science that we approach one whole body of truth. Free Thought, Faith, and Science includes definitions of terms, summaries of the author’s beliefs and background, a literature review, and a questionnaire for readers. It’s a comprehensive and thought-provoking book that will contribute to bringing more believers and nonbelievers together in an expansion of the faith-science quest for truth.
Category: Philosophy

The Virtue Ethics Of Hume And Nietzsche

Author : Christine Swanton
ISBN : 9781118939390
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 44.54 MB
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This contribution to the field of virtue ethics focuses on the work of Hume and Nietzsche, providing fresh perspectives on their philosophies and a compelling account of their impact on the development of virtue ethics.
Category: Philosophy

Sexual Paradox Complementarity Reproductive Conflict And Human Emergence

Author : Christine Fielder
ISBN : 9781411655324
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 27.84 MB
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Unlocks the keys to the paradox of how sexual selection fertilized the explosion of culture, and the resulting fallout, in sexual dominion of man over woman and nature. How sexuality generates the universe, through symmetry-broken complementarity. The implicit conflict of interests of sexual intrigue, in the prisoners' dilemma, and its ecstatic resolution in the cosmology of love. Sexual dominance as a koan for planetary crises. 560 pages containing 270 illustrations.
Category: Psychology

Selected Myths

Author : Plato
ISBN : 9780192805089
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 66.53 MB
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This volume brings together ten of the most celebrated Platonic myths, from eight of Plato's dialogues ranging from the early Protagoras and Gorgias to the late Timaeus and Critias. They include the famous myth of the cave from Republic as well as 'The Judgement of Souls' and 'The Birth of Love'. Each myth is a self-contained story, prefaced by a short explanatory note, while the introduction considers Plato's use of myth and imagery. - ;'Once upon a time there were just the gods; mortal beings did not yet exist.' We are used to thinking of myths as stories, and modern myths as made up and fictitious. For the ancient Greeks, however, a myth was a story that unveiled reality, and for Plato, myth-maker as well as myth-teller, a myth could tell us something important about ourselves and our world. The ultimate purpose of Plato's myths is to help us live a better life, and to teach philosophical truths in a form we can most easily understand. This volume brings together ten of the most celebrated Platonic myths, from eight of Plato's dialogues ranging from the early Protagoras and Gorgias to the late Timaeus and Critias. They include the famous myth of the cave from Republic as well as 'The Judgement of Souls' and 'The Birth of Love'. Each myth is a self-contained story, prefaced by a short explanatory note, while the introduction considers Plato's use of myth and imagery. These myths are thought-provoking and profound, and together they provide an ideal introduction to Plato's philosophy. -
Category: Philosophy