The Number Bias

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The Number Bias

Author : Sanne Blauw
ISBN : 9781529342758
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 77.5 MB
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'The Number Bias combines vivid storytelling with authoritative analysis to deliver a warning about the way numbers can lead us astray - if we let them.' TIM HARFORD Even if you don't consider yourself a numbers person, you are a numbers person. The time has come to put numbers in their place. Not high up on a pedestal, or out on the curb, but right where they belong: beside words. It is not an overstatement to say that numbers dictate the way we live our lives. They tell us how we're doing at school, how much we weigh, who might win an election and whether the economy is booming. But numbers aren't as objective as they may seem; behind every number is a story. Yet politicians, businesses and the media often forget this - or use it for their own gain. Sanne Blauw travels the world to unpick our relationship with numbers and demystify our misguided allegiance, from Florence Nightingale using statistics to petition for better conditions during the Crimean War to the manipulation of numbers by the American tobacco industry and the ambiguous figures peddled during the EU referendum. Taking us from the everyday numbers that govern our health and wellbeing to the statistics used to wield enormous power and influence, The Number Bias counsels us to think more wisely. 'A beautifully accessible exploration of how numbers shape our lives, and the importance of accurately interpreting the statistics we are fed.' ANGELA SAINI, author of Superior
Category: Social Science

The Bias Against Guns

Author : John R. Lott
ISBN : 9781596986695
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 88.69 MB
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"If you want the truth the anti–gunners don't want you to know…you need a copy of The Bias Against Guns" —Sean Hannity of Fox News Channel's Hannity & Colmes
Category: Political Science

Principles Of Neural Coding

Author : Rodrigo Quian Quiroga
ISBN : 9781439853313
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27.53 MB
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Understanding how populations of neurons encode information is the challenge faced by researchers in the field of neural coding. Focusing on the many mysteries and marvels of the mind has prompted a prominent team of experts in the field to put their heads together and fire up a book on the subject. Simply titled Principles of Neural Coding, this book covers the complexities of this discipline. It centers on some of the major developments in this area and presents a complete assessment of how neurons in the brain encode information. The book collaborators contribute various chapters that describe results in different systems (visual, auditory, somatosensory perception, etc.) and different species (monkeys, rats, humans, etc). Concentrating on the recording and analysis of the firing of single and multiple neurons, and the analysis and recording of other integrative measures of network activity and network states—such as local field potentials or current source densities—is the basis of the introductory chapters. Provides a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach Describes topics of interest to a wide range of researchers The book then moves forward with the description of the principles of neural coding for different functions and in different species and concludes with theoretical and modeling works describing how information processing functions are implemented. The text not only contains the most important experimental findings, but gives an overview of the main methodological aspects for studying neural coding. In addition, the book describes alternative approaches based on simulations with neural networks and in silico modeling in this highly interdisciplinary topic. It can serve as an important reference to students and professionals.
Category: Medical

Space Time And Number In The Brain

Author : Stanislas Dehaene
ISBN : 9780123859495
Genre : Medical
File Size : 75.3 MB
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The study of mathematical cognition and the ways in which the ideas of space, time and number are encoded in brain circuitry has become a fundamental issue for neuroscience. How such encoding differs across cultures and educational level is of further interest in education and neuropsychology. This rapidly expanding field of research is overdue for an interdisciplinary volume such as this, which deals with the neurological and psychological foundations of human numeric capacity. A uniquely integrative work, this volume provides a much needed compilation of primary source material to researchers from basic neuroscience, psychology, developmental science, neuroimaging, neuropsychology and theoretical biology. The first comprehensive and authoritative volume dealing with neurological and psychological foundations of mathematical cognition Uniquely integrative volume at the frontier of a rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field Features outstanding and truly international scholarship, with chapters written by leading experts in a variety of fields
Category: Medical

Bias And Causation

Author : Dr. Herbert I. Weisberg
ISBN : 1118058208
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 26.44 MB
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A one-of-a-kind resource on identifying and dealing with bias in statistical research on causal effects Do cell phones cause cancer? Can a new curriculum increase student achievement? Determining what the real causes of such problems are, and how powerful their effects may be, are central issues in research across various fields of study. Some researchers are highly skeptical of drawing causal conclusions except in tightly controlled randomized experiments, while others discount the threats posed by different sources of bias, even in less rigorous observational studies. Bias and Causation presents a complete treatment of the subject, organizing and clarifying the diverse types of biases into a conceptual framework. The book treats various sources of bias in comparative studies—both randomized and observational—and offers guidance on how they should be addressed by researchers. Utilizing a relatively simple mathematical approach, the author develops a theory of bias that outlines the essential nature of the problem and identifies the various sources of bias that are encountered in modern research. The book begins with an introduction to the study of causal inference and the related concepts and terminology. Next, an overview is provided of the methodological issues at the core of the difficulties posed by bias. Subsequent chapters explain the concepts of selection bias, confounding, intermediate causal factors, and information bias along with the distortion of a causal effect that can result when the exposure and/or the outcome is measured with error. The book concludes with a new classification of twenty general sources of bias and practical advice on how mathematical modeling and expert judgment can be combined to achieve the most credible causal conclusions. Throughout the book, examples from the fields of medicine, public policy, and education are incorporated into the presentation of various topics. In addition, six detailed case studies illustrate concrete examples of the significance of biases in everyday research. Requiring only a basic understanding of statistics and probability theory, Bias and Causation is an excellent supplement for courses on research methods and applied statistics at the upper-undergraduate and graduate level. It is also a valuable reference for practicing researchers and methodologists in various fields of study who work with statistical data. This book was selected as the 2011 Ziegel Prize Winner in Technometrics for the best book reviewed by the journal. It is also the winner of the 2010 PROSE Award for Mathematics from The American Publishers Awards for Professional and Scholarly Excellence
Category: Mathematics

Omitted Variable Tests And Dynamic Specification

Author : Björn Schmolck
ISBN : 354067358X
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 28.14 MB
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This book deals with the omitted variable test for a multivariate time-series regression model. The empirical motivation is the homogeneity test for a consumer demand system. The consequences of using a dynamically misspecified omitted variable test are shown in detail. The analysis starts with the univariate t-test and is then extended to the multivariate regression system. The small sample performance of the dynamically correctly specified omitted variable test is analysed by simulation. Two classes of tests are considered: versions of the likelihood ratio test and the robust Wald test which is based on a heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent variance-covariance estimator (HAC).
Category: Business & Economics

An Introduction To Bartlett Correction And Bias Reduction

Author : Gauss M. Cordeiro
ISBN : 9783642552557
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 76.10 MB
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This book presents a concise introduction to Bartlett and Bartlett-type corrections of statistical tests and bias correction of point estimators. The underlying idea behind both groups of corrections is to obtain higher accuracy in small samples. While the main focus is on corrections that can be analytically derived, the authors also present alternative strategies for improving estimators and tests based on bootstrap, a data resampling technique and discuss concrete applications to several important statistical models.
Category: Mathematics

The Number Sense

Author : Stanislas Dehaene
ISBN : 9780199910397
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 53.76 MB
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Our understanding of how the human brain performs mathematical calculations is far from complete, but in recent years there have been many exciting breakthroughs by scientists all over the world. Now, in The Number Sense, Stanislas Dehaene offers a fascinating look at this recent research, in an enlightening exploration of the mathematical mind. Dehaene begins with the eye-opening discovery that animals--including rats, pigeons, raccoons, and chimpanzees--can perform simple mathematical calculations, and that human infants also have a rudimentary number sense. Dehaene suggests that this rudimentary number sense is as basic to the way the brain understands the world as our perception of color or of objects in space, and, like these other abilities, our number sense is wired into the brain. These are but a few of the wealth of fascinating observations contained here. We also discover, for example, that because Chinese names for numbers are so short, Chinese people can remember up to nine or ten digits at a time--English-speaking people can only remember seven. The book also explores the unique abilities of idiot savants and mathematical geniuses, and we meet people whose minute brain lesions render their mathematical ability useless. This new and completely updated edition includes all of the most recent scientific data on how numbers are encoded by single neurons, and which brain areas activate when we perform calculations. Perhaps most important, The Number Sense reaches many provocative conclusions that will intrigue anyone interested in learning, mathematics, or the mind. "A delight." --Ian Stewart, New Scientist "Read The Number Sense for its rich insights into matters as varying as the cuneiform depiction of numbers, why Jean Piaget's theory of stages in infant learning is wrong, and to discover the brain regions involved in the number sense." --The New York Times Book Review "Dehaene weaves the latest technical research into a remarkably lucid and engrossing investigation. Even readers normally indifferent to mathematics will find themselves marveling at the wonder of minds making numbers." --Booklist
Category: Mathematics

When Can You Trust The Experts

Author : Daniel T. Willingham
ISBN : 9781118233276
Genre : Education
File Size : 47.75 MB
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Clear, easy principles to spot what's nonsense and what's reliable Each year, teachers, administrators, and parents face a barrage of new education software, games, workbooks, and professional development programs purporting to be "based on the latest research." While some of these products are rooted in solid science, the research behind many others is grossly exaggerated. This new book, written by a top thought leader, helps everyday teachers, administrators, and family members—who don't have years of statistics courses under their belts—separate the wheat from the chaff and determine which new educational approaches are scientifically supported and worth adopting. Author's first book, Why Don't Students Like School?, catapulted him to superstar status in the field of education Willingham's work has been hailed as "brilliant analysis" by The Wall Street Journal and "a triumph" by The Washington Post Author blogs for The Washington Post and Brittanica.com, and writes a column for American Educator In this insightful book, thought leader and bestselling author Dan Willingham offers an easy, reliable way to discern which programs are scientifically supported and which are the equivalent of "educational snake oil."
Category: Education

Media Bias In Presidential Election Coverage 1948 2008

Author : David W. D'Alessio
ISBN : 9780739164761
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 66.10 MB
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In Media Bias in Presidential Election Coverage 1948-2008, Dave D’Alessio employs meta-analytic techniques to examine whether there are partisan biases in coverage of Presidential election campaigns in newspapers, on TV, and in the news magazines. This study further analyses the four essential natures of news media: as journalistic entities, property, businesses, and political actors. Aggregating the results of 99 previous studies, D’Alessio scrutinizes bias claims in news media, and why political candidates consistently make such accusations.
Category: Political Science

Computer Organization And Design

Author : David A. Patterson
ISBN : 9780080922812
Genre : Computers
File Size : 40.76 MB
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The classic textbook for computer systems analysis and design, Computer Organization and Design, has been thoroughly updated to provide a new focus on the revolutionary change taking place in industry today: the switch from uniprocessor to multicore microprocessors. This new emphasis on parallelism is supported by updates reflecting the newest technologies with examples highlighting the latest processor designs, benchmarking standards, languages and tools. As with previous editions, a MIPS processor is the core used to present the fundamentals of hardware technologies, assembly language, computer arithmetic, pipelining, memory hierarchies and I/O. Along with its increased coverage of parallelism, this new edition offers new content on Flash memory and virtual machines as well as a new and important appendix written by industry experts covering the emergence and importance of the modern GPU (graphics processing unit), the highly parallel, highly multithreaded multiprocessor optimized for visual computing. A new exercise paradigm allows instructors to reconfigure the 600 exercises included in the book to easily generate new exercises and solutions of their own. The companion CD provides a toolkit of simulators and compilers along with tutorials for using them, as well as advanced content for further study and a search utility for finding content on the CD and in the printed text. For the convenience of readers who have purchased an ebook edition or who may have misplaced the CD-ROM, all CD content is available as a download at http://bit.ly/12XinUx.
Category: Computers

Tietz Textbook Of Clinical Chemistry And Molecular Diagnostics E Book

Author : Carl A. Burtis
ISBN : 9781455759422
Genre : Medical
File Size : 77.71 MB
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As the definitive reference for clinical chemistry, Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 5th Edition offers the most current and authoritative guidance on selecting, performing, and evaluating results of new and established laboratory tests. Up-to-date encyclopedic coverage details everything you need to know, including: analytical criteria for the medical usefulness of laboratory procedures; new approaches for establishing reference ranges; variables that affect tests and results; the impact of modern analytical tools on lab management and costs; and applications of statistical methods. In addition to updated content throughout, this two-color edition also features a new chapter on hemostasis and the latest advances in molecular diagnostics. Section on Molecular Diagnostics and Genetics contains nine expanded chapters that focus on emerging issues and techniques, written by experts in field, including Y.M. Dennis Lo, Rossa W.K. Chiu, Carl Wittwer, Noriko Kusukawa, Cindy Vnencak-Jones, Thomas Williams, Victor Weedn, Malek Kamoun, Howard Baum, Angela Caliendo, Aaron Bossler, Gwendolyn McMillin, and Kojo S.J. Elenitoba-Johnson. Highly-respected author team includes three editors who are well known in the clinical chemistry world. Reference values in the appendix give you one location for comparing and evaluating test results. NEW! Two-color design throughout highlights important features, illustrations, and content for a quick reference. NEW! Chapter on hemostasis provides you with all the information you need to accurately conduct this type of clinical testing. NEW! Six associate editors, Ann Gronowski, W. Greg Miller, Michael Oellerich, Francois Rousseau, Mitchell Scott, and Karl Voelkerding, lend even more expertise and insight to the reference. NEW! Reorganized chapters ensure that only the most current information is included.
Category: Medical

The Oxford Handbook Of Numerical Cognition

Author : Roi Cohen Kadosh
ISBN : 9780199642342
Genre : Cognition
File Size : 77.60 MB
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How do we understand numbers? Do animals and babies have numerical abilities? Why do some people fail to grasp numbers, and how we can improve numerical understanding? Numbers are vital to so many areas of life: in science, economics, sports, education, and many aspects of everyday life from infancy onwards. Numerical cognition is a vibrant area that brings together scientists from different and diverse research areas (e.g., neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, comparative psychology, anthropology, education, and neuroscience) using different methodological approaches (e.g., behavioral studies of healthy children and adults and of patients; electrophysiology and brain imaging studies in humans; single-cell neurophysiology in non-human primates, habituation studies in human infants and animals, and computer modeling). While the study of numerical cognition had been relatively neglected for a long time, during the last decade there has been an explosion of studies and new findings. This has resulted in an enormous advance in our understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of numerical cognition. In addition, there has recently been increasing interest and concern about pupils' mathematical achievement in many countries, resulting in attempts to use research to guide mathematics instruction in schools, and to develop interventions for children with mathematical difficulties. This handbook brings together the different research areas that make up the field of numerical cognition in one comprehensive and authoritative volume. The chapters provide a broad and extensive review that is written in an accessible form for scholars and students, as well as educationalists, clinicians, and policy makers. The book covers the most important aspects of research on numerical cognition from the areas of development psychology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and rehabilitation, learning disabilities, human and animal cognition and neuroscience, computational modeling, education and individual differences, and philosophy. Containing more than 60 chapters by leading specialists in their fields, the Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition is a state-of-the-art review of the current literature.
Category: Cognition

Heuristics And Biases

Author : Thomas Gilovich
ISBN : 0521796792
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 20.54 MB
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This book, first published in 2002, compiles psychologists' best attempts to answer important questions about intuitive judgment.
Category: Psychology

Bias Motivated Crimes

Author : Virginia Lane
ISBN : 1568061447
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25.41 MB
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Bias-motivated crimes (BMC) committed by offenders because of the victim's race, religion, national origin, sex, age, disability, or characteristics identified as sexual orientation have been documented throughout the U.S. This report, issued by the state of Minnesota, covers: BMC: a national perspective (national studies; hate groups in America; campus violence, and anti-Gay and Lesbian violence); in Minnesota (demographic trends and law enforcement statistics); and law enforcement conferences on bias-motivated crimes (statewide characteristics and regional workshops). Applicable to all states.
Category: Social Science

Bias In The Media

Author : Steve Levy
ISBN : 9781613396858
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 75.73 MB
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In this in this riveting and revealing book, Steve Levy, gives a gripping account of the real-life liberal bias in the media. Once his county's most popular politician, Steve shares a shocking story about how the media treats a politician who switches parties from Democrat to Republican.Few books have been written about switching political affiliations, its repercussions and its consequences. Bias in the Media explores how the liberal media tries to shape the outcome of elections by: 1. Omitting information opposing their agenda 2. Printing outright false information 3. Determining who will be quoted in articles 4. Making morality decisions on what is "right" or correct When Steve Levy was the Democratic county executive of New York's largest suburban county, he believed that complaints of liberal media bias were exaggerated. But after switching parties, running for governor and living in the shoes of a Republican office holder, he came to the conclusion that the bias is not only real, but is actually understated. The change in media coverage Levy experienced firsthand after switching his party from Democrat to Republican was nothing less than startling. "During his years in Long Island politics and government Steve Levy bravely confronted and exposed the shameless hypocrisy, self-righteousness and left wing bias which pervade Newsday and the New York Times. Now, as an author, he convincingly completes the job. 'Bias In The Media' is a must read!" ~ Congressman Pete King "Steve Levy gives you a real perspective of public service from the satisfaction of serving citizens to the incredible tribulations involved in switching parties...his unique perspective is all spelled out in this fascinating read." ~Brian Kilmeade , Fox News
Category: Political Science

Anthropic Bias

Author : Nick Bostrom
ISBN : 9781136710995
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 33.20 MB
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Anthropic Bias explores how to reason when you suspect that your evidence is biased by "observation selection effects"--that is, evidence that has been filtered by the precondition that there be some suitably positioned observer to "have" the evidence. This conundrum--sometimes alluded to as "the anthropic principle," "self-locating belief," or "indexical information"--turns out to be a surprisingly perplexing and intellectually stimulating challenge, one abounding with important implications for many areas in science and philosophy. There are the philosophical thought experiments and paradoxes: the Doomsday Argument; Sleeping Beauty; the Presumptuous Philosopher; Adam & Eve; the Absent-Minded Driver; the Shooting Room. And there are the applications in contemporary science: cosmology ("How many universes are there?", "Why does the universe appear fine-tuned for life?"); evolutionary theory ("How improbable was the evolution of intelligent life on our planet?"); the problem of time's arrow ("Can it be given a thermodynamic explanation?"); quantum physics ("How can the many-worlds theory be tested?"); game-theory problems with imperfect recall ("How to model them?"); even traffic analysis ("Why is the 'next lane' faster?"). Anthropic Bias argues that the same principles are at work across all these domains. And it offers a synthesis: a mathematically explicit theory of observation selection effects that attempts to meet scientific needs while steering clear of philosophical paradox.
Category: Philosophy

Everything You Need To Know About Bias Incidents

Author : Kevin Osborn
ISBN : 0823926001
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 37.64 MB
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Defines bias incidents, explains how prejudice can lead to violence, and discusses ways to prevent hate crimes and educate those responsible
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction