The Natural And The Human

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The Natural And The Human

Author : Stephen Gaukroger
ISBN : 9780191074875
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 55.69 MB
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Stephen Gaukroger presents an original account of the development of empirical science and the understanding of human behaviour from the mid-eighteenth century. Since the seventeenth century, science in the west has undergone a unique form of cumulative development in which it has been consolidated through integration into and shaping of a culture. But in the eighteenth century, science was cut loose from the legitimating culture in which it had had a public rationale as a fruitful and worthwhile form of enquiry. What kept it afloat between the middle of the eighteenth and the middle of the nineteenth centuries, when its legitimacy began to hinge on an intimate link with technology? The answer lies in large part in an abrupt but fundamental shift in how the tasks of scientific enquiry were conceived, from the natural realm to the human realm. At the core of this development lies the naturalization of the human, that is, attempts to understand human behaviour and motivations no longer in theological and metaphysical terms, but in empirical terms. One of the most striking feature of this development is the variety of forms it took, and the book explores anthropological medicine, philosophical anthropology, the 'natural history of man', and social arithmetic. Each of these disciplines re-formulated basic questions so that empirical investigation could be drawn upon in answering them, but the empirical dimension was conceived very differently in each case, with the result that the naturalization of the human took the form of competing, and in some respects mutually exclusive, projects.
Category: Philosophy

Chromium In The Natural And Human Environments

Author : Jerome O. Nriagu
ISBN : 0471856436
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.28 MB
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Provides a comprehensive chemical and biochemical treatment on the effects of chromium in the environment and in man. Such an integrated treatment of the chemical and biochemical aspects of chromium is novel and has not appeared in the published literature. Reviews the information on global cycling and environmental occurrence of chromium compounds, which defines the extent of the environmental and toxicological concern. The treatment of chromium chemistry provides the basis for toxicological models of chromium hypersensitivity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and toxicokinetics. Chapters contain graphical representations of the voluminous mutagenicity and animal carcinogenicity data according to chromium compound type, and a tabular summary of all published epidemiological data, broken down according to industry. Also covers clinical patterns, prognosis, pathogenesis, prophylaxis, and environmental and biological monitoring.
Category: Science

Natural Law And Human Dignity

Author : Ernst Bloch
ISBN : 0262521296
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 89.35 MB
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Ernst Bloch was one of the most original and influential of contemporary European thinkers, leaving his mark in fields ranging from philosophy and social theory to aesthetics and theology. This book represents a unique attempt to reconcile the traditional oppositions of the natural law and social utopian traditions, providing basic insights into the meaning of human rights in a socialist society.
Category: Philosophy

Environmental Science

Author : Andrew R. W. Jackson
ISBN : 0582414458
Genre : Science
File Size : 64.95 MB
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This book provides a clear and authoritative introduction to environmental science and equips the reader with the fundamental concepts and vocabulary necessary to explore complex environmental phenomena and issues.
Category: Science

The Nature Of Human Brain Work

Author : Joseph Dietzgen
ISBN : 9781604860368
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 85.98 MB
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Dietzgen was a pioneer of dialectical materialism and a fundamental influence on Anarchist and Socialist thought. He discovered that the thinking process involves two opposing events, generalisation and specialisation, and is therefore dialectical in nature. Although a philosophical materialist, he extended these concepts to include many factors that had a real impact on the world. His work is vital for theorists today, laying the basis for non-dogmatic, flexible yet principled Socialist politics.
Category: Philosophy

Nature And The Human Soul

Author : Bill Plotkin
ISBN : 9781577313540
Genre : Self-Help
File Size : 27.75 MB
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Addressing the pervasive longing for meaning and fulfillment in this time of crisis, Nature and the Human Soul introduces a visionary ecopsychology of human development that reveals how fully and creatively we can mature when soul and wild nature guide us. Depth psychologist and wilderness guide Bill Plotkin presents a model for a human life span rooted in the cycles and qualities of the natural world, a blueprint for individual development that ultimately yields a strategy for cultural transformation. If it is true, as Plotkin and others observe, that we live in a culture dominated by adolescent habits and desires, then the enduring societal changes we so desperately need won’t happen until we individually and collectively evolve into an engaged, authentic adulthood. With evocative language and personal stories, including those of elders Thomas Berry and Joanna Macy, this book defines eight stages of human life — Innocent, Explorer, Thespian, Wanderer, Soul Apprentice, Artisan, Master, and Sage — and describes the challenges and benefits of each. Plotkin offers a way of progressing from our current egocentric, aggressively competitive, consumer society to an ecocentric, soul-based one that is sustainable, cooperative, and compassionate. At once a primer on human development and a manifesto for change, Nature and the Human Soul fashions a template for a more mature, fulfilling, and purposeful life — and a better world.
Category: Self-Help

Christian Anthropology

Author : Douglas Schoeninger
ISBN : 9781622300488
Genre : Medical
File Size : 46.56 MB
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Every Christian healthcare professional practices from assumptions, with a framework for understanding what it means to be a person, how wounding and brokenness occur, and how healing and restoration occur. For many, their assumptions are implicit, guiding perceptions and actions without being consciously articulated and examined. One purpose of this volume is to assist Christian healthcare professionals in articulating their assumptions by presenting three perspectives that are explicit, scientifically and theologically informed, internally consistent, and compatible with Christian tradition. The reader can then use these perspectives to stimulate self reflection. In a culture that is as diverse as American culture, we see the effects of diversity in healthcare practice. Today we witness attempts to integrate the natural and the supernatural in holistic healthcare practices. In these attempts, the spiritual practices that have found most favour and use have come mostly from the Asian Buddhist and Hindu traditions. Traditional Christian healing practices have been largely ignored. An exception is the researched and demonstrated value of forgiveness. One difficulty we have encountered in making a case for Christian healing practices in healthcare is that we have not had an adequate framework of understanding from which to grasp what we do in Christian healing. The writers in this volume have approached the subject of Christian healing by asking how we as Christians understand the human person, human brokenness/wounding, and human healing/wholeness, in all dimensions of our existence, body, mind and spirit. This has led to a clearer understanding of the ways that healing occurs and, most especially, a clearer understanding of how to apply Christian healing practices in healthcare as we trust in the love and mercy of our God, manifest in Jesus Christ.
Category: Medical

Natural And Human Made

Author : Carol K. Lindeen
ISBN : 1429600012
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 84.42 MB
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Simple text and photographs present natural and human-made resources.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

The Natural History Of The Human Species Its Typical Forms Primeval Distribution Filiations And Migrations

Author : Charles Hamilton Smith
ISBN : 9353972477
Genre : History
File Size : 25.20 MB
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This book has been considered by academicians and scholars of great significance and value to literature. This forms a part of the knowledge base for future generations. So that the book is never forgotten we have represented this book in a print format as the same form as it was originally first published. Hence any marks or annotations seen are left intentionally to preserve its true nature.
Category: History

From Human Dignity To Natural Law

Author : Richard Berquist
ISBN : 9780813232423
Genre : Law
File Size : 32.29 MB
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From Human Dignity to Natural Law shows how the whole of the natural law, as understood in the Aristotelian Thomistic tradition, is contained implicitly in human dignity. Human dignity means existing for one’s own good (the common good as well as one’s individual good), and not as a mere means to an alien good. But what is the true human good? This question is answered with a careful analysis of Aristotle’s definition of happiness. The natural law can then be understood as the precepts that guide us in achieving happiness. To show that human dignity is a reality in the nature of things and not a mere human invention, it is necessary to show that human beings exist by nature for the achievement of the properly human good in which happiness is found. This implies finality in nature. Since contemporary natural science does not recognize final causality, the book explains why living things, as least, must exist for a purpose and why the scientific method, as currently understood, is not able to deal with this question. These reflections will also enable us to respond to a common criticism of natural law theory: that it attempts to derive statements of what ought to be from statements about what is. After defining the natural law and relating it to human or positive law, Richard Berquist considers Aquinas’s formulation of the first principle of the natural law. It then discusses the love commandments to love God above all things and to love one’s neighbor as oneself as the first precepts of the natural law. Subsequent chapters are devoted to clarifying and defending natural law precepts concerned with the life issues, with sexual morality and marriage, and with fundamental natural rights. From Human Dignity to Natural Law concludes with a discussion of alternatives to the natural law.
Category: Law

Why We Disagree About Human Nature

Author : Elizabeth Hannon
ISBN : 9780198823650
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 45.16 MB
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Is human nature something that the natural and social sciences aim to describe, or is it a pernicious fiction? What role, if any, does 'human nature' play in directing and informing scientific work? Can we talk about human nature without invoking-either implicitly or explicitly-a contrast with human culture? It might be tempting to think that the respectability of 'human nature' is an issue that divides natural and social scientists along disciplinary boundaries, but the truth is more complex. The contributors to this collection take very different stances with regard to the idea of human nature. They come from the fields of psychology, the philosophy of science, social and biological anthropology, evolutionary theory, and the study of animal cognition. Some of them are 'human nature' enthusiasts, some are sceptics, and some say that human nature is a concept with many faces, each of which plays a role in its own investigative niche. Some want to eliminate the notion altogether, some think it unproblematic, others want to retain it with reforming modifications. Some say that human nature is a target for investigation that the human sciences cannot do without, others argue that the term does far more harm than good. The diverse perspectives articulated in this book help to explain why we disagree about human nature, and what, if anything, might resolve that disagreement.
Category: Philosophy

Philosophical Papers Volume 2 Philosophy And The Human Sciences

Author : Charles Taylor
ISBN : 0521317495
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 80.5 MB
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Contains a selection of papers by Charles Taylor, whose philosophical anthropology spans a wide range of interests, drawing on both Anglo-American and Continental traditions. The main subject of the papers is positive account of human agency and the self.
Category: Philosophy

Natural Environments And Human Health

Author : Alan W Ewert
ISBN : 9781845939199
Genre : Medical
File Size : 39.75 MB
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The role natural environments play in human health and wellbeing is attracting increasing attention. There is growing medical evidence that access to the natural environment can prevent disease, aid recovery, tackle obesity and improve mental health. This book examines the history of natural environments being used for stress-reduction, enjoyment, aesthetics and catharsis, and traces the development of the connection between humans and the environment, and how they impact our personal and collective health.
Category: Medical

Natural Law Human Dignity

Author : Eberhard Schockenhoff
ISBN : 0813213401
Genre : Religion
File Size : 56.91 MB
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Do human rights apply only to a certain culture group or can they be demanded of all cultures and religions? This discussion about a common world ethos demonstrates how relevant and explosive that question is. In his study of ethical relativism and historical thinking, Eberhard Schockenhoff shows how the universal recognition of fundamental norms that guarantee the minimum conditions for human existence can be substantiated. Dealing critically with the two most important branches of research in present-day moral theology--autonomous morality and teleological ethics--the author presents a new theological-ethical theory of natural law. Integrating the theory of practical reason and Aquinas' understanding of natural inclinations, Schockenhoff compares this synthesis to the insights of present-day anthropology. This method allows him to re-establish a connection to classical natural law ethics. In so doing, he indicates how ethics can fulfill its most important duty: to arrive at the recognition of anthropologically grounded material norms without falling prey to a logical error. According to Schockenhoff, claims of natural law and of human rights formulate an indispensable minimum, while biblical ethics (the decalogue and the Sermon of the Mount) and the high ethos of the world religions point the way to an encompassing realization of the concept of the good life. Renowned moral theologian Eberhard Schockenhoff is professor at Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. He is the author of numerous works and managing editor of Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ethik. Brian McNeil is a parish priest in Munich and a translator of theological literature. PRAISE FOR THE BOOK: "The book is impressive in many respects. It is thorough and precise about the specific problems associated with natural law theory, and the chapters on relativism and historicism exhibit impressive erudition and insight. Few books on natural law grapple so extensively and fairly with objectors as does this one, and its responses are admirable in their breadth and depth."- Mark Graham, Theological Studies "A masterly treatment of many of the most important issues in moral theology."--Brian V. Johnstone, Studia Moralia "This book demonstrates convincingly that natural law has not become obsolete in ethical discussions. . . ."--Peter Fonk, Theologische Revue "In regard to topics that are coined by the Roman-Catholic tradition, the author includes Protestant authors in his considerations with a naturalness that has to be seen as a fortunate sign of ecumenical openness. Schockenhoff manages to revive answers of the tradition that have sometimes been put aside, and to bring them up in the challenges of today."--Heinrich Bedford-Strohm, Theologische Literaturzeitung "An exceptional discussion of the concept of natural law as it applies to a modern world of moral relativism. . . . This is a high quality work, providing both a wide overview of the concerns of natural law and offering a respectable solution worth further consideration. Schockenhoff's work is highly recommended."--Matthew Ryan McWhorter, Catholic Books Review OnLine "This book by one of the leading Catholic moral theologians in Germany, teaching at Freiburg University, presents a simple thesis in an elaborate and sophisticated fashion....Schockenhoff's highly learned and impressive account deserves attention and critical engagement." -- Bernd Wannenwetsch, Studies in Christian Ethics
Category: Religion

Human Impact On The Natural Environment

Author : Andrew S. Goudie
ISBN : 9781119403555
Genre : Computers
File Size : 37.25 MB
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A brand new edition of the definitive textbook on humankind’s impact on the Earth’s environment—now in full color This classic text explores the multitude of impacts that humans have had over time upon vegetation, animals, soils, water, landforms, and the atmosphere. It considers the ways in which climate changes and modifications in land cover may change the environment in coming decades. Thoroughly revised to cover the remarkable transformation in interest that humans are having in the environment, this book examines previously uncovered topics, such as rewilding, ecosystem services, techniques for study, novel and no analogue ecosystems, and more. It also presents the latest views on big themes such as human origins, the anthropocene, domestication, extinctions, and ecological invasions. Extensively re-written, Human Impact on the Natural Environment, Eighth Edition contains many new and updated statistical tables, figures, and references. It offers enlightening chapters that look at the past and present state of the world—examining our impact on the land itself and the creatures that inhabit it; the oceans, lakes, rivers and streams; and the climate and atmosphere. The book also takes a deep look at our future impact on the planet and its resources—our affect on the coastal environments, the cryosphere and the drylands, as well as the hydrological and geomorphological impacts. Fully updated to take account of recent advances in our understanding of global warming and other phenomena Offers current opinions on such topics as human origins, the anthropocene, domestication, extinctions, and ecological invasions Features a full-color presentation to allow for more and clearer photographs and diagrams Contains more international case studies than previous editions to balance UK examples Human Impact on the Natural Environment is essential reading for undergraduates in geography and environmental science, and for those who want a thorough, wide-ranging and balanced overview of the impacts of humans upon natural processes and systems from the Stone Age to the Anthropocene and who wish to understand the major environmental issues that concern the human race at the present time.
Category: Computers

The Human Impact On The Natural Environment

Author : Andrew S. Goudie
ISBN : 9781118578254
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.42 MB
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The seventh edition of this classic student text explores the multitude of impacts that humans have had over time upon vegetation, animals, soils, water, landforms and the atmosphere. It also looks into the future and considers the ways in which climate changes and modifications in land cover may change the environment in coming decades. Extensively re-written, it contains many new statistical tables, figures, and references. It is essential reading for undergraduates in geography and environmental science, and for those who want a thorough, wide-ranging and balanced overview of the impacts of humans upon natural processes and systems from the Stone Age to the Anthropocene and who wish to understand the major environmental issues that concern the human race at the present time. Additional resources for this book can be found at:
Category: Science