The Nanjing Massacre In History And Historiography

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The Nanjing Massacre In History And Historiography

Author : Joshua A. Fogel
ISBN : 0520220072
Genre : History
File Size : 71.84 MB
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A compelling historiographic study of the Rape of Nanjing during the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945, one of the worst atrocities of all times, and of the event's repercussions.
Category: History

The Nanking Massacre

Author : Josh Gordon
ISBN : OCLC:935528891
Genre :
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This study examines the 1937 Nanking massacre and the atrocities, it focuses on how the events that took place in Nanking have affected the way history in Japan and China is written. This essay will shed light upon the effects of the Nanking Massacre in Japanese and Chinese historiography of the event by examining the various historiographies of each country in regards to the massacre. This study takes an analysis of why there are failing parallels between how China and western societies review the incident versus Japan's interpretation. To help facilitate the dispute between what happened and how the massacre is remembered in regards to Nanking, this study will examine a court debate in the 1970's of a one hundred man killing contest amongst Japanese officers, Japan's education system of the early eighties and nineties where history textbooks used in Japanese high schools were found to have language that isolated, that is, the language used in Japanese texts books used language that perceived Japan as a non-aggressor in the Second Sino-Japanese War, as well as some of the knowledge of what happened in Nanking in 1937 not being fully analyzed studied to the extent of which the rest of the world remembered the incident. I will synthesize my own interpretation and provide my opinion on what reasons produced the failing parallels amongst Japanese and Chines historians and politicians alike. Primary sources include Wilson Family Papers, Documents on the Rape of Nanking and The Dissenting Opinion of Radhabinod Pal. Some secondary sources include articles related to the Nanking Massacre and Japanese Education Ministry such as Isolating knowledge of the Unpleasant: The Rape of Nanking in Japanese High School textbooks, The Nanjing Massacre: in History and Historiography.
Category:

The Nanking Atrocity 1937 38

Author : Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi
ISBN : 1845451805
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 83.57 MB
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Events in Nanking during 1937-38 are the subject of a ferocious historiographical debate between Chinese & Japanese points of view. This volume seeks to debunk the myths promoted by scholars on both sides of the argument & present a revisionist view of the atrocity that complicates the picture.
Category: Social Science

Keywords Re Oriented

Author : Joachim Gentz
ISBN : 9783940344885
Genre : China
File Size : 70.76 MB
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This publication reflects from within the perspective of Western cultural studies upon the following inherent problems. Western cultural studies claim to be universal but nevertheless have developed their theories almost exclusively with Western source material and concerns. Yet, even within the Western academic discourse, a multiplicity of strands have emerged within the discipline and the significant divergence between national cultural studies therefore shows no unified body of cultural studies. With its enormous impact on Western academia cultural studies are now being adapted to non-Western academic traditions, generating an even greater diversity of cultural studies approaches. While acknowledging that multiplicity is inherent to the nature of cultural studies, it is our contention that Chinese cultural studies cannot easily be subsumed under the umbrella of Western cultural studies. The Keywords Re-Oriented course critically reflects upon Western theoretical approaches towards culture through an examination of the application of Western analytical keywords to the non-Western culture of China, testing theories and notions of culture generated in the West in their application to the Chinese field.
Category: China

Is History Fiction

Author : Ann Curthoys
ISBN : 9781742240015
Genre : History
File Size : 54.80 MB
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The relationship between history and fiction has always been a controversial one. Can we ever know that a historical narrative is giving us a true account of what actually happened? Provocative and fascinating, this book is an original and insightful examination of the ways in which history is—and might be—written. It traces History’s doubleness and divided nature, beginning with its founding figures, Herodotus and Thucydides, right up to the key figures of historical reflection, such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Benedetto Croce, Walter Benjamin, Hannah Arendt, Michel Foucault and Hayden White. The authors explore the challenges posed by postmodernism to history and the literary conventions of most historical writing. In this second edition they bring their history of history up to the present in their study of the History Wars and new approaches to world history and environmental history.
Category: History

The Nanking Atrocity 1937 1938

Author : Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi
ISBN : 9781785335976
Genre : History
File Size : 57.7 MB
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First published in 2007, The Nanking Atrocity remains an essential resource for understanding the massacre committed by Japanese soldiers in Nanking, China during the winter of 1937-38. Through a series of deeply considered and empirically rigorous essays, it provides a far more complex and nuanced perspective than that found in works like Iris Chang’s bestselling The Rape of Nanking. It systematically reveals the flaws and exaggerations in Chang’s book while deflating the self-exculpatory narratives that persist in Japan even today. This second edition includes an extensive new introduction by the editor reflecting on the historiographical developments of the last decade, in advance of the 80th anniversary of the massacre.
Category: History

The Making Of The Rape Of Nanking

Author : Takashi Yoshida
ISBN : 9780199724826
Genre : History
File Size : 48.91 MB
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On December 13, 1937, the Japanese army attacked and captured the Chinese capital city of Nanjing, planting the rising-sun flag atop the city's outer walls. What occurred in the ensuing weeks and months has been the source of a tempestuous debate ever since. It is well known that the Japanese military committed wholesale atrocities after the fall of the city, massacring large numbers of Chinese during the both the Battle of Nanjing and in its aftermath. Yet the exact details of the war crimes--how many people were killed during the battle? How many after? How many women were raped? Were prisoners executed? How unspeakable were the acts committed?--are the source of controversy among Japanese, Chinese, and American historians to this day. In The Making of the "Rape of Nanking Takashi Yoshida examines how views of the Nanjing Massacre have evolved in history writing and public memory in Japan, China, and the United States. For these nations, the question of how to treat the legacy of Nanjing--whether to deplore it, sanitize it, rationalize it, or even ignore it--has aroused passions revolving around ethics, nationality, and historical identity. Drawing on a rich analysis of Chinese, Japanese, and American history textbooks and newspapers, Yoshida traces the evolving--and often conflicting--understandings of the Nanjing Massacre, revealing how changing social and political environments have influenced the debate. Yoshida suggests that, from the 1970s on, the dispute over Nanjing has become more lively, more globalized, and immeasurably more intense, due in part to Japanese revisionist history and a renewed emphasis on patriotic education in China. While today it is easy to assume that the Nanjing Massacre has always been viewed as an emblem of Japan's wartime aggression in China, the image of the "Rape of Nanking" is a much more recent icon in public consciousness. Takashi Yoshida analyzes the process by which the Nanjing Massacre has become an international symbol, and provides a fair and respectful treatment of the politically charged and controversial debate over its history.
Category: History

Maiden Voyage

Author : Joshua A. Fogel
ISBN : 9780520959170
Genre : History
File Size : 50.99 MB
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After centuries of virtual isolation, during which time international sea travel was forbidden outside of Japan’s immediate fishing shores, Japanese shogunal authorities in 1862 made the unprecedented decision to launch an official delegation to China by sea. Concerned by the fast-changing global environment, they had witnessed the ever-increasing number of incursions into Asia by European powers—not the least of which was Commodore Perry’s arrival in Japan in 1853–54 and the forced opening of a handful of Japanese ports at the end of the decade. The Japanese reasoned that it was only a matter of time before they too encountered the same unfortunate fate as China; their hope was to learn from the Chinese experience and to keep foreign powers at bay. They dispatched the Senzaimaru to Shanghai with the purpose of investigating contemporary conditions of trade and diplomacy in the international city. Japanese from varied domains, as well as shogunal officials, Nagasaki merchants, and an assortment of deck hands, made the voyage along with a British crew, spending a total of ten weeks observing and interacting with the Chinese and with a handful of Westerners. Roughly a dozen Japanese narratives of the voyage were produced at the time, recounting personal impressions and experiences in Shanghai. The Japanese emissaries had the distinct advantage of being able to communicate with their Chinese hosts by means of the "brush conversation" (written exchanges in literary Chinese). For their part, the Chinese authorities also created a paper trail of reports and memorials concerning the Japanese visitors, which worked its way up and down the bureaucratic chain of command. This was the first official meeting of Chinese and Japanese in several centuries. Although the Chinese authorities agreed to few of the Japanese requests for trade relations and a consulate, nine years later China and Japan would sign the first bilateral treaty of amity in their history, a completely equal treaty. East Asia—and the diplomatic and trade relations between the region’s two major players in the modern era—would never be the same.
Category: History

China S War With Japan 1937 1945

Author : Rana Mitter
ISBN : 9781846148040
Genre : History
File Size : 32.21 MB
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In Rana Mitter's tense, moving and hugely important book, the war between China and Japan - one of the most important struggles of the Second World War - at last gets the masterly history it deserves Different countries give different opening dates for the period of the Second World War, but perhaps the most compelling is 1937, when the 'Marco Polo Bridge Incident' plunged China and Japan into a conflict of extraordinary duration and ferocity - a war which would result in many millions of deaths and completely reshape East Asia in ways which we continue to confront today. With great vividness and narrative drive Rana Mitter's new book draws on a huge range of new sources to recreate this terrible conflict. He writes both about the major leaders (Chiang Kaishek, Mao Zedong and Wang Jingwei) and about the ordinary people swept up by terrible times. Mitter puts at the heart of our understanding of the Second World War that it was Japan's failure to defeat China which was the key dynamic for what happened in Asia. Reviews: 'A remarkable story, told with humanity and intelligence; all historians of the second world war will be in Mitter's debt ... [he] explores this complex politics with remarkable clarity and economy ... No one could ask for a better guide than Mitter to how [the rise of modern China] began in the cauldron of the Chinese war' Richard Overy, Guardian 'Rana Mitter's history of the Sino-Japanese War is not only a very important book, it also has a wonderful clarity of thought and prose which make it a pleasure to read' Antony Beevor 'The best study of China's war with Japan written in any language ... comprehensive, thoroughly based on research, and totally non-partisan. Above all, the book presents a moving account of the Chinese people's incredible suffering ... A must read for anyone interested in the origins of China's contribution to the making of today's world' Akira Iriye About the author: Rana Mitter is Professor of the History and Politics of Modern China at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of St Cross College. He is the author of A Bitter Revolution: China's Struggle with the Modern World. He is a regular presenter of Night Waves on Radio 3.
Category: History

China

Author : William A. Callahan
ISBN : 9780191609503
Genre : History
File Size : 75.76 MB
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The rise of China presents a long-term challenge to the world not only economically, but politically and culturally. Callahan meets this challenge in China: The Pessoptimist Nation by using new Chinese sources and innovative analysis to see how Chinese people understand their new place in the world. To chart the trajectory of its rise, the book shifts from examining China's national interests to exploring its national aesthetic. Rather than answering the standard social science question "what is China?" with statistics of economic and military power, this book asks "when, where, and who is China?" to explore the soft power dynamics of China's identity politics. China: The Pessoptimist Nation shows how the heart of Chinese foreign policy is not a security dilemma, but an identity dilemma. Through careful analysis, Callahan charts how Chinese identity emerges through the interplay of positive and negative feelings in a dynamic that intertwines China's domestic and international politics. China thus is the pessoptimist nation where national security is closely linked to nationalist insecurities. Callahan concludes that this interactive view of China's pessoptimist identity means that we need to rethink the role of the state and public opinion in Beijing's foreign policy-making.
Category: History

The Massacre In History

Author : Mark Levene
ISBN : 1571819355
Genre : History
File Size : 25.84 MB
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The role of massacre in history has been given little focused attention either by historians or academics in related fields. This is surprising as its prevalence and persistence surely demands that it should be a subject of serious and systematic exploration. What exactly is a massacre? When - and why - does it happen? Is there a cultural, as well as political framework within which it occurs? How do human societies respond to it? What are its social and economic repercussions? Are massacres catalysts for change or are they part of the continuity of the human saga? These are just some of the questions the authors address in this important volume. Chronologically and geographically broad in scope, The Massacre in History provides in-depth analysis of particular massacres and themes associated with them from the 11th century to the present. Specific attention is paid to 15th century Christian-Jewish relations in Spain, the St. Batholemew's Day massacre, England and Ireland in the civil war era, the 19th century Caucasus, the rape of Nanking in 1937 and the Second World War origins of the Serb-Croat conflict. The book explores the subject of massacre from a variety of perspectives - its relationship to politics, culture, religion and society, its connection to ethnic cleansing and genocide, and its role in gender terms and in relation to the extermination of animals. The historians provide evidence to suggest that the "massacre" is often central to the course of human development and societal change.
Category: History

A Public Betrayed

Author : Adam Gamble
ISBN : UOM:39015060559351
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 32.44 MB
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A Public Betrayed exposes deceptions, lies, and abuses of power in Japan that have led to such profound degrees of misunderstanding, confusion, and suffering that they have inspired the phrase "media atrocities." This book lays bare the mechanisms and motivations behind these sobering abuses. And as the examples show, the very factors, that have contributed to such injustices in Japan have become increasingly predominant in the news-media sectors of the West-factors such as extreme industry consolidation, the growth of nationalism, intense commercialism, and the erosion of media ethics. The lessons for the rest of the free world could be neither more profound nor more relevant. Now is the time to understand Japan and its media atrocities.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

War And Nationalism In China 1925 1945

Author : Hans van de Ven
ISBN : 9781134759255
Genre : History
File Size : 54.95 MB
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In 1937, the Nationalists under Chiang Kaishek were leading the Chinese war effort against Japan and were lauded in the West for their efforts to transform China into an independent and modern nation; yet this image was quickly tarnished. The Nationalists were soon denounced as militarily incompetent, corrupt, and antidemocratic and Chiang Kaishek, the same. In this book, van de Ven investigates the myths and truths of Nationalist resistance including issues such as: the role of the US in East Asia during the Second World War the achievements of Chiang Kaishek as Nationalist leader the respective contributions of the Nationalists and the Communists to the defeat of Japan the consequences of the Europe First strategy for Asia. War and Nationalism in China offers a major new interpretation of the Chinese Nationalists, placing their war of resistance against Japan in the context of their prolonged efforts to establish control over their own country and providing a critical reassessment of Allied Warfare in the region. This groundbreaking volume will interest students and researchers of Chinese History and Warfare.
Category: History

Fabricating Consumers

Author : Andrew Gordon
ISBN : 9780520267855
Genre : History
File Size : 88.70 MB
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Since its early days of mass production in the 1850s, the sewing machine has been intricately connected with the global development of capitalism. Andrew Gordon traces the machine’s remarkable journey into and throughout Japan, where it not only transformed manners of dress, but also helped change patterns of daily life, class structure, and the role of women. As he explores the selling, buying, and use of the sewing machine in the early to mid-twentieth century, Gordon finds that its history is a lens through which we can examine the modern transformation of daily life in Japan. Both as a tool of production and as an object of consumer desire, the sewing machine is entwined with the emergence and ascendance of the middle class, of the female consumer, and of the professional home manager as defining elements of Japanese modernity.
Category: History

Politics In China

Author : William A. Joseph
ISBN : 9780199384839
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 67.2 MB
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On October 1, 2009, the People's Republic of China (PRC) celebrated the 60th anniversary of its founding. And what an eventful and tumultuous six decades it had been. During that time, under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), China was transformed from one of the world's poorest countries into the world's fastest growing major economy, and from a weak state barely able to govern or protect its own territory to a rising power that is challenging the United States for global influence. Over those same years, the PRC also experienced the most deadly famine in human history, caused largely by the actions and inactions of its political leaders. Not long after, there was a collapse of government authority that pushed the country to the brink of (and in some places actually into) civil war and anarchy. Today, China is, for the most part, peaceful, prospering, and proud. This is the China that was on display for the world to see during the Beijing Olympics in 2008. The CCP maintains a firm grip on power through a combination of popular support largely based on its recent record of promoting rapid economic growth and harsh repression of political opposition. Yet, the party and country face serious challenges on many fronts, including a slowing economy, environmental desecration, pervasive corruption, extreme inequalities, and a rising tide of social protest. Politics in China is an authoritative introduction to how the world's most populous nation and rapidly rising global power is governed today. Written by leading China scholars, the book's chapters offers accessible overviews of major periods in China's modern political history from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, key topics in contemporary Chinese politics, and developments in four important areas located on China's geographic periphery: Tibet, Xinjiang, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.
Category: Political Science

Japan S Quiet Transformation

Author : Jeff Kingston
ISBN : 9781134478279
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 30.25 MB
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The 1990s have been termed as 'Japan's lost decade' to describe how the phenomenal growth in the Japanese economy ground to a halt and the country was crippled by enormous and ongoing political, economic and social problems. In responding to these unprecedented difficulties, wide-ranging reforms have been adopted including NPO, information disclosure and judicial reform legislation. Controversially, this book argues that such reforms are creating a more robust civil society and demonstrate that Japan is far more dynamic than is generally recognized.
Category: Political Science

Re Envisioning The Chinese Revolution

Author : Ching Kwan Lee
ISBN : UOM:39015074264063
Genre : History
File Size : 74.97 MB
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A comprehensive study of contemporary memories of China's revolutionary epoch, from the time of Japanese imperialism through the Cultural Revolution. This volume examines the memories of a range of social groups, including disenfranchised workers and rural women, who have often been neglected in scholarship.
Category: History

Contact Zones In China

Author : Merle Schatz
ISBN : 9783110663426
Genre : History
File Size : 20.94 MB
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The local experiences of foreigners in China in the 19th and early 20th centuries exemplify the often latent or tacit patterns of social encounters, individually or in groups, with certain cultural boundedness, stability, and homogeneity. This book takes into account virtual, mediated, imaginative contact zones and looks back at much slower and delimited times and focuses primarily on some selective experiences by Italians and Germans. In doing so it accounts for trajectories from individual and small groups with local, territorial, physical and fully sensual interfaces to fully programmed and highly steered contact zones in the 21st century.
Category: History

Cross Currents

Author : Gi-Wook Shin
ISBN : UCSD:31822035206135
Genre : Political Science
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Northeast Asia stands at a turning point in its history. The key economies of China, Japan, and South Korea are growing increasingly interdependent, and the movement toward regionalism is gaining momentum. Yet interdependency, often set in a global context, also spurs nationalism in all three countries, and elsewhere in East Asia. Northeast Asia today feels the presence of all three complex forces--national, regional, and global--connecting, competing, and colliding in myriad ways. The authors of this book assess current interactions of national and regional forces in Northeast Asia, in the context of U.S. presence in the region. These seemingly contradictory forces must be considered together; the sparks they generate have important policy implications for the United States and for the region as a whole. Constructive reformulation of these interactions is one of Northeast Asia's most pressing contemporary challenges.
Category: Political Science