The Looting Machine Warlords Oligarchs Corporations Smugglers And The Theft Of Africas Wealth

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The Looting Machine

Author : Tom Burgis
ISBN : 9781610397483
Genre : History
File Size : 31.35 MB
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The trade in oil, gas, gems, metals and rare earth minerals wreaks havoc in Africa. During the years when Brazil, India, China and the other “emerging markets” have transformed their economies, Africa's resource states remained tethered to the bottom of the industrial supply chain. While Africa accounts for about 30 per cent of the world's reserves of hydrocarbons and minerals and 14 per cent of the world's population, its share of global manufacturing stood in 2011 exactly where it stood in 2000: at 1 percent. In his first book, The Looting Machine, Tom Burgis exposes the truth about the African development miracle: for the resource states, it's a mirage. The oil, copper, diamonds, gold and coltan deposits attract a global network of traders, bankers, corporate extractors and investors who combine with venal political cabals to loot the states' value. And the vagaries of resource-dependent economies could pitch Africa's new middle class back into destitution just as quickly as they climbed out of it. The ground beneath their feet is as precarious as a Congolese mine shaft; their prosperity could spill away like crude from a busted pipeline. This catastrophic social disintegration is not merely a continuation of Africa's past as a colonial victim. The looting now is accelerating as never before. As global demand for Africa's resources rises, a handful of Africans are becoming legitimately rich but the vast majority, like the continent as a whole, is being fleeced. Outsiders tend to think of Africa as a great drain of philanthropy. But look more closely at the resource industry and the relationship between Africa and the rest of the world looks rather different. In 2010, fuel and mineral exports from Africa were worth 333 billion, more than seven times the value of the aid that went in the opposite direction. But who received the money? For every Frenchwoman who dies in childbirth, 100 die in Niger alone, the former French colony whose uranium fuels France's nuclear reactors. In petro-states like Angola three-quarters of government revenue comes from oil. The government is not funded by the people, and as result it is not beholden to them. A score of African countries whose economies depend on resources are rentier states; their people are largely serfs. The resource curse is not merely some unfortunate economic phenomenon, the product of an intangible force. What is happening in Africa's resource states is systematic looting. Like its victims, its beneficiaries have names.
Category: History

Foreign Aid And The Future Of Africa

Author : Kenneth Kalu
ISBN : 9783319789873
Genre : History
File Size : 52.75 MB
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During the past five decades, sub-Saharan Africa has received more foreign aid than has any other region of the world, and yet poverty remains endemic throughout the region. As Kenneth Kalu argues, this does not mean that foreign aid has failed; rather, it means that foreign aid in its current form does not have the capacity to procure development or eradicate poverty. This is because since colonialism, the average African state has remained an instrument of exploitation, and economic and political institutions continue to block a majority of citizens from meaningful participation in the economy. Drawing upon case studies of Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Nigeria, this book makes the case for redesigning development assistance in order to strike at the root of poverty and transform the African state and its institutions into agents of development.
Category: History

Handbook Of The International Political Economy Of The Corporation

Author : Andreas Nölke
ISBN : 9781785362538
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 64.83 MB
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Over the past few decades, corporations have been neglected in studies of international political economy (IPE). Seeking to demystify them, what they are, how they behave and their goals and constraints, this Handbook introduces the corporation as a unit of analysis for students of IPE. Providing critical discussion of their global and domestic power, and highlighting the ways in which corporations interact with each other and with their socio-political environment, this Handbook presents a thorough and up-to-date overview of the main debates around the role of corporations in the global political economy.
Category: Business & Economics

Managing Resource Abundance And Wealth

Author : Jonathon W. Moses
ISBN : 9780191090943
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 61.6 MB
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Managing Resource Abundance and Wealth: The Norwegian Experience describes the sundry and significant challenges, both economic and political, facing petroleum-producing countries. The volume outlines the pitfalls that policymakers encounter in the aftermath of a major resource discovery, and what they can do to protect their countries from the most adverse consequences. These lessons are derived from two very different sources: The broader-if still underdeveloped-social science literature that examines the 'Paradox of Plenty' in its disparate forms; and the experience of a country that has successfully managed its natural resources over several decades. As a small country on the margins of Europe, Norway has stood up to powerful international interests in one of the world's most powerful industries. Norway has exerted sovereign control over its natural environment, and exploited its resources in a way that has delivered significant wealth to its citizens. This volume explains how Norway has largely avoided the 'Paradox of Plenty'. It aims to demonstrate the variety of policy tools that are available to states rich in natural resources, and how these tools can be adjusted to changing (domestic and international) contexts. It considers a number of questions, such as how countries need to administer and regulate the industry to consider the costs and benefits associated with various contract and licensing regimes, and fiscal arrangements; to maintain competitiveness and avoid becoming too dependent upon the sector; to maximize local content; and to protect the broader economy from the volatility of petroleum prices. The volume shows how the industry can be managed in a democratic, just, and ethical manner, and for the benefit of the general population.
Category: Business & Economics

Chasing Criminal Money

Author : Katalin Ligeti
ISBN : 9781509912056
Genre : Law
File Size : 82.40 MB
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The fight against dirty money is not a new topic, nor a recent problem. It has existed within international and national agendas since the 1980s. Nonetheless, the evolving complexity of criminal skills and networks; the increasingly global dimension of crime; the financial crisis; and the alleged unsatisfactory results of the efforts hitherto undertaken cause us to re-pose and re-discuss some questions. This book addresses several issues concerning the reasons, objectives and scope of national and supranational strategies targeting criminal money, as well as the concrete modalities to overcome its obstacles. The main objective is to explore where the EU stands and where it ought to go, providing useful input for policy-makers and further research. Nevertheless, the problems are not limited to the EU area, and assets – particularly money – cross EU borders much more easily than people do. The reflections developed in the chapters, therefore, aim at going beyond these EU borders. The book is divided into two parts. The first one focuses on the core of asset recovery policies, namely confiscation or forfeiture laws, and explores in particular some issues concerning the respect of fundamental rights. The second part addresses other problematic aspects related to the asset recovery process, such as the return of assets to victim countries, the cross-border investigations on dirty money, and the social use of confiscated assets.
Category: Law