THE LAW OF SUBSIDIES UNDER THE GATT WTO SYSTEM

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The Law Of Subsidies Under The Gatt Wto System

Author : Marc Benitah
ISBN : 9789041198273
Genre : Law
File Size : 55.15 MB
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This work on the law of subsidies has been long-awaited by many actors in international trade. With its introduction of the concept of 'attenuation' of entitlement, Marc Benitah's utterly new analysis alters our understanding of the international economic law of subsidies - and its future invocation and jurisprudence - forever. The issue of subsidies is arguably the predominant theme, at this moment, in international economic law, and a consistent approach to the legal treatment of subsidies is urgently needed. In Professor Benitah's view, the answer lies in the recognition that entitlements granted to a party seeking to defend itself against the `adverse effects' of subsidies must be `attenuated' in order to avoid undesirable economic and social consequences. In the various techniques of attenuation - thoroughly described and analyzed in this book - may be found the unifying thread on which a logical, coherent law of subsidies may be strung. Why techniques of attenuation are intimately linked to the birth of past and future legal disputes relating to subsidies Why significant techniques of attenuation (e.g. taking into account the positive impact of a subsidy on consumers) have not arisen in the GATT/WTO context Why much recent theoretical debate on the concept of 'distortion' has not led to a breakthrough in the law of subsidies Why attenuations favouring developing countries are surprisingly legally vulnerable in practice Why deliberate recourse to techniques of attenuation necessitates their continuing clarification through a case law process. By referring to the legal materials of both the GATT 1947 and the WTO systems at each point in his demonstration, Professor Benitah lays a substantial groundwork for determining innovative WTO norms.
Category: Law

Commercial Law Of The European Union

Author : Gabriël Moens
ISBN : 9789048187744
Genre : Law
File Size : 62.77 MB
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? The Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG This splendid book performs the heroic task of introducing readers to the large canvas of the commercial law of the European Union (EU). The EU began as an economic community of six nations but has grown into 27 member states, sharing a signi?cant political, social and legal cohesion and serving almost 500 million citizens. It generates approximately 30% of the nominal gross world product. The EU is a remarkable achievement of trans-national co-operation, given the history (including recent history) of national, racial, ethnic and religious hatred and con?ict preceding its creation. Although, as the book recounts, the institutions of the EU grew directly out of those of the European Economic Community, created in 1957 [1.20], the genesis of the EU can be traced to the sufferings of the Second World War and to the disclosure of the barbarous atrocities of the Holocaust. Out of the chaos and ruins of historical enmities and the shattered cities and peoples that survived those terrible events, arose an astonishing pan- European Movement.
Category: Law

Fisheries Subsidies Under International Law

Author : Chen-Ju Chen
ISBN : 3642156932
Genre : Law
File Size : 42.10 MB
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Subsidies to fisheries have been in existence for centuries. However, these remained outside the spotlight of the international community until the turn of this century when the negative effects that fisheries subsidies have on international trade, the environment and sustainable development became increasingly clear. As a result the Doha Round Negotiations set the parameters for an effective fisheries subsidies regime. WTO Members thus embarked in intensive negotiations with the collaboration of various international organizations. These negotiations culminated with publication of the legal text of the Chairman of the Negotiating Group on Rules in 2007 which reflects to a large extent the mandates of the Ministerial Conferences and reconciles the diverse interests of the negotiators. The EU as a major WTO Member and with its own Common Fisheries Policy which has been in effect for a number of years can serve as the basis for comparison and improvement of the proposed regulations.
Category: Law

Subsidies In The Context Of The Wto S Free Trade System

Author : Gurwinder Singh
ISBN : 9783319624228
Genre : Law
File Size : 68.87 MB
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This book analyses subsidies from various perspectives and creates a model that determines whether or not their use is justified. Further, it analyses the various causes of trade distortion, trade-discriminatory practices, and other issues associated with unregulated subsidies. In addition, the book considers how these issues fall within the scope of subsidies described under the SCM Agreement. The primary discussion from the perspective of WTO objective concerns the trade practice of awarding subsidies, for exports and also for protectionist purposes. Here, the terms justifiable and non-justifiable are used as hypothetical parameters to determine the extent of state support, considering the country classification based on economic and technological criteria, and their objectives for development. These parameters are distinct from Prohibited, Actionable, and Non-Actionable subsidies, as classified under the SCM Agreement. Subsidies awarded for the purposes of development and for welfare are considered as justifiable, whereas subsidies for the promotion of exports or state measures adopted for protectionist purposes are non-justifiable. Lastly, the book addresses the implications of such subsidies on the core objectives of the WTO and in connection with fair trade values.
Category: Law

Wto

Author : Peter-Tobias Stoll
ISBN : 9789004144965
Genre : Law
File Size : 67.86 MB
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This book describes the institutional system the basic principles and the vast variety of rules of the World Trade Organization. It aims at clarifying the structure and the general concepts, in order to enable the reader to get a better understanding of the issues at stake in many of the discussions and controversies on world trade.
Category: Law

The Law And Policy Of The World Trade Organization

Author : Peter Van den Bossche
ISBN : 9781107024496
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 36.20 MB
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This thoroughly updated new edition of the classic, market-leading textbook is required reading for all students of WTO law.
Category: Business & Economics

Wto

Author : Rüdiger Wolfrum
ISBN : 9789004145658
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 41.13 MB
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In the decade since the establishment of the WTO, the great majority of disputes between member states resolved and decided through the dispute settlement system of the WTO arose in the field of trade remedies law, a fact which clearly shows the high demand by the trade community for the rule of law in this area. Responsive to such needs, the fourth volume encompasses the whole range of trade remedies regulation under the auspices of the WTO in the respective articles of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the related multilateral agreements on trade in goods, i.e., Articles VI, XII, XIX GATT 1994; the Understanding on the Balance-of-Payments; the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI GATT 1994 (Anti-Dumping Agreement); the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Duties; and the Agreement on Safeguards. Leading practitioners and scholars have gathered to provide an invaluable insight and easy access to the law on trade remedies in an article-by-article commentary approach. As such, it will be an essential work not only for trade remedies practitioners but to persons interested in trade remedies be they scholars, academics, international and domestic lawyers, political scientists and economists, or NGO representatives.
Category: Political Science

The Regulation Of Subsidies Within The General Agreement On Trade In Services Of The Wto

Author : Pietro Poretti
ISBN : 9789041131621
Genre : Law
File Size : 23.92 MB
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"The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) extends the multilateral trading system to services. Little is said In the GATS about subsidies, beyond stipulating that subsidies are subject to the existing provisions, including the most-favoured-nation and national-treatment principles, and that Members shall enter into negotiations with a view to developing the disciplines necessary to avoid the trade distorting effects of subsidies." "This timely book provides a comprehensive analysis of services subsidies under the GATS. It begins with a description of services and trade in services, and of the salient characteristics that make regulation of services subsidies more complex than those associated with agricultural and industrial goods. It then analyzes the economic arguments underpinning the need for regulation, as well as the need for governments to retain sufficient latitude to implement non-trade-related policy measures. A description of the information available on services subsidies is followed by a classification of services subsidies according to their distortive effects, and by a detailed analysis of those elements that may form a definition of services subsidies for the purpose of a future regulatory framework." "A key section is devoted to the analysis of those existing provisions of the GATS that may exert a certain measure of discipline on services subsidies, and to the question of the desirability and technical feasibility of countervailing measures. Rules on services subsidies contained in regional trade agreements and the need for special and differential treatment for services subsidies by developing countries are also discussed. Finally, and prior to the conclusion, two sectoral studies deal with the question of subsidies aimed at attracting foreign direct investment and subsidies to the audiovisual sector." "This work represents the first extensive and comprehensive analysis of the issue of services subsidies in the context of the GATS, and includes numerous references to relevant European Union State Aid legislation and jurisprudence." --Book Jacket.
Category: Law