The Last Pagan Emperor

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The Last Pagan Emperor

Author : H. C. Teitler
ISBN : 9780190626525
Genre : History
File Size : 68.47 MB
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Flavius Claudius Julianus was the last pagan to sit on the Roman imperial throne (361-363). Born in Constantinople in 331 or 332, Julian was raised as a Christian, but apostatized, and during his short reign tried to revive paganism, which, after the conversion to Christianity of his uncle Constantine the Great early in the fourth century, began losing ground at an accelerating pace. Having become an orphan when he was still very young, Julian was taken care of by his cousin Constantius II, one of Constantine's sons, who permitted him to study rhetoric and philosophy and even made him co-emperor in 355. But the relations between Julian and Constantius were strained from the beginning, and it was only Constantius' sudden death in 361 which prevented an impending civil war. As sole emperor, Julian restored the worship of the traditional gods. He opened pagan temples again, reintroduced animal sacrifices, and propagated paganism through both the spoken and the written word. In his treatise Against the Galilaeans he sharply criticised the religion of the followers of Jesus whom he disparagingly called 'Galilaeans'. He put his words into action, and issued laws which were displeasing to Christians--the most notorious being his School Edict. This provoked the anger of the Christians, who reacted fiercely, and accused Julian of being a persecutor like his predecessors Nero, Decius, and Diocletian. Violent conflicts between pagans and Christians made themselves felt all over the empire. It is disputed whether or not Julian himself was behind such outbursts. Accusations against the Apostate continued to be uttered even after the emperor's early death. In this book, the feasibility of such charges is examined.
Category: History

The Last Pagan

Author : Adrian Murdoch
ISBN : 1594772266
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
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A history of Julian, the grandson of Constantine, and his failed attempt to reverse the Christian tide that swept the Roman Empire • Portrays the “Apostate” as a poet-philosopher, arguing that had he survived, Christianity would have been checked in its rise • Details reforms enacted by Julian during his two-year reign that marginalized Christians, effectively limiting their role in the social and political life of the Empire • Shows how after Julian’s death the Church used paganism to represent evil and opposition to God, a tactic whose traces still linger The violent death of the emperor Julian (Flavius Claudius Julianus, AD 332-363) on a Persian battlefield has become synonymous with the death of paganism. Vilified throughout history as the “Apostate,” the young philosopher-warrior was the last and arguably the most potent threat to Christianity. The Last Pagan examines Julian’s journey from an aristocratic Christian childhood to his initiation into pagan cults and his mission to establish paganism as the dominant faith of the Roman world. Julian’s death, only two years into his reign, initiated a culture-wide suppression by the Church of all things it chose to identify as pagan. Only in recent decades, with the weakening of the Church’s influence and the resurgence of paganism, have the effects of that suppression begun to wane. Drawing upon more than 700 pages of Julian’s original writings, Adrian Murdoch shows that had Julian lived longer our history and our present-day culture would likely be very different.
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Julian The Apostate

Author : Shaun Tougher
ISBN : 0748618872
Genre : Religion
File Size : 53.19 MB
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This study of the last pagan Roman emperor provides remarkable insight into the man and his times The figure of Julian demands the attention of historians. As the last pagan Roman Emperor, he provides a focus for studying the religious transformations that were taking place in the empire in the fourth century. Further, his secular policies and concerns concentrate attention on other transformations - social and political - within the period. Notably, Julian elicited sharply divided opinion from his contemporaries, which is largely polarised between pagan supporters and Christian opponents. Such division of opinion is also matched by the modern literature on him. Was he the prospective saviour of the Roman Empire, or was he out-of-touch and living in the past? Was he an evangelist for Mithraism, or an altogether more traditional pagan? Was he a shrewd military man, or a rash risk-taker whose luck spectacularly ran out on his Persian expedition? These questions and more are asked and discussed, allowing students to reach their own verdict on this exciting and controversial emperor. Key Features: *Issues of historical significance are identified and discussed*Key passages of text are gathered and accessible in one volume*Modern interpretations of Julian are presented and considered The figure of Julian demands the attention of historians. As the last pagan Roman Emperor, he provides a focus for studying the religious transformations that were taking place in the empire in the fourth century. Further, his secular policies and concerns concentrate attention on other transformations - social and political - within the period.Notably, Julian elicited sharply divided opinion from his contemporaries, which is largely polarised between pagan supporters and Christian opponents. Such division of opinion is also matched by the modern literature on him. Was he the prospective saviour of the Roman Empire, or was he out-of-touch and living in
Category: Religion

Julian Philosopher And Emperor And The Last Struggle Of Paganism Against Christianity

Author : Alice Gardner
ISBN : 0526411597
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 24.83 MB
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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Emperor And Author

Author : Nicholas J. Baker-Brian
ISBN : 9781910589144
Genre : History
File Size : 65.33 MB
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This volume offers the first comprehensive analysis in English of all the writings of Julian (r. AD 361-363), the last pagan emperor of Rome, noted for his frontal and self-conscious challenge to Christianity. The book also contains treatments of Julian's laws, inscriptions, coinage, as well as his artistic programme. Across nineteen papers, international specialists in the field of Late Antique Studies offer original interpretations of an extraordinary figure: emperor and philosopher, soldier and accomplished writer. Julian, his life and writings, are here considered as parts of the tumult in politics, culture and religion during the Fourth Century AD. New light is shed on Julian's distinctive literary style and imperial agenda. The volume also includes an up-to-date, consolidated bibliography.
Category: History

Julian S Gods

Author : Rowland B. E. Smith
ISBN : 9781134677467
Genre : History
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Julian's brief reign (360-363 AD) had a profound impact on his contemporaries, as he worked fervently for a pagan restoration in the Roman Empire, which was rapidly becoming Christian. Julian's Gods focuses on the cultural mentality of `the last pagan Emperor' by examining a wide variety of his own writings. The surviving speeches and treatises, satires and letters offer a rare insight into the personal attitudes and motivations of a remarkable Emperor. They show Julian as a highly educated man, an avid student of Greek philosophy, and a talented author in his own right. This elegant and closely-argued study will deepen understanding not only of Julian, but of the context of fourth century Neoplatonism.
Category: History

Society And The Holy In Late Antiquity

Author : Peter Brown
ISBN : 0520068009
Genre : History
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And introduction -- Inventory applications of current plans -- Approaches for maintaining inventories -- Alternative plans for maintaining fighter inventories.
Category: History

Julian

Author : Alice Gardner
ISBN : OCLC:763964342
Genre :
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The Arguments Of The Emperor Julian Against The Christians

Author : Julian
ISBN : 1987447859
Genre :
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Emperor Julian, popularly known as "Julian the Apostate," was the last pagan Emperor of Rome. His reign was characterized by his energetic, yet ultimately failed, attempts at revitalizing paganism and halting the advance of Christianity. In this work, many of Julian's arguments against the Christian faith are presented, providing the reader with a fascinating window into the minds of those who struggled against Christianity during its rise to power in Europe. From the introduction by the translator, Thomas Taylor: "As man is naturally a religious animal, and as the true knowledge of divinity is, as Jamblichus beautifully observes, virtue, wisdom, and consummate felicity, nothing can be so important as the acquisition of this knowledge, and, as one of the means of obtaining it, a purification from theological error. Julian, who was certainly one of the most excellent emperors recorded in the annals of history, wrote, I am persuaded, the treatise from which these fragments are taken with no other view than to lead the reader of it to this most sublime knowledge, and the translator of these extracts can most solemnly affirm this was his only aim in translating and printing them."
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Against The Galilaeans

Author : Julian The Apostate
ISBN : 1684546168
Genre :
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First published in 363 AD., this is possibly the most censored book in history. Christian Church Father Cyril of Alexandria called it the most dangerous book ever written and it was burned by official edict of the Christian emperor Justinian in 592 AD. When its author, Julian the Apostate (Flavius Claudius Julianus Augustus, Emperor of Rome 361--363 A.D.)took up the throne, he reversed the laws making Christianity the Empire's official religion and produced this work refuting the major principles of that religion. Using logic and satire, Julian pointed out the Hebrew origins of the religion, its inherent contradictions and its inversion of classical Hellenic and Roman thought patterns. As a result, he was given the title "Apostate" (from the Greek apostasia, the formal renunciation of a religion) by Christian historians. The book was suppressed after Julian's death in battle the same year it was published, and the last copies were burned by order of Justinian two hundred years later. What remains of Julian's work--captured in these pages--has been reconstructed out of Churchmen's attempts to refute the last pagan emperor of Rome. It is, I think, expedient to set forth to all mankind the reasons by which I was convinced that the fabrication of the Galilaeans is a fiction of men composed by wickedness. For they have not accepted a single admirable or important doctrine of those that are held either by us Hellenes or by the Hebrews who derived them from Moses; but from both religions they have gathered what has been engrafted like powers of evil, as it were, on these nations--atheism from the Jewish levity, and a sordid and slovenly way of living from our indolence and vulgarity; and they desire that this should be called the noblest worship of the gods.-- Flavius Claudius Julianus Augustus, Emperor of Rome 361--363 A.D.
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Julian S Against The Galileans

Author : Julian (Emperor of Rome)
ISBN : UOM:39015059311533
Genre : Religion
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Flavius Claudius Julianus, better known to history by the name imposed by his Christian opponents, Julian "the Apostate," was a nephew of the first Christian emperor, Constantine I. Julian is one of the most fascinating figures of late antiquity. More information is available about him from both pagan and Christian sources than about any other emperor. His reign inspired both admiration and contempt. Julian's ambitious program was to reinstate the religion of his ancestors and, in the process, to subdue the growth of the Christian church, which had achieved legitimacy under the reign of his uncle. Once in power, he immediately sought to revive the religion of classical Rome, to reform the pagan priesthood, revitalize training in classics and pagan philosophy and — as an affront to Christian prophecy — to rebuild the Jewish temple in Jerusalem. This is the first translation into modern English of the complete corpus of Julian’s Against the Galileans and related writings. It not only puts the work of the philosopher-emperor into historical perspective but offers important insights into the waning days of pagan philosophy and the growth of the Christian church against the background of intellectual and religious opposition. The translations are supported by a full historical introduction to the life of Julian and a detailed treatment of his religious philosophy, including the origins of his understanding of the Christian faith. The work is essential reading for anyone interested in the religions of late antiquity, the growth of the Christian church, and the final phase of the conflict between paganism and Christian teaching.
Category: Religion

The Emperor Julian

Author : Claudio Mamertino (hijo)
ISBN : 0853233764
Genre : Religion
File Size : 42.57 MB
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The Emperor Julian is one of the most controversial and fascinating figures in Roman history. Adored by pagan intellectuals and vilified by Christian writers because of his attempt to restore paganism as a state religion, he was the focus of both panegyric and polemic. A critical study of these biased sources is essential for the understanding of his reign. The present collection makes available in English the panegyric of Claudius Mamertinus (Panegyrici Latini XI/3), a substantial part of the treatise of John Chrysostom on St. Babylas and against Julian (de S. Babyla c. Julianum et gentiles XIV-XIX), which includes Libanius's monody on the Temple of Apollo at Daphne (Oration LX), and Ephrem Syrus's Hymns Against Julian, translated from the Latin, Greek, and Syriac respectively. Each text covers an important period of the reign of Julian--his rise to power, his stay at Antioch, and his ill-fated Persian campaign.
Category: Religion

The Sons Of Constantine Ad 337 361

Author : Nicholas Baker-Brian
ISBN : 9783030398989
Genre : History
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This edited collection focuses on the Roman empire during the period from AD 337 to 361. During this period the empire was ruled by three brothers: Constantine II (337-340), Constans I (337-350) and Constantius II (337-361). These emperors tend to be cast into shadow by their famous father Constantine, the first Christian Roman emperor (306-337), and their famous cousin Julian, the last pagan Roman emperor (361-363). The traditional concentration on the historically renowned figures of Constantine and Julian is understandable but comes at a significant price: the neglect of the period between the death of Constantine and the reign of Julian and of the rulers who governed the empire in this period. The reigns of the sons of Constantine, especially that of the longest-lived Constantius II, mark a moment of great historical significance. As the heirs of Constantine they became the guardians of his legacy, and they oversaw the nature of the world in which Julian was to grow up. The thirteen contributors to this volume assess their influence on imperial, administrative, cultural, and religious facets of the empire in the fourth century.
Category: History

The Last Pagans Of Rome

Author : Alan Cameron
ISBN : 9780199747276
Genre : History
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--Book Jacket.
Category: History

The Final Pagan Generation

Author : Edward J. Watts
ISBN : 9780520379220
Genre : Christianity and other religions
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A compelling history of radical transformation in the fourth-century--when Christianity decimated the practices of traditional pagan religion in the Roman Empire. The Final Pagan Generation recounts the fascinating story of the lives and fortunes of the last Romans born before the Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity. Edward J. Watts traces their experiences of living through the fourth century's dramatic religious and political changes, when heated confrontations saw the Christian establishment legislate against pagan practices as mobs attacked pagan holy sites and temples. The emperors who issued these laws, the imperial officials charged with implementing them, and the Christian perpetrators of religious violence were almost exclusively young men whose attitudes and actions contrasted markedly with those of the earlier generation, who shared neither their juniors' interest in creating sharply defined religious identities nor their propensity for violent conflict. Watts examines why the "final pagan generation"--born to the old ways and the old world in which it seemed to everyone that religious practices would continue as they had for the past two thousand years--proved both unable to anticipate the changes that imperially sponsored Christianity produced and unwilling to resist them. A compelling and provocative read, suitable for the general reader as well as students and scholars of the ancient world.
Category: Christianity and other religions

Sons Of Hellenism Fathers Of The Church

Author : Susanna Elm
ISBN : 9780520269309
Genre : Religion
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"In this magisterial study, Susanna Elm illuminates fresh and persuasive connections between intellectual life and imperial politics in the late Roman empire, describing complex concepts with consummate ease and in a splendidly fluent style. "Sons of Hellenism" is a model of what a history of ideas should be."--John Anthony McGuckin, Professor of Byzantine Christian History, Columbia University. "With this book, Susanna Elm has blown an irreparable hole in the wall that has long separated the study of philosophy, theology, and politics in the ancient world. "Sons of Hellenism" is an intellectual "tour de force" and a master work in every respect."--H.A. Drake, author of "Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of Intolerance."
Category: Religion

Emperor And Author

Author : Nicholas Baker-Brian
ISBN : 190512550X
Genre : History
File Size : 55.44 MB
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This volume offers the first comprehensive analysis in English of all the writings of Julian (r. AD 361-363), the last pagan emperor of Rome, noted for his frontal and self-conscious challenge to Christianity. The book also contains treatments of Julian's laws, inscriptions, coinage, as well as his artistic programme. Across nineteen papers, international specialists in the field of Late Antique Studies offer original interpretations of an extraordinary figure: emperor and philosopher, soldier and accomplished writer. Julian, his life and writings, are here considered as parts of the tumult in politics, culture and religion during the Fourth Century AD. New light is shed on Julian's distinctive literary style and imperial agenda. The volume also includes an up-to-date, consolidated bibliography.
Category: History

The Emperor Julian

Author : Gerald Henry Rendall
ISBN : COLUMBIA:CR60148667
Genre : Emperors
File Size : 67.7 MB
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Category: Emperors