THE INNER CITADEL

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The Inner Citadel

Author : Pierre Hadot
ISBN : 0674461711
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 59.83 MB
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The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius are treasured today--as they have been over the centuries--as an inexhaustible source of wisdom. And as one of the three most important expressions of Stoicism, this is an essential text for everyone interested in ancient religion and philosophy. Yet the clarity and ease of the work's style are deceptive. Pierre Hadot, eminent historian of ancient thought, uncovers new levels of meaning and expands our understanding of its underlying philosophy. Written by the Roman emperor for his own private guidance and self-admonition, the Meditations set forth principles for living a good and just life. Hadot probes Marcus Aurelius's guidelines and convictions and discerns the hitherto unperceived conceptual system that grounds them. Abundantly quoting the Meditations to illustrate his analysis, the author allows Marcus Aurelius to speak directly to the reader. And Hadot unfolds for us the philosophical context of the Meditations, commenting on the philosophers Marcus Aurelius read and giving special attention to the teachings of Epictetus, whose disciple he was. The soul, the guiding principle within us, is in Marcus Aurelius's Stoic philosophy an inviolable stronghold of freedom, the "inner citadel." This spirited and engaging study of his thought offers a fresh picture of the fascinating philosopher-emperor, a fuller understanding of the tradition and doctrines of Stoicism, and rich insight on the culture of the Roman empire in the second century. Pierre Hadot has been working on Marcus Aurelius for more than twenty years; in this book he distills his analysis and conclusions with extraordinary lucidity for the general reader.
Category: Philosophy

The Inner Citadel

Author : John Christman
ISBN : 1626548943
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 82.6 MB
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The concept of individual autonomy is one of the most frequently utilized—and perhaps least understood—terms of current moral, political, and legal debate. The first anthology devoted entirely to this philosophical concept, The Inner Citadel includes both extensive discussions of autonomy itself and theoretical applications of autonomy to various areas of philosophical inquiry. John Christman has assembled essays by eminent philosophers including Gerald Dworkin, Joel Feinberg, Harry Frankfurt, and David A. J. Richards. Together, these essays provide the necessary foundation for the myriad debates and controversies in areas such as bioethics, feminism, and paternalism whose resolution turns on the nature and value of individual autonomy. As the idea of autonomy is central to a wide range of philosophical issues and impinges on other disciplines, The Inner Citadel will be essential reading for students of moral, political, social, and legal philosophy, as well as a valuable resource for those interested in law, political science, and psychology. John Christman is Professor of Philosophy, Political Science, and Women's Studies at Penn State University. He is the author of several books and essays on moral and political philosophy, focusing on issues of agency, freedom, equality, and identity. His books include The Myth of Property; Social and Political Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction; and The Politics of Persons. He has received awards from the National Endowment for the Humanities and The Penn State Institute for Arts and Humanities, and he was named "Distinguished Alumni" of the University of New Orleans, College of Liberal Arts in 1991. His work on the concept of autonomy and issues relating to that idea have spanned over two decades, and he has contributed significantly to scholarship on fundamental issues in social and political philosophy.
Category: Philosophy

Ethical Issues In Business

Author : Peg Tittle
ISBN : 1551112574
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 44.21 MB
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The core of this text comprises chapters on all the key issues of business in Canada today. Each chapter includes a hypothetical case study and an introduction highlighting key ethical points; two academic essays; and a real-life case study. Questions for discussion accompany the essays and case studies. The author has also included a general introduction to ethical issues and an overview of ethical theory; a section on institutionalizing ethics (discussing ethics officers/programs/codes etc.); and appendices providing excerpts from important classic contributions to ethical theory and from relevant Canadian law.
Category: Philosophy

Personal Autonomy

Author : James Stacey Taylor
ISBN : 1139442716
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 61.4 MB
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Autonomy has recently become one of the central concepts in contemporary moral philosophy and has generated much debate over its nature and value. This 2005 volume brings together essays that address the theoretical foundations of the concept of autonomy, as well as essays that investigate the relationship between autonomy and moral responsibility, freedom, political philosophy, and medical ethics. Written by some of the most prominent philosophers working in these areas, this book represents research on the nature and value of autonomy that will be essential reading for a broad swathe of philosophers as well as many psychologists.
Category: Philosophy

Young William James Thinking

Author : Paul J. Croce
ISBN : 9781421423661
Genre : History
File Size : 69.98 MB
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During a period of vocational indecision and deep depression, young William James embarked on a circuitous journey, trying out natural history field work, completing medical school, and studying ancient cultures before teaching physiological psychology on his way to becoming a philosopher. A century after his death, Young William James Thinking examines the private thoughts James detailed in his personal correspondence, archival notes, and his first publications to create a compelling portrait of his growth as both man and thinker. By going to the sources, Paul J. Croce’s cultural biography challenges the conventional contrast commentators have drawn between James’s youthful troubles and his mature achievements. Inverting James’s reputation for inconsistency, Croce shows how he integrated his interests and his struggles into sophisticated thought. His ambivalence became the motivating core of his philosophizing, the heart of his enduring legacy. Readers can follow James in science classes and in personal "speculations," studying medicine and exploring both mainstream and sectarian practices, in museums reflecting on the fate of humanity since ancient times, in love and with heart broken, and in periodic crises of confidence that sometimes even spurred thoughts of suicide. A case study in coming of age, this book follows the famous American philosopher's vocational work and avocational interests, his education and his frustrations—young James between childhood and fame. Anecdotes placed in the contexts of his choices shed new light on the core commitments within his enormous contributions to psychology, philosophy, and religious studies. James’s hard-won insights, starting with his mediation of science and religion, led to his appreciation of body and mind in relation. Ultimately, Young William James Thinking reveals how James provided a humane vision well suited to our pluralist age.
Category: History

Eastern Turkey

Author : T.A. Sinclair
ISBN : 9781904597704
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 24.3 MB
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Civilizations of great diversity have succeeded each other or co-existed in Eastern Turkey, and most of them have left monuments of high quality. Hittite, Urartian, Hellenistic, Roman, Syrian, Byzantine, Armenian, Arab, Seljuk and Ottoman, their remains are all represented in the region. These include some of the most important sites in Near Eastern archaeology, in regions in and near the heartland of the Hittite and Urartian cultures. The Hellenistic cities reflect the introduction of a new civilization, and the Roman and Byzantine empires included all or part of the region, with the prosperous feudal states of Georgia and Armenia on their borders. Besides the Byzantine, three great East Christian monastic traditions, Syrian, Georgian and Armenian, flourished here from the late fourth century onwards, and their monuments have left a permanent mark on the landscape. The Seljuk invasion, followed by the more recent period of Ottoman rule, led to the imposition of a new culture on the region, and its reflection in the monuments. Some of the finest Seljuk buildings are in Eastern Turkey, and the buildings of the Turkish states east of the Seljuk empire form much of the early history of Turkish architecture. The independent Greek empire of Trebizond and two of the four Crusader states lay in Eastern Turkey. The lands of the empires and the smaller medieval states were heavily fortified, and their castles and other fortifications are now spread over the region. The cultural diversity of its inheritance has made Eastern Turkey one of the most fascinating regions for archaeological and art-historical research. These four volumes provide the first comprehensive guide to all of the important historical sites of the region, the result of eight years of travel and research. The monuments are dealt with by geographical location, including a full description of each site, and details on how it can be reached. In the case of the more important monuments, a full bibliography of earlier work is provided. The ample provision of photographs and plans enhances the value of the author's detailed descriptions.
Category: Social Science

Interpreting Islam

Author : Hastings Donnan
ISBN : 0761954228
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81.59 MB
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Islam is one of the most misunderstood concepts in the West. Myths and stereotypes surround it. This clear and penetrating volume helps readers to make sense of Islam. It offers a penetrating guide to the diversity and richness of contemporary knowledge about Islam and Muslim society. Throughout, the emphasis is upon the value of pluralistic approaches to Islam, rather than condensing complexity with unifying concepts such as `Orientalism'. Interdisciplinary in scope and organization, the book cuts through the bewildering and seemingly anarchic diversity of contemporary knowledge about Islam and Muslim society. The methodological difficulties and advantages of Western researchers focusing on Islam are fully documented. The book demonstrates how gender, age, status and `insider' / `outsider' status impacts upon research and inflects research findings.
Category: Social Science

Personal Autonomy In Society

Author : Marina Oshana
ISBN : 0754656705
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 83.6 MB
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Challenging many of the currently accepted conceptions of autonomy and of how it is valued, Oshana develops a social-relational account of autonomy that is constituted by a person's relations with others and by the absence of certain social relations. She denies that command over one's motives and the freedom to realize one's will are sufficient to secure the kind of command over one's life that autonomy requires, and argues against psychological, procedural, and content neutral accounts of autonomy.
Category: Philosophy

Pinson Mounds

Author : Robert C. Mainfort Jr.
ISBN : 9781610755276
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 83.45 MB
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Pinson Mounds: Middle Woodland Ceremonialism in the Midsouth is a comprehensive overview and reinterpretation of the largest Middle Woodland mound complex in the Southeast. Located in west Tennessee about ten miles south of Jackson, the Pinson Mounds complex includes at least thirteen mounds, a geometric earthen embankment, and contemporary short-term occupation areas within an area of about four hundred acres. A unique feature of Pinson Mounds is the presence of five large, rectangular platform mounds from eight to seventy-two feet in height. Around A.D. 100, Pinson Mounds was a pilgrimage center that drew visitors from well beyond the local population and accommodated many distinct cultural groups and people of varied social stations. Stylistically nonlocal ceramics have been found in virtually every excavated locality, all together representing a large portion of the Southeast. Along with an overview of this important and unique mound complex, Pinson Mounds also provides a reassessment of roughly contemporary centers in the greater Midsouth and Lower Mississippi Valley and challenges past interpretations of the Hopewell phenomenon in the region.
Category: Social Science

The Fall Of The Roman Empire

Author : Martin M. Winkler
ISBN : 9781118589816
Genre : History
File Size : 45.49 MB
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The essays collected in this book present the first comprehensiveappreciation of The Fall of the Roman Empire fromhistorical, historiographical, and cinematic perspectives. The bookalso provides the principal classical sources on the period. It isa companion to Gladiator: Film and History (Blackwell, 2004)and Spartacus: Film and History (Blackwell, 2007) andcompletes a triad of scholarly studies on Hollywood’sgreatest films about Roman history. A critical re-evaluation of the 1964 epic film The Fall ofthe Roman Empire, directed by Anthony Mann, fromhistorical, film-historical, and contemporary points of view Presents a collection of scholarly essays and classical sourceson the period of Roman history that ancient and modern historianshave considered to be the turning point toward the eventual fall ofRome Contains a short essay by director Anthony Mann Includes a map of the Roman Empire and film stills, as well astranslations of the principal ancient sources, an extensivebibliography, and a chronology of events
Category: History