The Great Chain Of Being

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The Great Chain Of Being

Author : Arthur Lovejoy
ISBN : 9781351481953
Genre : History
File Size : 82.59 MB
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This is arguably the seminal work in historical and philosophical analysis of the twentieth century. Originally delivered for the William James lecture series at Harvard University in 1932-33, it remains the cornerstone of the history of ideas. Lovejoy sees philosophy's history as one of confusion of ideas, a prime example of which is the idea of a "great chain of being"--a universe linked in theology, science and values by pre-determined stages in all phases of life. Lovejoy's view is one of dualities in nature and society, with both error and truth as part of the natural order of things. The past reminds us that the ruling modes of thought of our own age, which we may view as clear, coherent and firmly grounded, are unlikely to be seen with such certainty by posterity. The Great Chain of Being is an excursion into the past, with a clear mission--to discourage the assumption that all is known, or that what is known is not subject to modifi cation at a later time. Lovejoy reaffirms the "intrinsic worth of diversity," as a caution against certitude. By this he does not mean toleration of indiff erence, or relativity for its own sake, but an appreciation of mental and physical process of human beings. As Peter Stanlis notes in his introduction: "Faith in the great chain of being was fi nally largely extinguished by the combined infl uences of Romantic idealism, Darwin's theory of evolution, and Einstein's theory of relativity." Few books remain as alive to prospects for the future by reconsidering follies of the past as does Lovejoy's stunning work.
Category: History

Reforging The Great Chain Of Being

Author : Simo Knuuttila
ISBN : 9789401576628
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 85.74 MB
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A sports reporter might say that in a competition all the participants realize their potentialities or possibilities. When an athlete performs far below his usual standard, it can be said that it was possible for him to do better. But the idea of fair play requires that this use of 'possible' refers to another com petition. It is presumed that the best athlete wins and that no real possibility of doing better is left unrealized in a competition. Here we have a use of language, a language game, in which modal notions are used so as to imply that if something is possible, it is realized. This idea does not belong to the general presuppositions of current ordinary usage. It is, nevertheless, not difficult to fmd other similar examples outside of the language of sports. It may be that such a use of modal notions is sometimes calculated to express that in the context in question there are no real alternative courses of events in contradistinction to other cases in which some possible alternatives remain unrealized. Even though modal notions are currently interpreted without the presup position that each genuine possibility should be realized at some moment of the actual history, there are contemporary philosophical models of modalities which incorporate this presupposition. In his book Untersuchungen tiber den Modalkalkiil (Anton Hain, Meisenheim am Glan 1952, pp. 16-36), Oscar Becker presents a statistical interpretation of modal calculi.
Category: Philosophy

The Great Chain Of Being And Italian Phenomenology

Author : A.A. Bello
ISBN : 9789400983663
Genre : History
File Size : 72.31 MB
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The Center maintained its international contacts in 1979 by inviting num erous foreign scholars to the National Conference at Viterbo, including H. Kochler (Austria), R. Magliola (U.S.A.), J.C. Piguet (Switzerland), M.R. Barral (U.S.A.) and M. Petit (France), and also by extending hospitality at its April Seminar (held at the Teacher Training Faculty of Rome University) to Prof. H. Meyn of The World Phenomenology Institute, who spoke on His toricism and the Idea of Philosophy as a Rigorous Science. The activities organized by The Italian Center since its foundation have given a considerable new impulse to phenomenological research in Italy. They have made established contacts between numerous Italian scholars who pre viously worked in isolation without a continued and effective exchange of the results of their researches, and they have also strengthened and extended relations with the international phenomenological community, thereby creat ing a cultural pattern of cooperation which becomes more and more concrete and fruitful.
Category: History

The Great Chain Of Being

Author : Arthur Oncken Lovejoy
ISBN : OCLC:1157506696
Genre : Continuity
File Size : 31.31 MB
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Category: Continuity

Centaurs And Amazons

Author : Page duBois
ISBN : 0472081535
Genre : History
File Size : 73.68 MB
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DIVTraces the development of the Greek hierarchical view of life that continues to permeate Western society /div
Category: History

The Origin And Evolution Of Intelligence

Author : Arnold B. Scheibel
ISBN : 0763703656
Genre : Medical
File Size : 89.4 MB
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What is intelligence? From where did it come? Will the human brain grow and adapt to the ever-changing world? These and many other questions are addressed in The Origin and Evolution of Intelligence. This volume is composed of a series of articles presented on the origin and evolution of intelligence in March 1995 at the Eighth Annual Symposium of the UCLA Center for the Study of the Origin and Evolution of Life (CSEOL). The six authors of the contributions to this volume discuss in detail an enormous span of invertebrate and vertebrate life forms and wrestle with a vast array of problems ranging from direction finding in ants and birds to sociopolitical communication in monkeys, symbol manipulation in apes, and language use in humans. All these phenomena may be grouped under the general term intelligence, the unifying theme of the volume.
Category: Medical

The Scientist As Philosopher

Author : Friedel Weinert
ISBN : 3540213740
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 69.55 MB
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How do major scientific discoveries reshape their originators’, and our own, sense of reality and concept of the physical world? The Scientist as Philosopher explores the interaction between physics and philosophy. Clearly written and well illustrated, the book first places the scientist-philosophers in the limelight as we learn how their great scientific discoveries forced them to reconsider the time-honored notions with which science had described the natural world. Then, the book explains that what we understand by nature and science have undergone fundamental conceptual changes as a result of the discoveries of electromagnetism, thermodynamics and atomic structure. Even more dramatically, the quantum theory and special theory of relativity questioned traditional assumptions about causation and the passage of time. The author concludes that the dance between science and philosophy is an evolutionary process, which will keep them forever entwined.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Neoplatonism And Contemporary Thought

Author : R. Baine Harris
ISBN : 0791452751
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 47.90 MB
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Leading scholars relate Neoplatonism to contemporary science and philosophy.
Category: Philosophy

The Great Chain Of Unbeing

Author : Andrew Crumey
ISBN : 1910213772
Genre : Short stories, English
File Size : 31.64 MB
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Category: Short stories, English

The Rise Of Reason

Author : Ray Spangenburg
ISBN : 9780816068784
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 21.61 MB
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Discusses major scientists and scientific issues and discoveries of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Metaphor And Intercultural Communication

Author : Andreas Musolff
ISBN : 9781472570468
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 34.23 MB
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Metaphor and Intercultural Communication examines in detail the dynamics of metaphor in interlingual contact, translation and globalization processes. Its case-studies, which combine methods of cognitive metaphor theory with those of corpus-based and discourse-oriented research, cover contact linguistic and cultural contacts between Chinese, English including Translational English and Aboriginal English, Greek, Kabyle, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, and Spanish. Part I introduces readers to practical and methodological problems of the intercultural transfer of metaphor through empirical (corpus-based and experimental) studies of translators' experiences and strategies in dealing with figurative language in a variety of contexts. Part II explores the universality-relativity dimension of cross- and intercultural metaphor on the basis of empirical data from various European and non-European cultures. Part III investigates the socio-economic and political consequences of figurative language use through case studies of communication between aboriginal and mainstream cultures, in the media, in political discourse and gender-related discourses. Special attention is paid to cases of miscommunication and of deliberate re- and counter-conceptualisation of clichés from one culture into another. The results open new perspectives on some of the basic assumptions of the 'classic' cognitive paradigm, e.g. regarding metaphor understanding, linguistic relativity and concept-construction.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Order Of Things

Author : Michel Foucault
ISBN : 9780307819307
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 44.4 MB
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In the work that established him as the most important French thinker since Sartre, Michel Foucault offers startling evidence that "man"—man as a subject of scientific knowledge—is at best a recent invention, the result of a fundamental mutation in our culture. With vast erudition, Foucault cuts across disciplines and reaches back into seventeenth century to show how classical systems of knowledge, which linked all of nature within a great chain of being and analogies between the stars in the heavens and the features in a human face, gave way to the modern sciences of biology, philology, and political economy. The result is nothing less than an archaeology of the sciences that unearths old patterns of meaning and reveals the shocking arbitrariness of our received truths.
Category: Philosophy

Empirical Logic And Public Debate

Author : Erik C. W. Krabbe
ISBN : 9051835922
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 56.24 MB
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Empirical Logic and Public Debate supplies a large number of previously unpublished papers that together make up a survey of recent developments in the field of empirical logic. It contains theoretical contributions, some of a more formal and some of an informal nature, as well as numerous contemporary and historical case studies. The book will therefore be attractive both to those who wish to focus upon the theory and practice of discussion, debate, arguing, and argument, as well as to those readers who are primarily interested in applications to a particular field, such as ethics, political philosophy, feminist philosophy, or the history of philosophy.
Category: Philosophy

Eugenics And Education In America

Author : Ann Gibson Winfield
ISBN : 0820481467
Genre : Education
File Size : 43.69 MB
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Education in America was designed to organize, classify, and sort students according to a definition of ability and human worth provided by a racialized scientism known as eugenics - an ideology whose ultimate goal was the establishment of a superior White race. Eugenicists targeted entire ethnic groups, the urban poor, rural «White trash, » the sexually «deviant, » Blacks, Jews, Native Americans, Asians, Latino/as, and anyone who did not fit with the pseudo-scientifically established «superior» Nordic race. Education leaders, complaining of children of «worm-eaten stock, » established an enduring system to organize and sort students according to perceived societal worth. In exposing and addressing eugenics' place in our educational system, this book provides a groundbreaking addition to, and exceptional correction of, the history of curriculum in America.
Category: Education

Act Your Age

Author : Nancy Lesko
ISBN : 0415928346
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 75.86 MB
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Act Your Ageexamines and questions our tendency to label our youths as both endangered and dangerous creatures. Lesko analyzes both historical and present social and political factors that produce the presumed "natural adolescent." She also examines the concerns of nationalism, sexuality, and social order in terms of how they are projected onto the definitions of adolescents in the media, in schools, and in the home.
Category: Social Science