The Geological Deformation Of Sediments

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The Geological Deformation Of Sediments

Author : A. Maltman
ISBN : 9789401107310
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.85 MB
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shallow processes and for the pursuit of more Sediments are now known to undergo deforma tion in a wide variety of geological circumstances. quantitative relationships. With these goals in The deforming processes can happen on a vast mind, workers are increasingly drawing on the scale and at all stages before the material be principles and methods of the well-established comes fully lithified. In fact, as exploration of the engineering discipline of soil mechanics. earth continues, the widespread extent and im All this is beginning to attract wider geological portance of sediment deformation is still being interest. Yet to the newcomer, because progress revealed, for example, below the oceans and has been rapid in recent years, the literature is beneath ice sheets. At the same time, it is still already formidable. The information is scattered, being realized just how varied are the resulting so even an expert on sediment deformation in a structures, and how strikingly similar they can be certain setting may be unaware of analogous to those produced by the deformation of deeply problems and successes in other environments. buried rocks. At the same time, although the same basic prin However, there are few precedents to guide the ciples apply in the various geological regimes, a geologist in interpreting structures that formed in subtly different terminology is evolving, which unlithified sediments, or in understanding the can make the subject boundaries hard to cross.
Category: Science

Deformation Of Glacial Materials

Author : Geological Society of London
ISBN : 186239072X
Genre : Science
File Size : 25.86 MB
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The flow of glacier ice can produce structures that are striking and beautiful. Associated sediments too can develop spectacular deformation structures, and examples are remarkably well preserved in Quaternary deposits. This collection of papers addresses how the methods for unravelling deformation structures evolved by structural geologists can be used for glacial materials, and the opportunities offered to structural geologists by glacial materials for studying deformation in rocks.
Category: Science

Geology And Water

Author : R.E. Chapman
ISBN : 9024724554
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.71 MB
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Water is one of the world's threatened resources: it is also a substance of importance in Geology. For some years I have felt the need for a book that sets out the fundamentals of fluid mechanics, written for geologists rather than engineers. The efforts to repair my own deficiencies in this respect led me along various unfamiliar paths, few of which were unrewarding. This book is the result of my journeys through the literature and as a geologist in several parts of the world. It has been written for students of geology of all ages, in the simplest terms possible, and it has one objective: to provide a basis for an understanding of the mechanical role of water in geology. It has not been written for experts in ground water hydrology, or specialists in the fluid aspects of structural geology: it has been written for geologists like me who are not very good mathematicians, so that we can take water better into account in our normal geological work, whatever it might be. The fundamentals apply equally to mineralization, geochemistry, and vulcanology although they have not been specifically mentioned. It has also been written for the university student of geology so that he or she may start a career with some appreciation of the importance of water, and understanding of its movement.
Category: Science

The Seismogenic Zone Of Subduction Thrust Faults

Author : Timothy H. Dixon
ISBN : 9780231512015
Genre : Science
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Subduction zones, one of the three types of plate boundaries, return Earth's surface to its deep interior. Because subduction zones are gently inclined at shallow depths and depress Earth's temperature gradient, they have the largest seismogenic area of any plate boundary. Consequently, subduction zones generate Earth's largest earthquakes and most destructive tsunamis. As tragically demonstrated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of December 2004, these events often impact densely populated coastal areas and cause large numbers of fatalities. While scientists have a general understanding of the seismogenic zone, many critical details remain obscure. This volume attempts to answer such fundamental concerns as why some interplate subduction earthquakes are relatively modest in rupture length (greater than 100 km) while others, such as the great (M greater than 9) 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and 2004 Sumatra events, rupture along 1000 km or more. Contributors also address why certain subduction zones are fully locked, accumulating elastic strain at essentially the full plate convergence rate, while others appear to be only partially coupled or even freely slipping; whether these locking patterns persist through the seismic cycle; and what is the role of sediments and fluids on the incoming plate. Nineteen papers written by experts in a variety of fields review the most current lab, field, and theoretical research on the origins and mechanics of subduction zone earthquakes and suggest further areas of exploration. They consider the composition of incoming plates, laboratory studies concerning sediment evolution during subduction and fault frictional properties, seismic and geodetic studies, and regional scale deformation. The forces behind subduction zone earthquakes are of increasing environmental and societal importance.
Category: Science

Formation And Applications Of The Sedimentary Record In Arc Collision Zones

Author : Amy E. Draut
ISBN : 9780813724362
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.51 MB
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"Inspired by a GSA Penrose Conference held in 2005 (cosponsored by the International Association of Sedimentologists and the British Sedimentological Research Group), the 17 papers in this volume explore sedimentary environments in arc collision zones and their utility in recording the evolution of modern and ancient convergent margins. The first set of papers in the collection focuses on formation and evolution of the sedimentary record in arc settings and arc collision zones, concentrating on modern intra-oceanic examples. Papers include studies of flexural modeling and factors that affect development of siliciclastic and carbonate deposits around modern arcs. The second half of the volume presents new applications of arc sedimentary records. These relate primarily to constraining tectonic events in the evolution of arc systems, but also concern the links among tectonic uplift, collision, and geomorphic and climatic feedback mechanisms in arc collision zones."--Publisher's website.
Category: Science

The Geological Evolution Of Australia New Zealand

Author : D. A. Brown
ISBN : 9781483181134
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.44 MB
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The Geological Evolution of Australia and New Zealand focuses on the stratigraphy of Australia and New Zealand. This compendium covers the stratigraphy, paleogeography, and paleontology of various systems, including the Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous systems. Tectonism and igneous activity of these systems are also examined in this collection. Other systems considered are the Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary systems. This book will be invaluable to archeologists, historians, researchers, and academicians interested in the stratigraphy of Australia and New Zealand, as well as those who wish to study the rock formation of their respective location.
Category: Science

Marine Clastic Sedimentology

Author : Jeremy K. Leggett
ISBN : 9789400932418
Genre : Science
File Size : 57.46 MB
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Tarquin Teale, a sedimentology/stratigraphy postgraduate student at the Royal School of Mines, was killed in a road accident south of Rome on 17 October 1985. Premature death is a form of tragedy which can make havoc of the ordered progress which we try to impose on our lives. As parents, relatives and friends, we all know this, and yet somehow when it touches our own world there is no consolation to be found anywhere. In Tarquin's case the enormity of the loss felt by those of us who knew him can barely be expressed in words. Tarquin had everything which we aspire to. His fellow graduate students envied his dramatic progress in research. We his advisors, in appreciating this progress, marvelled at how refreshingly rare it was to see such precocious talent combined with such a caring, modest and well-balanced personality. He was des tined for the highest honours in geoscience and there is no doubt that he would have lived a life, had he been granted the chance, which would have spread colour, intellectual insight and goodness.
Category: Science

Glacial Geology

Author : Matthew M. Bennett
ISBN : 9781119966692
Genre : Science
File Size : 79.88 MB
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The new Second Edition of Glacial Geology provides a modern, comprehensive summary of glacial geology and geomorphology. It is has been thoroughly revised and updated from the original First Edition. This book will appeal to all students interested in the landforms and sediments that make up glacial landscapes. The aim of the book is to outline glacial landforms and sediments and to provide the reader with the tools required to interpret glacial landscapes. It describes how glaciers work and how the processes of glacial erosion and deposition which operate within them are recorded in the glacial landscape. The Second Edition is presented in the same clear and concise format as the First Edition, providing detailed explanations that are not cluttered with unnecessary detail. Additions include a new chapter on Glaciations around the Globe, demonstrating the range of glacial environments present on Earth today and a new chapter on Palaeoglaciology, explaining how glacial landforms and sediments are used in ice-sheet reconstructions. Like the original book, text boxes are used throughout to explain key concepts and to introduce students to case study material from the glacial literature. Newly updated sections on Further Reading are also included at the end of each chapter to point the reader towards key references. The book is illustrated throughout with colour photographs and illustrations.
Category: Science

Basement Tectonics 9

Author : M.J. Rickard
ISBN : 9789401126540
Genre : Science
File Size : 23.98 MB
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The Ninth International Conference on Basement Tectonics was held at the Australian National University in Canberra 2-6 July 1990. The opening keynote address was given by Prof. R.W.R. Rutland, Director of the Bureau of Mineral Resources. Other keynote speakers were E.S.T. O'Driscoll, an Australian consultant, and Prof P. Bankwitz, Central Institute for Physics of the Earth, Potsdam, GDR. Technical sessions were arranged by session conveners on the following five topic- i) The structure of the Australian craton and cover basins; ii) Basement structure of continental regions; iii) Structural patterns and mineral deposits; iv) Techniques for analysing basement structures; v) Structural patterns in oceanic crust. The arrangement of papers for this Proceedings Volume has been simplified. Part 1 deals with Australia, Part 2 with other areas and Part 3 lists the titles of all the papers read at the conference. Abstracts of these papers are available in Geological Society of Australia Abstracts No 26 and may be purchased for $AI0 from the Geological Society of Australia Office, ANA House, 301 George Street, Sydney NSW 2000. Field trips to view aspects of the Lachlan Fold Belt and the Sydney Basin were assisted by H.J. Harrington, D. Branagan, D. Wyborn, B. Drummond and M.J. Rick~d. A longer field trip, aborted through low enrolments, was organized by H.J. Harrington with assistance from W. Preiss, N. Cook, R. Glenn, A. Grady, and P. James; this assistance is gratefully acknowledged.
Category: Science

The Sedimentary Record Of Meteorite Impacts

Author : Kevin R. Evans
ISBN : 9780813724379
Genre : Science
File Size : 86.77 MB
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Although about 70 percent of known terrestrial meteorite impacts involve sedimentary rocks, the response of such rock to hyper- velocity impact is not well understand. Evans (Missouri State U., Springfield) introduces a dozen papers from a session on impact geology at the 2004 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting. Arranged by rocks' stratigraphic order (oldest to youngest) in proximal and distal settings, papers study topics including: characterization of impact sediments; a model for impact cratering processes; development of breccias (rock composed of sharp fragments embedded in a fine- grained matrix) in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure; and the method of impact stratigraphy applied to aging of the K-T boundary associated with mass extinction. The well-illustrated volume is not indexed.
Category: Science

Strike Slip Deformation Basin Formation And Sedimentation

Author : Kevin T. Biddle
ISBN : UCSD:31822002230092
Genre : Science
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The volume is organized into three sections entitled Overview, Extensional Settings and Contractional Settings together with a glossary of terms having to do with strike-slip deformation, basin formation and sedimentation.
Category: Science

From Depositional Systems To Sedimentary Successions On The Norwegian Continental Margin

Author : Allard W. Martinius
ISBN : 9781118920459
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.93 MB
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The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS), focus of this special publication, is a prolific hydrocarbon region and both exploration and production activity remains high to this day with a positive production outlook. A key element today and in the future is to couple technological developments to improving our understanding of specific geological situations. The theme of the publication reflects the immense efforts made by all industry operators and their academic partners on the NCS to understand in detail the structural setting, sedimentology and stratigraphy of the hydrocarbon bearing units and their source and seal. The papers cover a wide spectrum of depositional environments ranging from alluvial fans to deepwater fans, in almost every climate type from arid through humid to glacial, and in a variety of tectonic settings. Special attention is given to the integration of both analogue studies and process-based models with the insights gained from extensive subsurface datasets.
Category: Science

Deformation Structures And Processes Within The Continental Crust

Author : S. Llana-Fúnez
ISBN : 9781862396272
Genre : Science
File Size : 73.54 MB
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This volume presents a selection of papers showing the current focus of studies of deformation structures and processes within the continental crust. The selected contributions use a large range of analytical techniques suited to the full range of structure sizes and fine-tuned to the physical process that controls the deformation, from the grain boundary at the micro-scale, the lithological contact at the meso-scale to the plate boundary at the global scale. The papers in the volume are grouped into three sections relating to specific lines of research within the analysis of rock deformation structures and processes, in particular in respect to the continental crust: structures within shear zones and faults; magmatic structures, and microstructures and rheology. These sections include papers describing field studies, experimental rock deformation and numerical modelling of deformation processes.
Category: Science