THE FUNCTIONAL ACTOR IN THE SECURITIZATION PROCESS

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The Functional Actor In The Securitization Process

Author : Ricarda Popa
ISBN : 9783640518173
Genre : Law
File Size : 86.6 MB
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Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Public International Law and Human Rights, grade: 13 points, University of Marburg (Faculty of Social Science and Philosophy), course: Human Rigths in Conflict, language: English, abstract: This research paper ascertains, by means of the Social Identity Theory, the social psychological characteristics that facilitate the occurrence of the securitizing act on behalf of the actor of the Copenhagen School’s Securitization Theory, termed as functional actor, and more commonly known as ‚significant addressed audience’. By this,it aims at the understanding of the factors that determine the functional actor to consent to securitization, since this category of actor has been left untheorized, despite of its key role in the securitization process. The departure point is a question that the authors of the securitization theory, themselves address: “When does an argument [...] achieve sufficient effect to make an audience tolerate violations of rules that would otherwise have to be obeyed? [...] For individuals and groups to speak security does not guarantee success” as “securitization is not decided by the securitizer, but by the audience of the speech act.” (Buzan 1998:25,31) The only stipulation refers to the functional actor’s power to materialize securitization, being neither the referent object, nor the securitizing actor. The deficiency of theorization has impelled a social psychological elaboration of the functional actor’s distinguishing features that causes it to accept the securitizing act, since the absence of details in this respect leaves much space for interpretation, and leads to the investment of resources, when securitization analysis should not be centered upon the establishment of the actors, but upon the process and dynamics of securitization.
Category: Law

Securitization And Desecuritization Of Farc In Colombia

Author : Başar Baysal
ISBN : 9781498586894
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 34.14 MB
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This study introduces a new dual securitization framework by examining processes outside of the west and looking at democratic and state effectiveness contextual factors. Empirically, the study analyzes the securitization and desecuritization of FARC in Colombia by utilizing new framework.
Category: Political Science

Securitization Of The Umbrella Movement In Hong Kong

Author : Cora Y.T. Hui
ISBN : 9780429766589
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 50.46 MB
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In recent years, the city many hoped would help democratize China has instead become a research setting in which to study China’s increasing intolerance of dissent. Since Hong Kong’s return to Chinese sovereignty in 1997, China’s treatment of Hong Kong could be divided into three stages: non-intervention, intervention, and securitization. If the July 1 march in 2003 is a watershed that marked Beijing’s change from non-intervention to intervention, this book suggests that the Umbrella Movement in 2014 is another watershed that marked Beijing’s change from intervention to securitization. This book is a theoretically driven case study of the Umbrella Movement, a massive sit-in that paralyzed key business and retail districts for 79 days in Hong Kong in 2014. Many Hongkongers believe that they have the right to a fair election of the chief executive, and Beijing’s insistence on vetting candidates prompted the outbreak of the Umbrella Movement. Drawing insights from the securitization theory and fear appeal literature, the book proposes the framework of “security appeal.” It argues that the outbreak of the Umbrella Movement resulted from a premature use of hard repression, that is, before the government convinced the general public that the Umbrella Movement was a threat. The eventual successful securitization entails a general acceptance of the threatening nature of the Umbrella Movement and agreement with its crackdown. This book concludes that one of the consequences of the securitization of the Umbrella Movement is Beijing’s eventual switch to the policy of “patriotocracy” – a system that allocates power and resources based on one’s professed patriotism – in lieu of One Country, Two Systems. The policy implications and theoretical and methodological contributions of this book will be of interest to scholars and students of security studies; Chinese politics; and various social science disciplines, including political science, psychology, criminology, and sociology.
Category: Social Science

Islam Securitization And Us Foreign Policy

Author : Erdoan A. Shipoli
ISBN : 9783319711119
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 23.25 MB
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This book argues that Islam has been securitized in US foreign policy, especially during the W. Bush administration when it was increasingly portrayed as the ultimate “other.” This securitization was realized through the association of Islam with unique security threats in speeches of foreign policy and national security. By analyzing the four recent US presidents’ discourses on Islam, this work sheds light on how they viewed Islam and addresses the following questions: How do we talk about Islam, its place and relationship within the context of US security? How does the language we use to describe Islam influence the way we imagine it? How is Islam constructed as a security issue?
Category: Political Science

Ethnic Minorities In Democratizing Muslim Countries

Author : Maurizio Geri
ISBN : 9783319755748
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 26.90 MB
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This book explores the ways in which democratizing Muslim countries treat their ethnic minorities’ requests of inclusiveness and autonomy. The author examines the results of two important cases—the securitization of Kurds in Turkey and the “autonomization” (a new concept coined by the study) of Acehnese in Indonesia—through multiple hypotheses: the elites’ power interest, the international factors, the institutions and history of the state, and the ontological security of the country. By examining states with ethnic diversity and very little religious diversity, the research controls for the effect of religious conflict on minority inclusion, and so allows expanded generalizations and comparisons. In non-Muslim majority countries, and in so called “mature democracies,” the problem of the inclusion of old or new ethnic minorities is also crucial for the sustainability of the “never-ending” democratization processes.
Category: Political Science

Democratization And Securitization

Author : Adina Marina Stefan
ISBN : 9789004177390
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 52.81 MB
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"Securitization and Democratization" reveals the mutual dependency between democratization and securitization, two processes that while evolving reinforce each other. The study of the democratic consolidation is complemented by the more complex and dynamic securitization elements that offer an in-depth view of the internal threats to be faced. Ms. Stefan s analysis creates an articulated and coherent concept underlying the close dependence between democracy and security. As a study case, Romania provides a wide scale of situations in several security sectors and contributes to building a model that is operational in any post-communist society.
Category: Political Science

The Politics And Policies Of Relief Aid And Reconstruction

Author : Fulvio Attina
ISBN : 9781137026736
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 65.23 MB
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Disaster policies present a new challenge to the practitioners and students of global politics; this book explains how political science enriches the contribution of the social sciences to the study of disaster relief, aid and reconstruction following the major disaster events, both natural and man-made, of recent times.
Category: Political Science

Environmental Crime

Author : Robert Douglas White
ISBN : PSU:000067184149
Genre : Law
File Size : 66.54 MB
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Environmental crime is a topic of growing international importance. It provides a general introduction and overview by presenting key articles and source material in the emerging area of green or environmental criminology. The focus for the collection is environmental crime, itself an ambiguous concept, and one that has been defined in the broadest terms to include environmental harms of many different kinds. The articles and extracts reprinted in this Reader span a wide range of concerns - from issues of pollution, illegal disposal of waste and logging, through to prosecution of specific environmental offences and crime prevention as this pertains to trade in endangered species – and draws on many different sources, and from many different disciplines and perspectives. It is divided into three main sections: conceptualising environmental crime; dynamics of environmental crime and environmental law enforcement. This is a most inclusive and up-to-date collection and an essential resource for policy-makers, environmental managers, magistrates and others with a general interest in environmental issues.
Category: Law

A Resurgent Russia And The West

Author : Roger E. Kanet
ISBN : NWU:35556041153503
Genre : History
File Size : 41.29 MB
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Kanet discusses Russia's return as a super power and examines the global implications.
Category: History

Religious Radicalization And Securitization In Canada And Beyond

Author : Paul Bramadat
ISBN : 9781442665408
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 69.33 MB
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After the terrorist attacks of 9/11, those in London and Madrid, and the arrest of the “Toronto 18,” Canadians have changed how they think about terrorism and security. As governments respond to the potential threat of homegrown radicalism, many observers have become concerned about the impact of those security measures on the minority groups whose lives are “securitized.” In Religious Radicalization and Securitization in Canada and Beyond, Paul Bramadat and Lorne Dawson bring together contributors from a wide range of academic disciplines to examine the challenges created by both religious radicalism and the state’s and society’s response to it. This collection takes a critical look at what is known about religious radicalization, how minorities are affected by radicalization from within and securitization from without, and how the public, media, and government are attempting to cope with the dangers of both radicalization and securitization. Religious Radicalization and Securitization in Canada and Beyond is an ideal guide to the ongoing debates on how best to respond to radicalization without sacrificing the commitments to multiculturalism and social justice that many Canadians hold dear.
Category: Political Science