The Fourth Discontinuity

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The Fourth Discontinuity

Author : Bruce Mazlish
ISBN : 0300065124
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26.69 MB
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From Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to current films like The Terminator about menacing androids, writers have expressed concern about computers and biogenetic creations taking over or altering human life. In this engrossing and lively book, Bruce Mazlish discusses the complex relationship between humans and machines, pondering the implications of humans becoming more mechanical (our bodies increasingly hooked up to artificial parts), and of computer robots being programmed to think. Mazlish argues that just as Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud overturned our illusions of separation from and domination over the cosmos, the animal world, and the unconscious, it is now necessary to relinquish a fourth fallacy or discontinuity--that humans are discontinuous and distinct from the machines they make. Drawing on history and legend, science and science fiction, Mazlish examines how events and individuals have shaped the ways that humans relate to machines. He describes early Greek and Chinese automatons (forerunners of the robot); he discusses the seventeenth-century debate over what was called the "animal machine"; he shows how the Industrial Revolution created a truly mechanical civilization; he looks at what thinkers such as Descartes, Linnaeus, Darwin, Freud, Pavlov, Charles Babbage, T.H. Huxley, and Samuel Butler contributed to our understanding of human nature as contrasted with animal or machi≠ and he surveys the modern revolutions in biogenetics and computer and brain sciences that have brought humans and machines closer together than ever before. Mazlish argues provocatively that human nature is best understood in the context of the machines and tools we have created and that humans and our creations--computer robots--will eventually evolve into two new species coexisting in a symbiotic relationship.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Perspectives On The Computer Revolution

Author : Zenon W. Pylyshyn
ISBN : 0893913693
Genre : Computers
File Size : 39.10 MB
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This is a completely revised and updated edition of this text designed to introduce students to the historical, intellectual and social context of computers. Although the majority of the chapters in this edition are new, the original criteria for selecting essays has been retained. The text retains the historical pieces and adds new material on artifical intelligence, the human-computer interface, the intellectual importance of computing, and the social imapct of computer technology.
Category: Computers

Terminal Identity

Author : Scott Bukatman
ISBN : 0822313405
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 25.73 MB
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Scott Bukatman's Terminal Identity—referring to both the site of the termination of the conventional "subject" and the birth of a new subjectivity constructed at the computer terminal or television screen--puts to rest any lingering doubts of the significance of science fiction in contemporary cultural studies. Demonstrating a comprehensive knowledge, both of the history of science fiction narrative from its earliest origins, and of cultural theory and philosophy, Bukatman redefines the nature of human identity in the Information Age. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theories of the postmodern—including Fredric Jameson, Donna Haraway, and Jean Baudrillard—Bukatman begins with the proposition that Western culture is suffering a crisis brought on by advanced electronic technologies. Then in a series of chapters richly supported by analyses of literary texts, visual arts, film, video, television, comics, computer games, and graphics, Bukatman takes the reader on an odyssey that traces the postmodern subject from its current crisis, through its close encounters with technology, and finally to new self-recognition. This new "virtual subject," as Bukatman defines it, situates the human and the technological as coexistent, codependent, and mutally defining. Synthesizing the most provocative theories of postmodern culture with a truly encyclopedic treatment of the relevant media, this volume sets a new standard in the study of science fiction—a category that itself may be redefined in light of this work. Bukatman not only offers the most detailed map to date of the intellectual terrain of postmodern technology studies—he arrives at new frontiers, providing a propitious launching point for further inquiries into the relationship of electronic technology and culture.
Category: Literary Criticism

The Uncertain Sciences

Author : Bruce Mazlish
ISBN : 0300147163
Genre : History
File Size : 66.54 MB
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In this wide-ranging book one of the most esteemed cultural historians of our time turns his attention to major questions about human experience and the attempts to understand it "scientifically." Bruce Mazlish considers the achievements, failings, and possibilities of the human sciences-a domain that he broadly defines to include the social sciences, literature, psychology, and hermeneutic studies. In a rich and original synthesis built upon the work of earlier philosophers and historians, Mazlish constructs a new view of the nature and meaning of the human sciences.Starting with the remote human past and moving through the Age of Discovery to the present day, the author discusses what sort of knowledge the human sciences claim to offer. He looks closely at the positivistic aspirations of the human sciences, which are modeled after the natural sciences, and at their interpretive tendencies. In an analysis of scientific method and scientific community, he explores the roles they can or should assume in the human sciences. Mazlish's approach is genuinely interdisciplinary, and he draws on an array of topics, from civil society to globalization to the interactions of humans and machines, to inform his thought-provoking discussion of historical consciousness.
Category: History

Organization 21c

Author : Subir Chowdhury
ISBN : 0130603147
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 41.73 MB
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Organization 21C: Someday All Organizations Will Lead This Way brings together 19 all-new essays by the world's leading management thinkers, covering every key driver of organizational success: leadership, process, people, and organizational design. You'll find breakthrough ideas and practical solutions for virtually every tactical and strategic challenge you face. Key topics include: James Champy's X-engineering, Total Rewards Management, the "New Boardroom," the changing nature of power and influence, building workable hierarchies and sustainable organizations, and new best practices for leading change.
Category: Business & Economics

Understanding Digital Culture

Author : Vincent Miller
ISBN : 9781526416698
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 85.4 MB
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From profiling databases and mashups to cybersex and the truth about social networking, Miller's insightful second edition traces the pervasive influence of 'digital culture' throughout contemporary life. He integrates socio-economic understandings of the 'information society' with the cultural studies approach to production, use, and consumption of digital media and multimedia. Still refreshingly readable and packed with new examples; Understanding Digital Culture: Includes new and updated material on work and commodity production in digital capitalism, "slacktivism", industrial espionage and major bank hacks, the rise of mobile dating apps, and cyber-bullying alongside trolling. Unpacks how the information society is transforming and challenging traditional notions of crime, resistance, war and protest, community, intimacy and belonging. Crosses disciplines to give a balanced account of the social, economic and cultural dimensions of the information society. Illuminates the increasing importance of mobile, wireless and converged media technologies in everyday life. Charts the changing cultural forms associated with new media and its consumption, including music, gaming, microblogging and online identity. Illustrates the above through a series of contemporary, in-depth case studies of digital culture. This is the perfect text for students looking for a full account of the information society, virtual cultures, sociology of the Internet and new media.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Globalization And Transformation

Author : Bruce Mazlish
ISBN : 9781351517294
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 29.89 MB
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In Globalization and Transformation, Bruce Mazlish examines developments in contemporary warfare, economy, technology, and religion as fundamental factors in human experience that have accelerated global change in recent years. Continuing the analysis he began in Reflections on the Modern and the Global, Mazlish delves into human history, examining who we were so as to help us understand who we are today.Early in the volume, Mazlish highlights the British historian Geoffrey Barraclough, who foresaw the trajectory of world events that gave rise to the "New Global History." He also examines humanity's progress, reminding us of contemporary globalization's precursors: the theories of Charles Darwin; the concept of the global and the local coupled with inquiry into the concept of parts and wholes; merchant empires, such as the English and Dutch East India companies that crisscrossed the ocean in pursuit of profits and power; anti-globalization; and the linkage of globalization to the very concept of humanity.Though globalization is a complex concept, and versatile in its applications, Mazlish focuses on its transformational characteristics, noting that globalization's impact is not uniform across society's culture, politics, or economics. Some parts of the world have yet to accept the challenge to their past traditions. These stimulating essays offer new insights into a major phenomenon of our time.
Category: Political Science

Writing On The Wall

Author : Philip Van Notten
ISBN : 9781581122657
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 38.38 MB
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Although the significance of '9/11' is subject to debate, it is symbolic of a general sentiment of discontinuity whereby society is vulnerable to undefined and highly disruptive events. Recent catalysts of this sentiment are eye-catching developments such as the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and bird flu outbreaks, the Enron and Parmalat scandals, political assassinations in Sweden and the Netherlands, regime changes in Iraq and Afghanistan, and terrorist attacks in Bali, Istanbul, Madrid, and various parts of the Middle East. However, recent discontinuities should not be seen as evidence that discontinuities occur more frequently now than they did before. Looking back in history we see that disruptive processes are common. For example, 25 years ago few Europeans would have predicted the upcoming upheavals on their own continent: the collapse of communism, Berlin as the capital of a reunited Germany, the wars in the former Yugoslavia, the single European currency, and the near doubling of the number of European Union member states. Changes elsewhere have been no less discontinuous and unforeseen: the fall of the Asian tigers, the emergence of the Internet and mobile telecommunication, and the presidency of Nelson Mandela. Societal discontinuity is a relatively new area of concern in policy development. Since the 1970s the consideration of change and discontinuity has gained some ground over predictive forecasting, which tended to reason from continuous developments and linear processes. Rather than making forecasting the future, it has become popular to use scenarios as a manner to consider several possible futures. Scenarios are coherent descriptions of alternative hypothetical futures that reflect different perspectives on past, present, and future developments, which can serve as a basis for action. Scenario development aims to combine analytical knowledge with creative thinking in an effort to capture a wide range of possible future developments in a limited number of outlooks. Scenario development assumes that the future is uncertain and the directions in which current developments might range from the conventional to the revolutionary. In theory, scenario development is a way to consider future discontinuity. However, there are indications that the theoretical promise is not reflected in scenario practice. Research has shown that scenarios do not consider the idea of discontinuity as a matter of course. In our research, we found that a scenario study would benefit from efforts to create and foster a 'culture of curiosity' for exploring the future and the possible discontinuities rather than simply commissioning a scenario study to provide insights about the future. Only then can one read the writing on the wall of future developments.
Category: Social Science

The Advancement Of Science And Its Burdens

Author : Gerald James Holton
ISBN : 0674005309
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.41 MB
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In questioning the scientific enterprise and its effect on the society around it, this analysis of modern science has a particular emphasis on the role of thematic elements - often unconscious presuppositions that guide scientific work.
Category: Science

An Urchin In The Storm Essays About Books And Ideas

Author : Stephen Jay Gould
ISBN : 9780393340907
Genre : Science
File Size : 55.89 MB
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"What pleasure to see the dishonest, the inept, and the misguided deftly given their due, while praise is lavished on the deserving—for reasons well and truly stated."—Kirkus Reviews Ranging as far as the fox and as deep as the hedgehog (the urchin of his title), Stephen Jay Gould expands on geology, biological determinism, "cardboard Darwinism," and evolutionary theory in this sparkling collection.
Category: Science

Gis World

Author :
ISBN : MINN:31951P00639334H
Genre : Geographic information systems
File Size : 49.41 MB
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Category: Geographic information systems

Critical Neuroscience

Author : Suparna Choudhury
ISBN : 9781444343335
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 79.1 MB
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Critical Neuroscience: A Handbook of the Social and Cultural Contexts of Neuroscience brings together multi-disciplinary scholars from around the world to explore key social, historical and philosophical studies of neuroscience, and to analyze the socio-cultural implications of recent advances in the field. This text’s original, interdisciplinary approach explores the creative potential for engaging experimental neuroscience with social studies of neuroscience while furthering the dialogue between neuroscience and the disciplines of the social sciences and humanities. Critical Neuroscience transcends traditional skepticism, introducing novel ideas about ‘how to be critical’ in and about science.
Category: Psychology

Black Body Theory And The Quantum Discontinuity 1894 1912

Author : Thomas S. Kuhn
ISBN : 0226458008
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.89 MB
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"A masterly assessment of the way the idea of quanta of radiation became part of 20th-century physics. . . . The book not only deals with a topic of importance and interest to all scientists, but is also a polished literary work, described (accurately) by one of its original reviewers as a scientific detective story."—John Gribbin, New Scientist "Every scientist should have this book."—Paul Davies, New Scientist
Category: Science

Managing Technological Discontinuities

Author : Juha Laurila
ISBN : 9781134683734
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 27.65 MB
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Usually firms introduce new technology in an incremental way, wisely seeking to minimise the adverse effects which business and employees might face. However, this is not always the case. Sometimes technological discontinuities occur when radically different technological systems and working practices are implemented, with the possibility of widespread disruption and conflict. This book looks at this topical issue through the experiences of the international giants of the Finnish paper industry - an industry at the cutting edge of fundamental technological innovation.
Category: Business & Economics

Continuity And Discontinuity In Early Christian Apologetics

Author : Jörg Ulrich
ISBN : 3631579764
Genre : Religion
File Size : 76.79 MB
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This book contains the contributions to a workshop on apologetics in early Christianity which took place at the Fifteenth International Conference on Patristic Studies in Oxford in the summer of 2007. The workshop was arranged by scholars from Germany, Finland and Denmark who had for some time worked together in a project on early Christian apologetics. The aim of the workshop was thus to present and discuss some of the results and still unsolved problems which arose from this project. The book presents the contributions to the workshop. Hereby the editors hope to reach a larger audience and thus to be able to further the discussion of the topic of early Christian apologetics.
Category: Religion

The Age Of Spiritual Machines

Author : Ray Kurzweil
ISBN : 1101077883
Genre : Computers
File Size : 25.75 MB
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Ray Kurzweil is the inventor of the most innovative and compelling technology of our era, an international authority on artificial intelligence, and one of our greatest living visionaries. Now he offers a framework for envisioning the twenty-first century--an age in which the marriage of human sensitivity and artificial intelligence fundamentally alters and improves the way we live. Kurzweil's prophetic blueprint for the future takes us through the advances that inexorably result in computers exceeding the memory capacity and computational ability of the human brain by the year 2020 (with human-level capabilities not far behind); in relationships with automated personalities who will be our teachers, companions, and lovers; and in information fed straight into our brains along direct neural pathways. Optimistic and challenging, thought-provoking and engaging, The Age of Spiritual Machines is the ultimate guide on our road into the next century. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Category: Computers

Justice At War

Author : Richard Delgado
ISBN : 9780814744055
Genre : Law
File Size : 38.30 MB
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The status of civil rights in the United States today is as volatile an issue as ever, with many Americans wondering if new laws, implemented after the events of September 11, restrict more people than they protect. How will efforts to eradicate racism, sexism, and xenophobia be affected by the measures our government takes in the name of protecting its citizens? Richard Delgado, one of the founding figures in the Critical Race Theory movement, addresses these problems with his latest book in the award-winning Rodrigo Chronicles. Employing the narrative device he and other Critical Race theorists made famous, Delgado assembles a cast of characters to discuss such urgent and timely topics as race, terrorism, hate speech, interracial relationships, freedom of speech, and new theories on civil rights stemming from the most recent war. In the course of this new narrative, Delgado provides analytical breakthroughs, offering new civil rights theories, new approaches to interracial romance and solidarity, and a fresh analysis of how whiteness and white privilege figure into the debate on affirmative action. The characters also discuss the black/white binary paradigm of race and show why it persists even at a time when the country's population is rapidly diversifying.
Category: Law

Artificial Intelligence

Author : Ronald Chrisley
ISBN : 041519332X
Genre : Artificial intelligence
File Size : 68.70 MB
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Category: Artificial intelligence

Rethinking Intelligence

Author : Joe L. Kincheloe
ISBN : 9781135962029
Genre : Education
File Size : 67.63 MB
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First published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Category: Education