The Four Forces Airpower Theory

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The Four Forces Airpower Theory

Author : U.s. Army Command and General Staff College
ISBN : 1502925389
Genre : Transportation
File Size : 67.61 MB
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This book suggests an airpower theory that helps explain why airpower does not result in quick, clean, economical, "ideal war. The novelty of this theory stems from the graphic analogy of the four forces that act upon an aircraft in flight. The theory suggests that technology is the "thrust that propels airpower towards ideal war by generating the "lift of improved effects. The "drag of resource constraints and "weight or "gravity of enemy technology and counter-tactics work in opposition and drag airpower from ideal towards real war. A review of three major airpower advocates, William Mitchell, Giulio Douhet, and John Warden, sets a foundation for how airpower advocates have developed ideas, concepts, and theory about airpower's future capabilities. Three case studies, the B-17, free-fall nuclear bomb, and F-22A fighter, trace how airpower advocacy led to technology that would enable ideal war. In each case, application of the Four Forces theory demonstrates that while resource constraints and enemy technology and counter-tactics prevent ideal war, airpower technology improves the character of war as a whole.
Category: Transportation

The Air Campaign

Author : U. S. Military
ISBN : 1521394466
Genre :
File Size : 50.34 MB
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This unique study is first of all an effort to place a consequential airpower thinker in the context of the discourse. Since Professor Mets has been researching and writing about airpower history and topical studies for over forty years, he is well qualified to do the job. Beyond its surface intent, however, this study is also a forum for Mets to give forth a little on the broader meaning of the discourse and on some of its specific parts. Consequently, what starts out as an essay on Col John Warden's place in the pantheon of great airpower thinkers becomes also an opportunity to hear new things about the missions of air warfare, the historical processes that shaped airpower thought, and the reality and importance of the revolution in military affairs.In his straightforward approach to analysis, Professor Mets begins his discussions of three better-known airpower thinkers of the 1920s--Giulio Douhet, Hugh Trenchard, and Billy Mitchell--with a close examination of their personal backgrounds. He pays particular attention to their professional education and operational flying experience. Mets then lays out the salient elements of each thinker's aerial theories, again paying particular attention to the views of each on the relationship of air warfare to warfare in general, its potential for independent decisiveness, target priorities, the air arm's suitability for organizational independence, command arrangements, and air superiority. With those bodies of theory laid out for easy summation and comparison, Dave then does the same thing for John Warden. His subsequent comparison of the four individuals--three whose context was the dawn of military aviation and one whose context included precision munitions and space surveillance--is revealing. Although Warden's professional education and direct operational experience far outshine those of his predecessors, his core theories reflect as much continuity with their ideas as they reflect differences and accommodations to contemporary technology. These relationships are obscured sometimes by terminology differences, however, and it is one of Professor Mets' more important contributions that he cuts through them to show where Warden draws more from his predecessors than is obvious at first.Contents: CHAPTER 1 - THE CONTEXT: A DIFFERENT MIND-SET * The Mind-Set in World War I * Post-World War I Posture * Notes * CHAPTER 2 - GIULIO DOUHET * A Continental Theorist * Organization for War * Impact * Notes * CHAPTER 3 - HUGH TRENCHARD * British Empire Theorist * Organization for War * Notes * CHAPTER 4 - WILLIAM MITCHELL * New World Theorist * Organization for War * Notes * CHAPTER 5 - JOHN WARDEN * Theorist or Throwback? * Organization for War * Notes * CHAPTER 6 - CONCLUSIONS * Notes

Airpower And Technology Smart And Unmanned Weapons

Author : David R. Mets
ISBN : 9780313087387
Genre : History
File Size : 46.65 MB
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Is there a reason for the busy citizen-leader to read about air and space history, theory, and doctrine? Yes, asserts David Mets, because without some vision of what the future is likely to bring, we enter new conflicts unarmed with any ideas and highly vulnerable to confusion and paralysis. He wrote this book to help the aspirant American leader build a theory of war and air and space power, including an understanding of what doctrine is, and what its utility and limitations are. Since its earliest days, airpower has been one of the dominant forces used by the American military. American airmen, both Navy and Air Force, have been continually striving to achieve precision strikes in high altitude, at long range, or in darkness. The search for precision attack from standoff distances or altitudes has been imperative to national objectives with expenditure of American lives, treasure, and time. This work covers the whole history of American aviation with special attention to the development of smart weapons and unmanned aerial vehicles and the influence they have had on the effectiveness of airpower. In a chronological treatment, emphasizing theory and doctrine, technology, tactics, and strategy. Mets also details both combat experience and intellectual processes, lethal and non-lethal, involved in the preparation of airpower. In addition to the narrative discussion, the work offers sidebars and feature sections that facilitate the understanding of key weapons systems and operational challenges. It also offers A Dozen-Book Sampler for Your Reading on Air and Space Theory and Doctrine. The work concludes with a brief look at information warfare and with some speculations about the future. Through this thorough consideration of the evolution of American airpower and technology, Mets provides, not only a map of the past, but a guide to future generations of airpower and its potential for keeping the United States strong and safe.
Category: History

One More Time Can Airpower Win The War

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:227782656
Genre :
File Size : 74.3 MB
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This paper addresses the airpower theories of Douhet and Mitchell as they apply to the four modern wars the United States has been involved in. It looks at conditions that did and did not exist in each conflict, looking for commonalities that depressed the role or results of airpower in each. This paper addresses issues from the perspective of basic airpower theory overlaid on generalities of each war. This essay finds that the relative domination of airpower as a force in war is dependant to political and geographical concerns rather than doctrine. It concludes that although airpower won't win all wars in the future, the potential to win wars is there if political aims and battlefield physical constraint coexist in the appropriate manner.

Airpower Journal

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015081905773
Genre : Aeronautics, Military
File Size : 23.30 MB
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Category: Aeronautics, Military

Contemporary Military Theory

Author : Jan Angstrom
ISBN : 9781136169199
Genre : History
File Size : 23.10 MB
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The book aims to provide the reader with a state-of-the-art introduction to classic and modern military theory. The text accounts for the most important theories within the field by developing and analyzing these theories, as well as problematizing both their normative and explanatory aims. While focusing on military theory, the book does not only reflect a single way of relating to knowledge of war and warfare, but furthers learning by introducing contrasting perspectives as well as constantly criticizing the theories. There is a clear need for an introductory text for the entire field of military theory that focuses whole-heartedly on the theories – not on their context or how they are expressed in practice during war. This book covers such questions as how we should understand the changing character of war, the utility of force and how the pursuit of political ends is achieved through military means. It draws upon and illustrates military thought through a wide-ranging number of examples from the Napoleonic Wars to the current war in Afghanistan. This book will be of great interest for students of military theory, strategic studies, security studies and defence studies.
Category: History

Spare Them The Fate Of Warsaw

Author : Johannes G. Postma
ISBN : OCLC:1151829078
Genre : Air power
File Size : 34.75 MB
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"This study comprises a historical analysis of the use of coercive airpower by the Luftwaffe during the invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940. A weakness is much of the existing scholarship on the invasion and the bombing of Rotterdam specifically is that authors tend to present binary views on the role of airpower within this operation. On the one hand, there is the common view that the German forces overwhelmed the Dutch defenders and airpower played a supporting role, executing a strategy of denial. On the other hand, some historians view the bombing of Rotterdam as an example of a German strategy of punishment. This debate is indicative of a larger debate in the discourse on airpower theory, which is historically divided in a strategic school and a tactical school. Through his research, the author finds middle ground in both the discussion on the German use of airpower in May 1940, as well as in the theoretical debate. An overview of relevant airpower theory and airpower development in Germany prior to the war provide the contextual basis of the thesis. Three chapters on the Dutch defenses, the events on the battlefield between 10 and 14 May, and the bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May contain the detail necessary to analyze which airpower strategy was used under which circumstances. This author concludes that throughout the course of the invasion, the Luftwaffe executed four different airpower strategies: decapitation, denial, punishment, and risk. None of these strategies were independently decisive, but all contributed to the eventual German strategic success. This thesis, therefore, finds middle ground in the historical debate on which type of airpower led to the defeat of the Dutch forces. The findings of this analysis furthermore provide a perspective on the discourse of airpower theory. The author warns against rigidly categorizing airpower within the confines of predictive theories. Rather, airpower is a context dependent tool which has to be tailored to the circumstances within which it operates. It is up to the strategist to analyze the environment and adjust the use of airpower according to the context at hand."--Abstract.
Category: Air power

Soviet Air Force Theory 1918 1945

Author : James Sterrett
ISBN : 9781135987930
Genre : History
File Size : 49.46 MB
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This new book examines the development of Soviet thinking on the operational employment of their Air Force from 1918 to 1945, using Soviet theoretical writings and contemporary analyses of combat actions.
Category: History

Roots Of Strategy

Author : David Jablonsky
ISBN : 9780811741354
Genre : History
File Size : 55.38 MB
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Selections from four legends in maritime and air strategy: Mahan, Corbett, Douhet and Mitchell. Introduction by noted military strategist and author David Jablonsky.
Category: History

Books In Print

Author : Bowker Editorial Staff
ISBN : 0835235033
Genre :
File Size : 57.20 MB
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The Origins Of American Strategic Bombing Theory

Author : Lt. Col. Craig F. Morris
ISBN : 9781682472538
Genre : History
File Size : 36.33 MB
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Strategic bombing is likely the most studied element in Aviation History. The shelves of libraries are filled with books on the topic, yet relatively little is known about where the concept originated or how it evolved. Most of the books on strategic bombing fall into three categories: descriptions of bombing campaigns, critiquing whether they succeeded, or describing why different nations pursued individual visions of airpower. While these are important analyses, there is no one complete study of the idea behind America’s vision of strategy bombing that answers: how it originated, why it changed over time, the factors that shaped change, and how technology molded military doctrine? This book provides just such a full spectrum intellectual history of the American concept of strategic bombing. In the minds of forward thinking aerial theorists the new technology of the airplane removed the limitations of geography, defenses, and operational reach that had restricted ground and naval forces since the dawn of human conflict. With aviation, a nation could avoid costly traditional military campaigns and attack the industrial heart of an enemy using long-range bombers. Yet, the acceptance of strategic bombing doctrine proved a hard-fought process. The story of strategic bombing is not that of any one person or any one causal factor. Instead, it is a twisting tale of individual efforts, organizational infighting, political priorities, and most important technological integration. At no point was strategic bombing preordained or destined to succeed. In every era, the theory had to survive critical challenges. By tracing the complex interrelationships of these four causal factors, this book provides a greater understanding of the origins and rise to dominance of American strategic bombing theory. The Origins of American Strategic Bombing meets this need in two ways. First, it explains the intellectual process of going from Wright Flyers to B-17 formations over Germany. Next, it identifies the factors that shaped that intellectual development. In doing so, it challenges the Air Force’s self-identity with a much more complex explanation. It is no longer the story of Billy Mitchell or The Bomber Mafia, but one of a complicated interweaving of events, people, organizational cultures, technology, and politics. The book is unique as it integrates military, political, cultural, and technological history to explain the rise of strategic bombing as the dominant American vision of airpower as it entered World War II.
Category: History

Air Power History

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105110560567
Genre : Aeronautics, Military
File Size : 68.64 MB
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Category: Aeronautics, Military

The Politics Of Coercion Toward A Theory Of Coercive Airpower For Post Cold War Conflict

Author : IV Lieutenant Colonel Usaf El Hinman
ISBN : 1479281395
Genre :
File Size : 37.98 MB
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In The Politics of Coercion: Toward a Theory of Coercive Airpower for Post-Cold War Conflict, Lt. Col. Ellwood P. "Skip" Hinman IV confronts an issue of high interest to airmen and policy makers alike: What does coercion theory suggest about the use of airpower in the early twenty-first century? More specifically, Colonel Hinman seeks to determine whether any of the existing theories of coercion can stand alone as a coherent, substantive, and codified approach to airpower employment. Framing his analysis on three key attributes of conflict in the post-Cold War era - limited, nonprotracted war; political re-straint; and the importance of a better state of peace - Hinman examines the contemporary applicability of the four major theories of coercive airpower: punishment, risk, decapitation, and denial. For reasons explained in these pages, Hinman finds limitations in each of the prevailing theories of coercion. In proposing a new construct that more adequately meets the needs of post-Cold War conflict, the author recommends a three-phase "hybrid approach" to coercion that draws on the strengths and minimized the weaknesses of existing theory. Arguing that aspects of this hybrid approach were evident in the employment of airpower in Operations Desert Storm, Deliberate Force, and Allied Force, Hinman contends that his hybrid theory of coercion is uniquely well suited for the unsettled geopolitical landscape of the post-Cold War era.

The Development Of Air Doctrine In The Army Air Arm 1917 1941 Hap Arnold Chennault Douhet Mitchell Foulois Drum Board Alexander De Seversky General Eaker World War I And Ii

Author : Department of Defense
ISBN : 1521308470
Genre :
File Size : 89.29 MB
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This monograph recounts the development of air doctrine in the Army air arm from 1917 to 1941. It includes concepts, both strategic and tactical, that emerged during World War I and the period following, up to the entry of the United States into World War II. The study is based primarily on official Air Force records and upon interviews with officers of the air arm who have been especially associated with air doctrine. When the debacle at Pearl Harbor thrust the United States into a war for survival, the nation marshalled its forces on land and sea and in the air. And although land, sea, and air forces all played vital roles in securing the triumph, the part of the air arm was unique. For the first time in the history of war, airpower was employed as a major striking force, drastically altering the course and nature of the struggle and decisively influencing the outcome. CHAPTER 1 - THE AIR SERVICE IN WORLD WAR I, 1917-1918 * Prewar Organization and Concepts * American Participation in World War I * General concepts of warfare and air employment * Over-all air operations, organization, and control * Pursuit aviation Bombardment aviation * Attack aviation * Air plans during the armistice * CHAPTER 2 - THE HEROIC AGE OF DOCTRINAL DEVELOPMENT, 1919-1926 * Diverging Views of the Nature of War * The War Department view * Views of Air Service leaders * The Struggle for the Control of Airpower * Demands for complete separation * Arguments of the air crusaders * Rebuttal by the high command * Creation of the Army Air Corps (1926) * Evolving Doctrines of Air Employment * The general functions of military aviation * Argument with the Navy regarding coast defense * Pursuit aviation * Bombardment aviation * Attack aviation * Comparative summary of doctrines in 1926 * CHAPTER 3 - DEVELOPMENT OF THE AIR FORCE IDEA, 1926-1935 * Development of the High-speed Bomber * Efforts to stimulate improved aircraft design * Successful development of two-engine bombers: the B-9 and B-10 * The B-17 "Flying Fortress" * Trend of Doctrine at the Air Corps Tactical School * Concepts of the nature of war: influence of Mitchell and Douhet * The employment of airpower * Bombardment aviation; the precision doctrine and the escort problem * Pursuit aviation * Attack aviation * The Impasse with the Navy Regarding Land-based Bombardment * Establishment of the GHQ Air Force (1935) * CHAPTER 4 - REFINEMENT AND SUBSTANTIATION OF THE LONG-RANGE BOMBARDMENT CONCEPT, 1935-1939 * Hemisphere Defense Policy as a Factor in Strategic Concepts and Air Doctrine * Elaboration of Air Theory at the Air Corps Tactical School * The nature of war and the employment of airpower * Bombardment aviation * Pursuit aviation * Attack aviation * The Crucial Fight for Production and Development of the Long-range Bomber * Bomber program related to coast defense * Andrews presses for exclusive procurement of four-engine bombers * Air Corps demands for unlimited development of the bomber * The General Staff blocks the way * President Roosevelt removes the block * The Influence of Foreign Wars upon American Air Doctrine * China * Ethiopia * Spain * Munich * Adjustments in Air Organization * CHAPTER 5 - PREPARATION OF AIR DOCTRINE FOR WORLD WAR II, 1939-1941 * General Influence of the European War upon the Theory and Position of Airpower * Tactical Lessons from the Air War Abroad * Final Shaping of Air Doctrines on the Eve of American Involvement * Purpose and nature of warfare * The role and employment of airpower in war * Bombardment aviation * Pursuit aviation * Attack and light bombardment aviation * Blueprint for action: AWPD/1 * Establishment of Army Air Forces (1941) * CHAPTER 6 - CONCLUSIONS

The Air Forces Reader

Author : Norman V. Carlisle
ISBN : UCAL:B4247138
Genre : Air warfare
File Size : 27.92 MB
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Category: Air warfare

The Foundations Of Us Air Doctrine

Author : Barry D. Watts
ISBN : UOM:39015014515418
Genre : Aeronautics, Military
File Size : 59.9 MB
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This study analyzes airpower doctrine from the viewpoint of Clausewitzian friction. The study concludes that American airpower doctrine has changed very little since the 1930s and that it is fundamentally flawed.
Category: Aeronautics, Military