The First Jewish Revolt

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Jewish Roman Wars

Author : Source Wikipedia
ISBN : 1230528946
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 28. Chapters: Masada, Bar Kokhba revolt, Siege of Yodfat, First Jewish-Roman War, Siege of Jerusalem, Gamla, Legio X Fretensis, Kitos War, Herodium, Zealot Temple Siege, Jewish revolt against Heraclius, Machaerus, Jewish revolt against Gallus, Battle of Beth Horon, Betar, Archaeological sites in Israel, Marcus Rutilius Lupus, Sextus Julius Severus, Cave of Letters, Athronges. Excerpt: The Bar Kokhba revolt (AD 132-136; Hebrew: or mered bar kokhba) against the Roman Empire was the third major rebellion by the Jews of Judaea Province and the last of the Jewish-Roman Wars. Simon bar Kokhba, the commander of the revolt, was acclaimed as a Messiah, a heroic figure who could restore Israel. The revolt established an independent state of Israel over parts of Judea for over two years, but a Roman army made up of six full legions with auxiliaries and elements from up to six additional legions finally crushed it. The Romans then barred Jews from Jerusalem, except to attend Tisha B'Av. Although Jewish Christians hailed Jesus as the Messiah and did not support Bar Kokhba, they were barred from Jerusalem along with the rest of the Jews. The war and its aftermath helped differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism, see also List of events in early Christianity.The rebellion is also known as The Third Jewish-Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt, though some historians relate it as Second Jewish Revolt, not counting the Kitos War, 115-117. After the failed Great Jewish Revolt in 70, the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province. Instead of a procurator, they installed a praetor as a governor and stationed an entire legion, the X Fretensis. Because the Revolt had resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem, the Council at Yavne provided spiritual guidance for the Jewish nation, both in Judea and...
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The First Jewish Revolt

Author : Andrea M. Berlin
ISBN : 9781134518319
Genre : History
File Size : 46.68 MB
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The First Jewish Revolt against Rome is arguably the most decisive event in the history of Judaism and Christianity. The destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE by the Roman General Titus forced a transformation in structure and form for both of these fraternal religions. Yet despite its importance, little has been written on the First Revolt, its causes, implications and the facts surrounding it. In this volume, Andrea M. Berlin and J. Andrew Overman have gathered the foremost scholars on the period to discuss and debate this pivotal historical event. The contributions explore both Roman and Jewish perspectives on the Revolt, looking at its history and archaeology, and finally examining the ideology and interpretation of the revolt in subsequent history and myth.
Category: History

The Jewish Revolt Ad 66 74

Author : Si Sheppard
ISBN : 9781780961859
Genre : History
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In AD 66 a local disturbance in Caesarea caused by Greeks sacrificing birds in front of a local synagogue exploded into a pan-Jewish revolt against their Roman overlords. Gaining momentum, the rebels successfully occupied Jerusalem and drove off an attack by the Roman legate of Syria, Cestus Gallius, who was defeated at the battle of Beth Horon. The emperor Nero dispatched the Roman general Vespasian along with reinforcements and, having crushed the revolt in Galilee he became embroiled in the events of the Year of the Four Emperors that would lead to his assumption of the Imperial throne. His son Titus was left to carry on the war which culminated in the dramatic siege of Jerusalem in AD 70. Remorselessly, the legions strangled the life out of the defense street by street, leaving nothing but rubble and ashes in their wake. The apotheosis of the conflict was the final stand of the last holdouts in the Temple precinct itself, and the utter annihilation of this, the physical manifestation of Judaism itself. The last remnants held out in the mountain fortress of Masada until AD 73 when with the Romans breaking down the walls the defenders committed mass suicide bringing the revolt to an end.
Category: History

The Jewish Revolt Against Rome

Author : Mladen Popovi?
ISBN : 9789004216686
Genre : History
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This volume brings together different disciplines, some for the first time, The contrubutions reflect on a wide range of literary, archaeological, documentary, epigraphic and numismatic sources and their bearing on the historical context of the Jewish revolt against Rome and on our own historical methods.
Category: History

The Jews Against Rome

Author : Susan Sorek
ISBN : 9781847252487
Genre : History
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The first book to cover the myriad factors of the Jews revolt against the Romans — from its origin to its lasting consequences — and re-evaluate historical accounts.
Category: History

The Ruling Class Of Judaea

Author : Martin Goodman
ISBN : 0521447828
Genre : History
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How Rome's misunderstanding of the status criteria of Jewish society led to the revolt of AD 66.
Category: History

The Jewish Revolts Against Rome A D 66 135

Author : James J. Bloom
ISBN : 9780786460205
Genre : History
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During the first and second centuries A.D., the supremacy of the Roman Empire was aggressively challenged by three Jewish rebellions. The facts surrounding the initial uprising of A.D. 66–74 have been filtered through the biased accounts of Judeao Roman historian Flavius Josephus. Primary information regarding the subsequent Diaspora Revolt (A.D. 115–117) and the Bar Kochba Rebellion (A.D. 132–135) is limited to fragmentary anecdotes emphasizing the religious implications of the two insurrections. In contrast, this analytical history focuses objectively on the military aspects of all three Judean uprisings. The events leading up to each rebellion are detailed, while the nine appendices cover such topics as the nature and number of the Jewish rebels and the factual reliability of the controversial Josephus. One appendix hypothesizes an alternative history of the war between Jerusalem and Rome.
Category: History

The First Jewish Revolt

Author : Andrea M. Berlin
ISBN : 9781134518326
Genre : History
File Size : 20.18 MB
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The First Jewish Revolt against Rome is arguably the most decisive event in the history of Judaism and Christianity. The destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE by the Roman General Titus forced a transformation in structure and form for both of these fraternal religions. Yet despite its importance, little has been written on the First Revolt, its causes, implications and the facts surrounding it. In this volume, Andrea M. Berlin and J. Andrew Overman have gathered the foremost scholars on the period to discuss and debate this pivotal historical event. The contributions explore both Roman and Jewish perspectives on the Revolt, looking at its history and archaeology, and finally examining the ideology and interpretation of the revolt in subsequent history and myth.
Category: History

Rethinking The Jewish War

Author : Giambrone A.
ISBN : 9042943017
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This interdisciplinary collection of fifteen papers probes key aspects of the First Jewish Revolt from a wide variety of perspectives: archeology, Roman military, administration, and ethos, Second Temple Jewish society, and rabbinic and early Christian reception. Delivered at a large international conference organized at the École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem in 2018, the contributions respond to many classic questions about the reliability of Josephus and interact in various ways with Steve Mason's major study, A History of the Jewish War (Cambridge, 2016), including his controversial views on the scope and religious nature of the conflict. Mason's own response comprises the final chapter.
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Apocalypse

Author : Neil Faulkner
ISBN : STANFORD:36105026175807
Genre : History
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Ancient Palestine was a ferment of social conflict and ideological rivalries. Full-scale insurrectionary revolt exploded in AD 66, a revolt which took on a revolutionary character as moderate upper-class Jewish leaders were pushed aside and replaced by more radical plebeian elements. The defeat of local Roman forces led to the appointment of Vespasian to command and the invasion of revolutionary Palestine by a huge Roman army in AD 67. The war was characterized by hard guerrilla fighting in the countryside, bitterly fought sieges - culminating in the siege, fall and destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70-1 - and appalling atrocities. Mopping-up operations ended with the spectacular siege of Masada in AD 73. The author synthesizes textual and archaeological evidence to produce an essentially narrative account to these events, but also deals in detail with the historical and cultural context of the revolt.
Category: History

Masada

Author : Jodi Magness
ISBN : 9780691167107
Genre : History
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A new account of the famous site and story of the last stand of a group of Jewish rebels who held out against the Roman Empire Two thousand years ago, 967 Jewish men, women, and children—the last holdouts of the revolt against Rome following the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Second Temple—reportedly took their own lives rather than surrender to the Roman army. This dramatic event, which took place on top of Masada, a barren and windswept mountain overlooking the Dead Sea, spawned a powerful story of Jewish resistance that came to symbolize the embattled modern State of Israel. The first extensive archaeological excavations of Masada began in the 1960s, and today the site draws visitors from around the world. And yet, because the mass suicide was recorded by only one ancient author—the Jewish historian Josephus—some scholars question if the event ever took place. Jodi Magness, an archaeologist who has excavated at Masada, explains what happened there, how we know it, and how recent developments might change understandings of the story. Incorporating the latest findings, she integrates literary and historical sources to show what life was like for Jews under Roman rule during an era that witnessed the reign of Herod and Jesus’s ministry and death. Featuring numerous illustrations, this is an engaging exploration of an ancient story that continues to grip the imagination today.
Category: History

For God And Freedom

Author : D. Larry Gregg
ISBN : 189333046X
Genre : Jews
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Category: Jews

Josephus

Author : Tessa Rajak
ISBN : UCSC:32106019549556
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
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Josephus, author of the "Jewish War" and the "Jewish Antiquities", was a contemporary and chronicler in the Roman Empire in the first century AD and a general in the great Jewish revolt of 66-73 against Rome. This book produces a sociological account of this revolt and examines Josephus' attitudes.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

The Ancient Roman Sieges Of Jerusalem And Masada

Author : Charles River Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1985003708
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*Includes pictures *Includes ancient accounts of the battles *Includes a bibliography for further reading The Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE is arguably the most important event in Jewish history. First, it was the central battle in the First Jewish-Roman war. Second, the failure of the siege on the Jewish side resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem, a disaster that would eventually prove both permanent and catastrophic, since it was never rebuilt. Third, it permanently altered the diaspora of Judaism in the Ancient World. Fourth, because it was indecisive in breaking the power of the Jewish revolt permanently, it was also inconclusive and led to further, inevitable revolts that broke Judean identity completely. . It was not the first time the Romans had conquered the capital of the kingdom, nor was it the first time Jerusalem had been sacked by a foreign power. It was unusual for the Romans, however, because it was not the final act that such a conquest generally was. With few exceptions, such as the Carthaginians and the Celts, the Romans had not encountered an opponent who refused to remain defeated. Roman generals and governors found this stubborn resistance unnerving and that may have contributed to an increased cruelty toward the local Jewish population, not that the Romans generally required an excuse to be brutal. To the Romans' bewilderment, the Jews were absolutely, adamantly opposed to worshiping any deity above God (in the universal form of Yahweh), or even alongside or beneath God. At this point in their theological history, the Jews had become strict monotheists. Worshiping the Emperor as a deity would imperil their immortal souls. Therefore, they absolutely refused to do this and were willing to die for their faith. The Jewish refusal to tolerate the Cult of the Emperor in their main place of worship was a direct challenge to Roman political power. The Roman refusal to recognize Jewish monotheism was a direct challenge to Jewish theology. The clash of ideologies would result in many casualties. Josephus, a primary source for the revolt, would calculate the death toll at over 1,000,000. The Siege of Masada was the final battle in a long series of fights that constituted the First Jewish-Roman War. However, what made this battle qualitatively different from most was not just the difficulty Rome had in retaking control of it with incredibly disproportional military equipment and numbers, but also the actions of the Judean defenders. In the final hours of the battle, just as the Romans were about to breach the walls of the city, the defenders gathered together and committed mass suicide, rather than being killed or taken captive by the Romans. Many Westerners have never heard of the Siege of Masada, and those who have may simply know it as an obscure reference to a minor battle fought in a remote location of the Roman world. By contrast, virtually all Israeli school children know the story of Masada as a premier example of nationalistic pride. The heroic story of a small band of fighters facing incalculable odds has many elements that are reminiscent of both the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of the Alamo. The refrain "Masada shall not fall again," coined in a poem on the subject by Yitzak Lamdan, became a cry of resolve in battle for Israeli soldiers in the 20th century, just as the cry of "Remember the Alamo" had galvanized Americans. For decades the Israelite military used the site of Masada as the location for swearing in their new recruits; the choice of the site was designed to evoke within the new soldiers a deep sense of connection with their national history.
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The Wars Of The Jews Or The History Of The Destruction Of Jerusalem

Author : Flavius Josephus
ISBN : 1647993717
Genre : History
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Titus Flavius Josephus born Yosef ben Matityahu was a first-century Romano-Jewish historian who was born in Jerusalem--then part of Roman Judea--to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish-Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome. In response Vespasian decided to keep Josephus as a slave and presumably interpreter. After Vespasian became Emperor in 69 CE, he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius. Flavius Josephus fully defected to the Roman side and was granted Roman citizenship. He became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus led the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. Since the siege proved ineffective at stopping the Jewish revolt, the city's destruction and the looting and destruction of Herod's Temple (Second Temple) soon followed. Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century CE and the First Jewish-Roman War (66-70 CE), including the Siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish War (c. 75) and Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94). The Jewish War recounts the Jewish revolt against Roman occupation. Antiquities of the Jews recounts the history of the world from a Jewish perspective for an ostensibly Greek and Roman audience. These works provide valuable insight into first century Judaism and the background of Early Christianity, although not specifically mentioned by Josephus. Josephus' works are the chief source next to the Bible for the history and antiquity of ancient Palestine. (wikipedia.org)
Category: History

The Life Of Flavius Josephus

Author : Flavius Josephus
ISBN : 1533202427
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Titus Flavius Josephus was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem-then part of Roman Judea-to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish-Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome.
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The Life Of Flavius Josephus Autobiography

Author : Flavius Josephus
ISBN : 9788026885061
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
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The Life of Flavius Josephus, or simply Vita, is an autobiographical text written by Josephus in approximately 94-99 CE, where the author for the most part re-visits the events of the Jewish-Roman War, apparently in response to allegations made against him by Justus of Tiberias. Titus Flavius Josephus was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian after the six-week siege of Jotapata. After Vespasian became Emperor in 69 CE, he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius. He fully defected to the Roman side and was granted Roman citizenship. Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century CE and the First Jewish–Roman War, including the Siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish War (c. 75) and Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94).
Category: Biography & Autobiography

The Roman Siege Of Jerusalem In 70 Ce

Author : Charles River Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1985761874
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*Includes pictures *Includes ancient accounts of the siege *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading *Includes a table of contents "[T]hey ran every one through whom they met with, and obstructed the very lanes with their dead bodies, and made the whole city run down with blood, to such a degree indeed that the fire of many of the houses was quenched with these men's blood. And truly so it happened, that though the slayers left off at the evening, yet did the fire greatly prevail in the night, and as all was burning, came that eighth day of the month Gorpieus [Elul] upon Jerusalem; a city that had been liable to so many miseries during the siege, that, had it always enjoyed as much happiness from its first foundation, it would certainly have been the envy of the world. Nor did it on any other account so much deserve these sore misfortunes, as by producing such a generation of men as were the occasions of this its overthrow." - Josephus The Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE is arguably the most important event in Jewish history. First, it was the central battle in the First Jewish-Roman war. Second, the failure of the siege on the Jewish side resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem, a disaster that would eventually prove both permanent and catastrophic, since it was never rebuilt. Third, it permanently altered the diaspora of Judaism in the Ancient World. Fourth, because it was indecisive in breaking the power of the Jewish revolt permanently, it was also inconclusive and led to further, inevitable revolts that broke Judean identity completely. The siege of Jerusalem was a classic case of two opposing and incompatible worldviews. It was not the first time the Romans had conquered the capital of the kingdom, nor was it the first time Jerusalem had been sacked by a foreign power. It was unusual for the Romans, however, because it was not the final act that such a conquest generally was. With few exceptions, such as the Carthaginians and the Celts, the Romans had not encountered an opponent who refused to remain defeated. Roman generals and governors found this stubborn resistance unnerving and that may have contributed to an increased cruelty toward the local Jewish population, not that the Romans generally required an excuse to be brutal. However, the Romans were inclined to be tolerant of local religious customs as long as the local population paid lip service to Roman religious domination, such as in the very politically motivated Cult of the Emperor. To the Romans' bewilderment, the Jews were absolutely, adamantly opposed to worshiping any deity above God (in the universal form of Yahweh), or even alongside or beneath God. At this point in their theological history, the Jews had become strict monotheists. Worshiping the Emperor as a deity would imperil their immortal souls. Therefore, they absolutely refused to do this and were willing to die for their faith. The Jewish refusal to tolerate the Cult of the Emperor in their main place of worship was a direct challenge to Roman political power. The Roman refusal to recognize Jewish monotheism was a direct challenge to Jewish theology. The clash of ideologies would result in many casualties. Josephus, a primary source for the revolt, would calculate the death toll at over 1,000,000. The Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE: The History of the Roman Emperor's Mysterious Luxury Boats chronicles one of the most influential military campaigns of antiquity. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the siege of Jerusalem like never before, in no time at all.
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The Roman Siege Of Jerusalem In 70 Ce

Author : Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1523835672
Genre :
File Size : 80.75 MB
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*Includes pictures *Includes ancient accounts of the siege *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading *Includes a table of contents "[T]hey ran every one through whom they met with, and obstructed the very lanes with their dead bodies, and made the whole city run down with blood, to such a degree indeed that the fire of many of the houses was quenched with these men's blood. And truly so it happened, that though the slayers left off at the evening, yet did the fire greatly prevail in the night, and as all was burning, came that eighth day of the month Gorpieus [Elul] upon Jerusalem; a city that had been liable to so many miseries during the siege, that, had it always enjoyed as much happiness from its first foundation, it would certainly have been the envy of the world. Nor did it on any other account so much deserve these sore misfortunes, as by producing such a generation of men as were the occasions of this its overthrow." - Josephus The Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE is arguably the most important event in Jewish history. First, it was the central battle in the First Jewish-Roman war. Second, the failure of the siege on the Jewish side resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem, a disaster that would eventually prove both permanent and catastrophic, since it was never rebuilt. Third, it permanently altered the diaspora of Judaism in the Ancient World. Fourth, because it was indecisive in breaking the power of the Jewish revolt permanently, it was also inconclusive and led to further, inevitable revolts that broke Judean identity completely. The siege of Jerusalem was a classic case of two opposing and incompatible worldviews. It was not the first time the Romans had conquered the capital of the kingdom, nor was it the first time Jerusalem had been sacked by a foreign power. It was unusual for the Romans, however, because it was not the final act that such a conquest generally was. With few exceptions, such as the Carthaginians and the Celts, the Romans had not encountered an opponent who refused to remain defeated. Roman generals and governors found this stubborn resistance unnerving and that may have contributed to an increased cruelty toward the local Jewish population, not that the Romans generally required an excuse to be brutal. However, the Romans were inclined to be tolerant of local religious customs as long as the local population paid lip service to Roman religious domination, such as in the very politically motivated Cult of the Emperor. To the Romans' bewilderment, the Jews were absolutely, adamantly opposed to worshiping any deity above God (in the universal form of Yahweh), or even alongside or beneath God. At this point in their theological history, the Jews had become strict monotheists. Worshiping the Emperor as a deity would imperil their immortal souls. Therefore, they absolutely refused to do this and were willing to die for their faith. The Jewish refusal to tolerate the Cult of the Emperor in their main place of worship was a direct challenge to Roman political power. The Roman refusal to recognize Jewish monotheism was a direct challenge to Jewish theology. The clash of ideologies would result in many casualties. Josephus, a primary source for the revolt, would calculate the death toll at over 1,000,000. The Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE: The History of the Roman Emperor's Mysterious Luxury Boats chronicles one of the most influential military campaigns of antiquity. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the siege of Jerusalem like never before, in no time at all.
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