The First Crusade 1096 99

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The First Crusade 1096 99

Author : David Nicolle
ISBN : 0275988473
Genre : History
File Size : 81.21 MB
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One of the most famous military campaigns in history, to many the Crusades were the First Crusade. This book details the first 'armed pilgrimage' to the Holy Land, the only Crusade that really succeeded, resulting in the creation of four so-called Crusader States in the Middle East, repercussions of which can still be felt today.
Category: History

Medieval Wars 500 1500

Author : Multiple Authors
ISBN : 9781782741190
Genre : History
File Size : 27.49 MB
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The wars of the medieval period were brutal affairs fought over dynastic or religious issues. The era began with battles fought at close range with impact weapons and the crossbow, but ended with gunpowder weapons reshaping the nature of the battlefield. The Medieval Wars 500-1500CE – the second volume in the Encyclopedia of Warfare Series – charts the bloody history of medieval warfare from the post-Roman world to the rise of the professional army. A chronological guide to conflict on every continent, from the expansion of Islam, the various Crusades (1096–1291), the conquests of Gengis Khan (1211–27), and the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1457), this volume gives a comprehensive guide to the wars and battles of the period. Featuring full colour maps illustrating the formations and strategies used, plus narrative descriptions of the circumstances behind each battle, this is a comprehensive guide to the conflicts of the medieval world. The Encyclopedia of Warfare Series is an authoritative compendium of almost five millennia of conflict, from the ancient world to the Arab Spring. Written in a style accessible to both the student and the general enthusiast, it reflects the latest thinking among military historians.
Category: History

Emotions In A Crusading Context 1095 1291

Author : Stephen J. Spencer
ISBN : 9780198833369
Genre : History
File Size : 90.35 MB
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Emotions in a Crusading Context is the first book-length study of the emotional rhetoric of crusading. It investigates the ways in which a number of emotions and affective displays-primarily fear, anger, and weeping-were understood, represented, and utilised in twelfth- and thirteenth-century western narratives of the crusades, making use of a broad range of comparative material to gauge the distinctiveness of those texts: crusader letters, papal encyclicals, model sermons, chansons de geste, lyrics, and an array of theological and philosophical treatises. In addition to charting continuities and changes over time in the emotional landscape of crusading, this study identifies the underlying influences which shaped how medieval authors represented and used emotions; analyzes the passions crusade participants were expected to embrace and reject; and assesses whether the idea of crusading created a profoundly new set of attitudes towards emotions. Emotions in a Crusading Context calls on scholars of the crusades to reject the traditional methodological approach of taking the emotional descriptions embedded within historical narratives as straightforward reflections of protagonists' lived feelings, and in so doing challenges the long historiographical tradition of reconstructing participants' beliefs and experiences from these texts. Within the history of emotions, Stephen J. Spencer demonstrates that, despite the ongoing drive to develop new methodologies for studying the emotional standards of the past, typified by experiments in 'neurohistory', the social constructionist (or cultural-historical) approach still has much to offer the historian of medieval emotions.
Category: History

Sanctifying The Name Of God

Author : Jeremy Cohen
ISBN : 9780812201635
Genre : Religion
File Size : 78.25 MB
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How are martyrs made, and how do the memories of martyrs express, nourish, and mold the ideals of the community? Sanctifying the Name of God wrestles with these questions against the background of the massacres of Jews in the Rhineland during the outbreak of the First Crusade. Marking the first extensive wave of anti-Jewish violence in medieval Christian Europe, these "Persecutions of 1096" exerted a profound influence on the course of European Jewish history. When the crusaders demanded that Jews choose between Christianity and death, many opted for baptism. Many others, however, chose to die as Jews rather than to live as Christians, and of these, many actually inflicted death upon themselves and their loved ones. Stories of their self-sacrifice ushered the Jewish ideal of martyrdom—kiddush ha-Shem, the sanctification of God's holy name—into a new phase, conditioning the collective memory and mindset of Ashkenazic Jewry for centuries to come, during the Holocaust, and even today. The Jewish survivors of 1096 memorialized the victims as martyrs as they rebuilt their communities during the decades following the Crusade. Three twelfth-century Hebrew chronicles of the persecutions preserve their memories of martyrdom and self-sacrifice, tales fraught with symbolic meaning that constitute one of the earliest Jewish attempts at local, contemporary historiography. Reading and analyzing these stories through the prism of Jewish and Christian religious and literary traditions, Jeremy Cohen shows how these persecution chronicles reveal much more about the storytellers, the martyrologists, than about the martyrs themselves. While they extol the glorious heroism of the martyrs, they also air the doubts, guilt, and conflicts of those who, by submitting temporarily to the Christian crusaders, survived.
Category: Religion

European Jewry And The First Crusade

Author : Robert Chazan
ISBN : 0520917766
Genre : Religion
File Size : 59.47 MB
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One of the unanticipated results of the First Crusade in 1095 was a series of violent assaults on major Jewish communities in the Rhineland. Robert Chazan offers the first detailed analysis of these events, illuminating the attitudes that triggered the assaults as well as the beliefs that informed Jewish reactions to them.
Category: Religion

The Dark Heart Of Utopia

Author : Kirk Rodby
ISBN : 9781440131448
Genre : History
File Size : 70.60 MB
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This book establishes structural similarities between the ideological systems of modern totalitarian movements, and the ideological systems of earlier mass movements. It also establishes sociological similarities in the societies which generate such movements, and explains how sociological changes fuel the rise of totalitarian movements. Issues of sexuality and reproduction are found to constitute the core of the totalitarian ideology, and changes in sexual sociology are found to constitute the cause of such movements.
Category: History

Logistics Of Warfare In The Age Of The Crusades

Author : John H. Pryor
ISBN : 0754651975
Genre : History
File Size : 62.30 MB
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How were the Crusades made possible? This volume is the first to bring together experts from the fields of medieval Western, Byzantine and Middle Eastern studies specifically to address the logistics of Crusading. It deals with questions of manpower, types and means of transportation by land and sea, supplies, financial resources, roads and natural land routes, sea lanes and natural sailing routes. Of particular importance is the attention given to the horses and other animals on which transport of supplies and the movement of armies depended.
Category: History

Pilgrimage In The Middle Ages

Author : Brett Edward Whalen
ISBN : 9781442601994
Genre : History
File Size : 59.70 MB
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Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages: A Reader is a rich collection of primary sources for the history of Christian pilgrimage in Europe and the Mediterranean world from the fourth through the sixteenth centuries.
Category: History

Fighting For Rights

Author : Dr Tal Dingott Alkopher
ISBN : 9781472401205
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 71.23 MB
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In the light of NATO's humanitarian war in Kosovo is it possible to understand or explain wars as an outcome of perceptions of rights? How did rights, be they divine rights in the Middle Ages, territorial rights in the eighteenth century, or human rights today, become something that people are willing to fight and die for? To answer these questions, this book explores the linkage between concepts of rights and the practice of war in the international arena. Alkopher describes how normative structures of rights have shaped different practices of war from medieval to modern times, through the lens of social constructivism. From the eleventh to the thirteenth century, concepts of divine rights and institutionalized practices of the Crusades to the Holy Land fostered the prevailing ideas of international rights and war. In the eighteenth century, the institutionalization of states' rights and territorial wars shaped international conflict. This view held until the late twentieth century when the institutionalization of human rights coupled with the emerging practice of humanitarian war, particularly NATO's war in Kosovo, engendered new norms of international conduct. The author concludes that rights have the power to constitute an international order that will be either cooperative or conflictual and the choice of outcome is very much in our hands. This book will be essential reading for international relations and political science scholars and students but also philosophers, legal and sociological historians and international lawyers.
Category: Political Science

Prayer And Thought In Monastic Tradition

Author : Santha Bhattacharji
ISBN : 9780567060259
Genre : Religion
File Size : 66.82 MB
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Prayer and Thought in Monastic Tradition presents a chronological picture of the development of monastic thought and prayer from the early English Church (Bede, Adomnan) through to the 17th Century and William Law's religious community at King's Cliffe. Essays interact with different facets of monastic life, assessing the development and contribution of figures such as Boniface, the Venerable Bede, Anselm of Canterbury and Bernard of Clairvaux. The varying modes and outputs of the monastic life of prayer are considered, with focus on the use of different literary techniques in the creation of monastic documents, the interaction between monks and the laity, the creation of prayers and the purpose and structure of prayer in different contexts. The volume also discusses the nature of translation of classic monastic works, and the difficulties the translator faces. The highly distinguished contributors include; G.R. Evans, Sarah Foot, Henry Mayr-Harting, Brian McGuire, Henry Wansbrough and Rowan Williams.
Category: Religion

The Middle Ages In Texts And Texture

Author : Jason Glenn
ISBN : 9781442604926
Genre : History
File Size : 87.48 MB
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The Middle Ages in Texts and Texture is an introduction to medieval Europe unlike any other. These 26 essays, written by accomplished scholars all trained at the University of California, Berkeley, reflect on medieval texts and the opportunities they present for exploration of the Middle Ages. Introduced in a foreword by Thomas N. Bisson (Harvard University), these essays present a textured picture of the medieval world and offer models for how to reflect fruitfully on medieval sources. To help orient the reader, three maps, the editor's introduction, and an index are provided.
Category: History

Chronicles Of The First Crusade

Author : Christopher Tyerman
ISBN : 9780141970875
Genre : History
File Size : 74.42 MB
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'O day so ardently desired! O time of times the most memorable! O deed before all other deeds!' The fall of Jerusalem in the summer of 1099 to an exhausted and starving army of Western European soldiers was one of the most extraordinary events of the Middle Ages.It was both the climax of a great wave of visionary Christian fervour and the beginning of what proved to be a futile and abortive attempt to implant a new European kingdom in an overwhelmingly Muslim world.The legacy of these events continues to be argued over more than nine centuries later.This remarkable collection of first-hand accounts brings to life the First Crusade in all its cruelty and strangeness.
Category: History

The Complete Jewish Guide To France

Author : Toni L. Kamins
ISBN : 9781466852815
Genre : Travel
File Size : 47.94 MB
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The Complete Jewish Guide to France is the only resource you need to embark on a trip through Jewish France. Travel writer and journalist Toni L. Kamins catalogs information on well-known sights and little-known treasures, such as the Marais district (Paris's celebrated Jewish neighborhood), ancient ghettos, beautiful old synagogues around the country, and many other places. She includes information on transportation and lodging, plus hundreds of places to buy kosher food. Selected photographs and maps fill out the picture. Kamins also recounts the nearly two thousand years of French-Jewish history beginning with evidence that Jews may have lived in France as early as the first century, and continuing right up to the present day. The Complete Jewish Guide to France has everything you need to know to make your trip to France a success-and to put it into a historical context that will make it even more worthwhile.
Category: Travel

Martyrdom And Terrorism

Author : Dominic Janes
ISBN : 9780199376513
Genre : Religion
File Size : 57.86 MB
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In recent years, terrorism has become closely associated with martyrdom in the minds of many terrorists and in the view of nations around the world. In Islam, martyrdom is mostly conceived as "bearing witness" to faith and God. Martyrdom is also central to the Christian tradition, not only in the form of Christ's Passion or saints faced with persecution and death, but in the duty to lead a good and charitable life. In both religions, the association of religious martyrdom with political terror has a long and difficult history. The essays of this volume illuminate this history--following, for example, Christian martyrdom from its origins in the Roman world, to the experience of the deaths of "terrorist" leaders of the French Revolution, to parallels in the contemporary world--and explore historical parallels among Islamic, Christian, and secular traditions. Featuring essays from eminent scholars in a wide range of disciplines, Martyrdom and Terrorism provides a timely comparative history of the practices and discourses of terrorism and martyrdom from antiquity to the twenty-first century.
Category: Religion

Medieval Afterlives In Contemporary Culture

Author : Gail Ashton
ISBN : 9781441102829
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 82.6 MB
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With contributions from 29 leading international scholars, this is the first single-volume guide to the appropriation of medieval texts in contemporary culture. Medieval Afterlives in Contemporary Culture covers a comprehensive range of media, including literature, film, TV, comics book adaptations, electronic media, performances, and commercial merchandise and tourism. Its lively chapters range from Spamalot to the RSC, Beowulf to Merlin, computer games to internet memes, opera to Young Adult fiction and contemporary poetry, and much more. Also included is a companion website aimed at general readers, academics, and students interested in the burgeoning field of Medieval afterlives, complete with: - Further reading/weblinks - 'My favourite' guides to contemporary medieval appropriations - Images and interviews - Guide to library archives and manuscript collections - Guide to heritage collection See also our website at
Category: Literary Criticism

Vengeance In Medieval Europe

Author : Daniel Lord Smail
ISBN : 9781442601260
Genre : History
File Size : 65.8 MB
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How did medieval society deal with private justice, with grudges, and with violent emotions? This ground-breaking reader collects for the first time a number of unpublished or difficult-to-find texts that address violence and emotion in the Middle Ages. The sources collected here illustrate the power and reach of the language of vengeance in medieval European society. They span the early, high, and later middle ages, and capture a range of perspectives including legal sources, learned commentaries, narratives, and documents of practice. Though social elites necessarily figure prominently in all medieval sources, sources concerning relatively low-status individuals and sources pertaining to women are included. The sources range from saints' lives that illustrate the idea of vengeance to later medieval court records concerning vengeful practices. A secondary goal of the collection is to illustrate the prominence of mechanisms for peacemaking in medieval European society. The introduction traces recent scholarly developments in the study of vengeance and discusses the significance of these concepts for medieval political and social history.
Category: History

In Laudem Hierosolymitani

Author : Iris Shagrir
ISBN : 0754661407
Genre : History
File Size : 37.51 MB
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In the last thirty-five years B.Z. Kedar has become a leading historian of the field of the crusades, and of medieval and Middle Eastern history more broadly. This volume presents 31 essays written by eminent medievalists in appreciation of Kedar's talent, method and diversity. The collection relates to the Latin East and to the reciprocity between West and East in the time of the crusades. The individual essays deal with the history, archaeology and art of the Holy Land, the crusades and the military orders, Mediterranean commerce, medieval mentality, and the Jews.
Category: History