The Evolution Of Primate Societies

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The Evolution Of Primate Societies

Author : John C. Mitani
ISBN : 9780226531731
Genre : Science
File Size : 79.92 MB
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In 1987, the University of Chicago Press published Primate Societies, the standard reference in the field of primate behavior for an entire generation of students and scientists. But in the twenty-five years since its publication, new theories and research techniques for studying the Primate order have been developed, debated, and tested, forcing scientists to revise their understanding of our closest living relatives. Intended as a sequel to Primate Societies, The Evolution of Primate Societies compiles thirty-one chapters that review the current state of knowledge regarding the behavior of nonhuman primates. Chapters are written by the leading authorities in the field and organized around four major adaptive problems primates face as they strive to grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce in the wild. The inclusion of chapters on the behavior of humans at the end of each major section represents one particularly novel aspect of the book, and it will remind readers what we can learn about ourselves through research on nonhuman primates. The final section highlights some of the innovative and cutting-edge research designed to reveal the similarities and differences between nonhuman and human primate cognition. The Evolution of Primate Societies will be every bit the landmark publication its predecessor has been.
Category: Science

Primate Societies

Author : Barbara B. Smuts
ISBN : 9780226220468
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.96 MB
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Primate Societies is a synthesis of the most current information on primate socioecology and its theoretical and empirical significance, spanning the disciplines of behavioral biology, ecology, anthropology, and psychology. It is a very rich source of ideas about other taxa. "A superb synthesis of knowledge about the social lives of non-human primates."—Alan Dixson, Nature
Category: Science

The Functional And Evolutionary Biology Of Primates

Author : Russell Tuttle
ISBN : 0202369692
Genre : Science
File Size : 36.66 MB
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These original contributions on the evolution of primates and the techniques for studying the subject cover an enormous range of material and incorporate the work of specialists from many different fields, showing the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach to problems of primate morphology and phylogeny. Collectively, they demonstrate the concerns and methods of leading contemporary workers in this and related fields. Each contributor shows his way of attacking fundamental problems of evolutionary primatology. The range of findings in this book include new clues to the evolution of the middle ear and the subsistence behavior of early primates, a persuasive critique of the Smith-Jones hypothesis that many features of primate cranial morphology are adaptations to the special vicissitudes of arboreal habitation, the remarkable association of relative muscle mass in the hands and feet of catarrhine primates with the particularities of prehensile behaviors, the wealth of behavioral data that may be obtained by the concentrated study of certain primates in the vicinity of waterholes, the striking differences between inferences about the same behavioral phenomena that are based on long-term as opposed to short-term observations of one primate social group, and the strategy of sophisticated mathematical techniques for elucidating biomechanical, evolutionary, and behavioral problems. Each chapter conveys the status and progress of research in these and other particular areas of special interest, pointing the way toward further clarification of the functional biology and phylogeny of primates through the application of relatively new techniques or the comprehensive employment of available methods. No attempt is made to smooth over controversial points of view, or to endorse a single uniform model of primate evolution. This work will be an important reference for evolutionary and physical anthropologists, evolutionary biologists, comparative morphologists, human anatomists, behavioralists, and students of evolution. Russell Tuttle is professor of anthropology, on the Committee on Evolutionary Biology, and part of the Morris Fishbein Center for the History of Biology and Medicine at the University of Chicago. He specializes in research in the history and theory of human evolution, primate behavior, and comparative functional morphology. His contributions to the literature have appeared in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Science, Science Journal, and other publications.
Category: Science

Primate Societies

Author : Robert M. Seyfarth
ISBN : 0226767167
Genre : Science
File Size : 52.53 MB
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Primate Societies is a synthesis of the most current information on primate socioecology and its theoretical and empirical significance, spanning the disciplines of behavioral biology, ecology, anthropology, and psychology. It is a very rich source of ideas about other taxa. "A superb synthesis of knowledge about the social lives of non-human primates."—Alan Dixson, Nature
Category: Science

Primate Paradigms

Author : Linda Marie Fedigan
ISBN : 0226239489
Genre : Science
File Size : 20.21 MB
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This critical review of behavior patterns in nonhuman primates is an excellent study of the importance of female roles in different social groups and their significance in the evolution of human social life. "A book that properly illuminates in rich detail not only developmental and socioecological aspects of primate behavior but also how and why certain questions are asked. In addition, the book frequently focuses on insufficiently answered questions, especially those concerned with the evolution of primate sex differences. Fedigan's book is unique . . . because it places primate adaptations and our explanation of those patterns in a larger intellectual framework that is easily and appropriately connected to many lines of research in different fields (sociology, psychology, anthropology, neurobiology, endocrinology, and biology)—and not in inconsequential ways, either."—James McKenna, American Journal of Primatology "This is the feminist critique of theories of primate and human evolution."—John H. Cook, Nature
Category: Science

Dynamics In Human And Primate Societies

Author : Timothy A. Kohler
ISBN : 9780195131680
Genre : Computers
File Size : 26.63 MB
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With an emphasis on small-scale societies in an effort to maximize realism in the modeling efforts applied to social evolution, this volume is an important step toward an actor-oriented, cross-disciplinary approach to understanding human behavior over time."
Category: Computers

Tree Of Origin

Author : Frans B. M. De Waal
ISBN : 0674033027
Genre : Nature
File Size : 59.19 MB
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How did we become the linguistic, cultured, and hugely successful apes that we are? Our closest relatives--the other mentally complex and socially skilled primates--offer tantalizing clues. In Tree of Origin nine of the world's top primate experts read these clues and compose the most extensive picture to date of what the behavior of monkeys and apes can tell us about our own evolution as a species. It has been nearly fifteen years since a single volume addressed the issue of human evolution from a primate perspective, and in that time we have witnessed explosive growth in research on the subject. Tree of Origin gives us the latest news about bonobos, the make love not war apes who behave so dramatically unlike chimpanzees. We learn about the tool traditions and social customs that set each ape community apart. We see how DNA analysis is revolutionizing our understanding of paternity, intergroup migration, and reproductive success. And we confront intriguing discoveries about primate hunting behavior, politics, cognition, diet, and the evolution of language and intelligence that challenge claims of human uniqueness in new and subtle ways. Tree of Origin provides the clearest glimpse yet of the apelike ancestor who left the forest and began the long journey toward modern humanity.
Category: Nature

Dispersing Primate Females

Author : Takeshi Furuichi
ISBN : 9784431554806
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.15 MB
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Why do females in male-philopatric species seem to show larger variation in their life history strategies than males in female-philopatric species? Why did females in human societies come to show enormous variation in the patterns of marriage, residence and mating activities? To tackle these important questions, this book presents the latest knowledge about the dispersing females in male-philopatric non-human primates and in human societies. The non-human primates that are covered include muriquis, spider monkeys, woolly monkeys, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and some species of colobine monkeys. In these non-human primate species females typically leave their natal group before sexual maturation and start reproduction in other groups into which they immigrate. However, there is a large variation as some females may breed in their natal group with some risks of inbreeding with their male relatives and some females may associate with males of multiple groups at the same time after leaving their natal group. Such variation seems to provide better strategies for reproduction depending on local circumstances. Although knowledge about female dispersal patterns and life history is indispensable for understanding the dynamic structure of primate societies, it is still not known how females behave after leaving their natal groups, how many groups they visit before finally settling down and which kinds of groups they choose to immigrate into, due to the large variation and flexibility and the difficulty of tracking females after natal dispersal. To encourage further progress in this important field, this volume provides new insights on evolution of female dispersal by describing factors influencing variations in the dispersal pattern across primates and a hypothesis for the formation of human families from the perspectives of female life history. This book is recommended reading for researchers and students in primatology, anthropology, animal behavior and evolution and for anyone interested in primate societies and human evolution.
Category: Science

Society In Prehistory

Author : Tim Megarry
ISBN : 9780814755389
Genre : Science
File Size : 79.50 MB
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Reveals a profound understanding of evolutionary biology, and an excellent up-to-date knowledge of human evolution studies. It is not only very well done, but...it is written from a novel point of view. It needs to be very widely read and I hope that it will be. Megarry is doing his subject a great service. --Bernard Campbell University of California Social scientists have tended to neglect prehistory in their approach to human societies. Tim Megarry's lucid and authoritative book remedies this neglect. It will be of great value to students of anthropology, psychology, and sociology. --Paul HirstBirkbeck College, University of London Stressing the importance of culture as a formative agent in the evolutionary emergence of modern humans, Society in Prehistory provides an impressive, interdisciplinary, and deeply informed survey of prehistory. Individual chapters focus on culture and evolution; biology and culture; primate societies; the first hominids; tools and culture; the economics of foraging; modern humans and human behavior; sex and the division of labor; and sexuality and social life. The book reveals that, while social behavior is biologically grounded, it is not biologically determined.
Category: Science

The Emergence Of Culture

Author : Philip Chase
ISBN : 9780387306742
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 23.89 MB
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This book describes the emergent nature of human culture, based on the human ability to create and pass on social codes through instruction and example. It proposes hypotheses to explain how a phenomenon that is potentially maladaptive for individuals could have evolved, and to explain why culture plays such a pervasive role in human life. It then reviews the primatological, fossil, and archaeological data to test these hypotheses.
Category: Social Science

Grooming Gossip And The Evolution Of Language

Author : Robin Dunbar
ISBN : 9780571265183
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 78.55 MB
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Did mankind evolve unusually large brains simply in order to gossip? Primates differ from other animals by the intensity of their social relationships, by the amount of time they spend grooming one another. Not just a matter of hygiene, grooming is all about cementing bonds, making friends and influencing your fellow ape. Early humans, in their characteristic large groups of 150 or so, would have had to spend almost half their time in mutual grooming. Instead, Professor Robin Dunbar argues, they evolved a more efficient mechanism: language. It seems there is nothing idle about idle chatter. Having a good gossip ensures that a dynamic group - of hunter-gatherers, soldiers, workmates - remains cohesive. Men and women 'gossip' equally, but men tend to talk about themselves, while women talk more about other people, working to strengthen the female-female relationships that underpin both human and primate societies. Until now, most anthropologists have assumed that language developed in male-male relationships, during activities such as hunting. Dunbar's intriguing research suggests that, to the contrary, language evolved among women.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Macaque Societies

Author : Bernard Thierry
ISBN : 0521818478
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 50.49 MB
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Animal and human societies are multifaceted. In order to understand how they have evolved, it is necessary to investigate each of the constituent facets including individual abilities and personalities, life-history traits, mating systems, demographic dynamics, gene flows, social relationships, ecology and phylogeny. By exploring the nature and evolution of macaque social organization, this book develops our knowledge of the rise of societies and their transformation during the course of evolution. Macaques are the most comprehensively studied of all monkey groups, and the 20 known species feature a broad diversity in their social relationships, making them a particularly good group for exploring the evolution of societies. This book will be of primary interest to those studying animal behaviour and primatology, but will also be useful to those involved in the study of human societies.
Category: Psychology

Chimpanzee And Red Colobus

Author : Craig Britton Stanford
ISBN : 0674116674
Genre : Nature
File Size : 39.51 MB
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Our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, are familiar enough--bright and ornery and promiscuous. But they also kill and eat their kin, in this case the red colobus monkey, which may say something about primate--even hominid--evolution. This book, the first long-term field study of a predator-prey relationship involving two wild primates, documents a six-year investigation into how the risk of predation molds primate society. Taking us to Gombe National Park in Tanzania, a place made famous by Jane Goodall's studies, the book offers a close look at how predation by wild chimpanzees--observable in the park as nowhere else--has influenced the behavior, ecology, and demography of a population of red colobus monkeys. As he explores the effects of chimpanzees' hunting, Craig Stanford also asks why these creatures prey on the red colobus. Because chimpanzees are often used as models of how early humans may have lived, Stanford's findings offer insight into the possible role of early hominids as predators, a little understood aspect of human evolution. The first book-length study in a newly emerging genre of primate field study, Chimpanzee and Red Colobus expands our understanding of not just these two primate societies, but also the evolutionary ecology of predators and prey in general.
Category: Nature

Evolution Of Human Behavior

Author : Warren G. Kinzey
ISBN : 0887062679
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.62 MB
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This book represents an important meeting ground in the primatology field by exploring the various primate models that have been used in the reconstruction of early human behavior. While some models are based on the proposition that a key behavioral feature such as hunting, eating of seeds or monogamous mating led to the evolutionary separation of apes and humans, other models suggest that one primate species, such as the baboon or chimpanzee, best exemplifies the behavior of our early ancestors. Several contributors to the book take the position that no single primate is a good model and contend instead that a model must be eclectic. One of the more innovative essays suggests that ancestral behavioral states can, in fact, be derived by comparing the behavior of all living hominid (ape and human) species. Additionally, several other contributors analyze and discuss the concept of model-making, noting deficiencies in earlier models while offering suggestions for future development. Although it is true that a powerful conceptual model for reconstructing hominid behavior does not yet exist, The Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models suggests ways one may be constructed based on behavioral ecology and evolutionary theory.
Category: Science

The Social Cage

Author : Alexandra Maryanski
ISBN : 0804720029
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 40.9 MB
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The authors assert that traditional sociological theories of human nature and society do not pay sufficient attention to the evolution of "big-brained hominoids," resulting in assumptions about humans' propensity for "groupness" that go against the record of primate evolution. When this record is analyzed in detail, and is supplemented by a review of the social structures of contemporary apes and the basic types of human societies (hunter-gathering, horticultural, agrarian, and industrial), commonplace criticisms about the de-humanizing effects of industrial society appear overdrawn, if not downright incorrect. The book concludes that the mistakes in contemporary social theory - as well as much of general social commentary - stem from a failure to analyze humans as "big-brained" apes with certain phylogenetic tendencies. This failure is usually coupled with a willingness to romanticize societies of the past, notably horticultural and agrarian systems
Category: Social Science

Human Origins And Environmental Backgrounds

Author : Hidemi Ishida
ISBN : 9780387297989
Genre : Science
File Size : 72.12 MB
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Advances in fossil studies relating to the origin of Homo sapiens have strengthened the hypothesis that our direct ancestors originated on the African continent. Most researchers also agree that the time when prehumans diverged from the last common ancestor was in the early part of the Late Miocene epoch. Focus must now shift from determining the times and places of hominid origins to clarifying hominid evolutionary problems, such as the selective factors and acquisition processes of hominid bipedalism. In March of 2003, researchers from Africa, Europe, Japan and the United States convened in Kyoto for a symposium on Human Origins and Environmental Backgrounds, an interdisciplinary effort to consider these evolutionary puzzles, to report current research and to exchange thoughts towards better understanding the relationship among environmental changes, adaptive mechanisms and human origins. This book is the result of that symposium, and includes a diverse and unique set of papers on topics such as hominid evolution, dispersal and morphology, and the origins of bipedalism.
Category: Science

Primate Societies

Author : Hans Kummer
ISBN : 0202368181
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 30.12 MB
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In this book, Hans Kummer, one of the world's leading primate ethologists, examines the patterns of social interaction among primates. He examines this social behavior from the fundamentally biological viewpoint of evolutionary adaptation as part of the survival mechanisms for the species. Recognizing that all activity is constituted in part of genetic programming and in part of adaptive behavior, he explores the borderline area between the genetic and the "cultural." By use of astute observation and clever experimentation he shows that many aspects of social behavior are inherited, and differentially inherited among various primate groups. These data also show, however, that the individuals and troops learn much in primate social life and that these forms are responsive to particular ecological situations. Drawing heavily on knowledge gleaned from his own well-known studies of the Hamadryas baboon, Dr. Kummer introduces the reader to the daily life of a particular primate society. From this sample case, he proceeds to a more general characterization of primate societies, using as examples the great apes and monkeys of Africa, Asia, and South America and particularly the widely studied terrestrial monkey species. The particularities of primate communication, social structure, and economy are described and special attention is devoted to the primate counterparts of kinship and age groups-behavioral differences based on age and sex, and mating and grouping systems. This is followed by a chapter dealing with the ecological functions of the major parameters of primate social life, such as group size and the coordination of activities within it-dominance, leadership systems, and spatial arrangements. The second part of the book is concerned with the origins of behavioral traits of primates, discussed from phylogenetic, ecological, and cultural points of view, again using data-based examples. Dr. Kummer explains why some traits have not evolved that would have been adaptive, and traces the rise of several secondary functions in their place. The final section of- the book confronts man with his fellow primates, emphasizing the probable limits imposed upon human culture by the existing phylogenetic heritage. Hans Kummer earned his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Zurich. His research projects include study of the spatial and fami1y organization of primate groups at the Delta Regional Primate Research Center at Covington, La., and three years of field study of the social behavior of baboons in Ethiopia. Dr. Kummer has contributed articles to many journals and symposia. Since 1969, he has been Assistant Professor of Zoology at the University of Zurich.
Category: Social Science

Evolution

Author : Robin Dunbar
ISBN : 9780190922917
Genre : Science
File Size : 34.39 MB
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Evolution is one of the most important processes in life. It not only explains the detailed history of life on earth, but its scope also extends into many aspects of our own contemporary behavior-who we are and how we got to be here, our psychology, our cultures-and greatly impacts modern advancements in medicine and conservation biology. Perhaps its most important claim for science is its ability to provide an overarching framework that integrates the many life sciences into a single unified whole. Yet, evolution-evolutionary biology in particular-has been, and continues to be, regarded with suspicion by many. Understanding how and why evolution works, and what it can tell us, is perhaps the single most important contribution to the public perception of science. This book provides an overview of the basic theory and showcases how widely its consequences reverberate across the life sciences, the social sciences and even the humanities. In this book, Robin Dunbar uses examples drawn from plant life, animals and humans to illustrate these processes. Evolutionary science has important advantages. Most of science deals with the microscopic world that we cannot see and invariably have difficulty understanding, but evolution deals with the macro-world in which we live and move. That invariably makes it much easier for the lay audience to appreciate, understand and enjoy. Evolution: What Everyone Needs to Know® takes a broad approach to evolution, dealing both with the core theory itself and its impact on different aspects of the world we live in, from the iconic debates of the nineteenth century, to viruses and superbugs, to human evolution and behavior.
Category: Science

How Culture Makes Us Human

Author : Dwight W Read
ISBN : 9781315427232
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 45.64 MB
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What separates modern humans from our primate cousins—are we a mere blink in the march of evolution, or does human culture represent the definitive evolutionary turn? Dwight Read explores the dilemma in this engaging, thought-provoking book, taking readers through an evolutionary odyssey from our primate beginnings through the development of culture and social organization. He assesses the two major trends in this field: one that sees us as a logical culmination of primate evolution, arguing that the rudiments of culture exist in primates and even magpies, and another that views the human transition as so radical that the primate model provides no foundation for understanding human dynamics. Expertly synthesizing a wide body of evidence from the anthropological and life sciences in accessible prose, Read’s book will interest a broad readership from experts to undergraduate students and the general public.
Category: Social Science