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The Effects Of The World War Ii Submarine Campaigns Of Germany And The United States A Comparative Analysis The U Boat In The Battle Of The Atlantic And The Japanese Pacific Submarine Campaign

Author : U. S. Military
ISBN : 1795090693
Genre : History
File Size : 66.99 MB
Format : PDF
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The effectiveness of the German and United States submarine campaigns during World War II is compared by analyzing the genesis of each campaign, the commitment to each and the effort to overcome the losses imposed by submarine warfare. This comparison highlights one aspect of the strategic and operational consequences of conflict with an adversary able to build and maintain a superior industrial base in support of the military effort. This analysis places primary focus on German U-boat efforts in the Battle of the Atlantic and the U.S. submarine efforts in the Western Pacific. Ultimately, the overriding factor in the outcomes of both campaigns was the ability of the United States to produce more ships than the Germans could sink, to build more submarines than the Japanese could sink, and to sink more Japanese ships than the Japanese could build. As a result, the United States was able to sustain its' total military effort against Germany; Japan was not able to sustain its efforts in the Pacific. With the present U.S. requirement for trans-oceanic logistics for force projection, the lessons of WWII should remind us not to downplay the threat of adversarial submarines or to continue to lose the ability to muster a credible shipbuilding industry in the event of mobilization.Before commencing a military operation, War College doctrine advises review of four basic questions. First, what military condition must be produced in the theater of war or operations to achieve the strategic goal; Second, what sequence of actions is most likely to achieve that condition; Third, how should the resources of the force be applied to accomplish that sequence of actions and; finally, what is the likely cost or risk to the joint force in performing that sequence of operations. Both Germany and Japan needed to ask these questions as they sought to expand their empires through regional conflicts prior to United States' entry into World War II. Both recognized the criticality of sea lines of communications to achieve their strategic goals - Germany to defeat Britain and Japan to sustain its' own war effort and economy. Both also recognized the risks of provoking the United States into entering the war against them, yet both, when war with the United States did occur, had done little to overcome those risks. Once the United States entered the war, neither Germany of Japan could counter the U.S. industrial might economically or through direct or indirect military efforts. The submarine campaign that the United States carried out in the Pacific against Japan was instrumental in bringing Japan to defeat. Germany's U-boat campaign in the Atlantic against U.S. and Allied shipping was thwarted. Numerous reasons, including leadership, tactics, and technology have all been cited as causes of respective success and failure. These are all valid. Ultimately, however, both campaigns came down to wars of attrition. When the final counts are analyzed, the U.S. simply built more merchant ships than the German U-boats could sink; U.S. submarines sank more merchant ships than the Japanese could build and built more submarines than the Japanese could sink.
Category: History

Historical Abstracts

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105024577947
Genre : History, Modern
File Size : 52.31 MB
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Category: History, Modern

Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists

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Genre :
File Size : 67.37 MB
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The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is the premier public resource on scientific and technological developments that impact global security. Founded by Manhattan Project Scientists, the Bulletin's iconic "Doomsday Clock" stimulates solutions for a safer world.

Popular Mechanics

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Genre :
File Size : 44.91 MB
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Popular Mechanics inspires, instructs and influences readers to help them master the modern world. Whether it’s practical DIY home-improvement tips, gadgets and digital technology, information on the newest cars or the latest breakthroughs in science -- PM is the ultimate guide to our high-tech lifestyle.

America History And Life

Author : Eric H. Boehm
ISBN : UOM:39015065455092
Genre : United States
File Size : 53.44 MB
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Provides historical coverage of the United States and Canada from prehistory to the present. Includes information abstracted from over 2,000 journals published worldwide.
Category: United States

Los Angeles Magazine

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File Size : 42.71 MB
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Los Angeles magazine is a regional magazine of national stature. Our combination of award-winning feature writing, investigative reporting, service journalism, and design covers the people, lifestyle, culture, entertainment, fashion, art and architecture, and news that define Southern California. Started in the spring of 1961, Los Angeles magazine has been addressing the needs and interests of our region for 48 years. The magazine continues to be the definitive resource for an affluent population that is intensely interested in a lifestyle that is uniquely Southern Californian.