The Economics Of Conservation Programs

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The Economics Of Conservation Programs

Author : Franz Wirl
ISBN : 9781461563013
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 53.35 MB
Format : PDF
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Demand side management (DSM) is one of the most topical issues in regulating electric utilities, both in the United States and internationally. What is DSM? It consists of various measures at the level of demand (households, commerce, industry, others), which are at least partially financed by electric utilities and which should either conserve energy or reduce the peak load. The practice of DSM originates from The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 (PURPA) that provided the political and legal framework to set energy conservation as a national goal, which encouraged regulatory commissions to initiate utility conservation programs; see e.g., Nowell-Tschirhart (1990) and Fox-Penner (1990). Moreover, integrated resource planning, which must account for DSM on a level playing field with supply, is written into the 1992 Energy Policy Act as the U.S. Government's preferred method of electric power planning. Although PURPA set energy conservation as a national priority, its implementation was left to the states with the consequence of considerable differences concerning efforts and rules. By 1993 16 states had already implemented integrated resource planning, 9 were in the process of doing so and further 9 considered implementation, (EPRI 1993b). Due to the Clean Air Act of 1990, 24 states are considering to include external costs in integrated resource planning.
Category: Business & Economics

Balancing The Multiple Objectives Of Conservation Programs

Author : Andrea Cattaneo
ISBN : 9781437985801
Genre :
File Size : 52.16 MB
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Many conservation programs seek to achieve multiple environ. objectives. Implementing a multi-objective program efficiently requires program managers to balance different environ. and cost objectives. Some conservation programs use an index approach to prioritize objectives and rank program applications. This approach keeps program objectives distinct and enables program managers to use weights to determine the relative importance of each objective. This report provides empirical evidence on the environ. and cost tradeoffs of different index weighting schemes at the USDA. The analyses take into account both land characteristics and how changes to an index affect producer decisions. Charts and tables. This is a print on demand report.
Category:

Status Of Federal Energy Conservation Programs

Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Regulation
ISBN : MINN:31951D011666353
Genre : Energy conservation
File Size : 30.23 MB
Format : PDF
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Category: Energy conservation

Economics And Contemporary Land Use Policy

Author : Robert J. Johnston
ISBN : 9781136523601
Genre : Law
File Size : 30.51 MB
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As external forces increase the demand for land conversion, communities are increasingly open to policies that encourage conservation of farm and forest lands. This interest in conservation notwithstanding, the consequences of land-use policy and the drivers of land conversions are often unclear. One of the first books to deal exclusively with the economics of rural-urban sprawl, Economics and Contemporary Land-Use Policy explores the causes and consequences of rapidly accelerating land conversions in urban-fringe areas, as well as implications for effective policy responses. This book emphasizes the critical role of both spatial and economic-ecological interactions in contemporary land use, and the importance of a practical, policy-oriented perspective. Chapters illustrate an interaction of conceptual, theoretical, and empirical approaches to land-use policy and highlight advances in policy-oriented economics associated with the conservation and development of urban-fringe land. Issues addressed include (1) the appropriate role of economics in land-use policy, (2) forecasting and management of land conversion, (3) interactions among land use, property values, and local taxes, and (4) relationships among rural amenities, rural character, and urban-fringe land-use policy. Economics and Contemporary Land-Use Policy is a timely and relevant contribution to the land-use policy debate and will prove an essential reference for policymakers at the local, state, and federal levels. It will also be of interest to students, academics, and anyone with an interest in the practical application of economics to land-use issues.
Category: Law

21st Century Economics A Reference Handbook

Author : Rhona C. Free
ISBN : 9781412961424
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 31.91 MB
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Interest in economics is at an all-time high. Among the challenges facing the nation is an economy with rapidly rising unemployment, failures of major businesses and industries, and continued dependence on oil with its wildly fluctuating price. Americans are debating the proper role of the government in company bailouts, the effectiveness of tax cuts versus increased government spending to stimulate the economy, and potential effects of deflation. Economists have dealt with such questions for generations, but they have taken on new meaning and significance. Tackling these questions and encompassing analysis of traditional economic theory and topics as well as those that economists have only more recently addressed, 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook is intended to meet the needs of several types of readers. Undergraduate students preparing for exams will find summaries of theory and models in key areas of micro and macroeconomics. Readers interested in learning about economic analysis of an issue as well students embarking on research projects will find introductions to relevant theory and empirical evidence. And economists seeking to learn about extensions of analysis into new areas or about new approaches will benefit from chapters that introduce cutting-edge topics. To make the book accessible to undergraduate students, models have been presented only in graphical format (minimal calculus) and empirical evidence has been summarized in ways that do not require much background in statistics or econometrics. It is thereby hoped that chapters will provide both crucial information and inspiration in a non-threatening, highly readable format.
Category: Business & Economics

Economics Of Rural Land Use Change

Author : Kathleen P. Bell
ISBN : 0754609839
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 81.27 MB
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Public concern over land management has never been greater. This book provides a broad overview of the economics of rural land-use change, drawing attention to the meaningful role economic analysis can play in resolving public concern and supporting futur
Category: Business & Economics

Handbook On The Economics Of Ecosystem Services And Biodiversity

Author : Paulo A L D Nunes
ISBN : 9781781951514
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 22.23 MB
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In recent years, there has been a marked proliferation in the literature on economic approaches to ecosystem management, which has created a subsequent need for real understanding of the scope and the limits of the economic approaches to ecosystems and
Category: Business & Economics

The Economics Of Biodiversity And Ecosystem Services

Author : Shunsuke Managi
ISBN : 9780415625630
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 84.45 MB
Format : PDF
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Ecosystems and biodiversity have been degraded over decades due to human activities. One of the critical causes is market failure: the current market only accounts tangible resources and neglects intangible functions, such as climate control and natural hazard mitigation. Under such circumstances in capitalism, land conversion and resource exploitation, which generate financial income, are highly prioritised over conservation, which is not necessarily beneficial in monetary terms. To halt ecosystem degradation, thus, the values of ecosystem services need to be visualised and economic instruments for ecosystem conservation should be further developed. This book focuses on these two aspects and performs several studies, including valuation of ecosystem services, productivity analysis, institutional design of payment for ecosystem services (PES), impact assessment of reduction emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), and economic experiment of mitigation banking scheme. From these analysis, economic values of ecosystem services are demonstrated from both supply and demand side, and the directions for improving economic instruments are indicated both directly and indirectly. As many of these analysis are usually conducted in the North America and Europe, this book is unique in geographical focus, namely, Japan, Asia and globe. Also, wide variety of ecosystems are targeted for studies; agricultural lands, forests, wetlands, and marine. Hence, this will be informative introduction for those who desire to study economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services in these regions and of these ecological zones.
Category: Business & Economics

Groundwater Economics

Author : Charles A. Job
ISBN : 1439809011
Genre : Nature
File Size : 90.12 MB
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From the western United States to the Indian subcontinent, water issues have always been economic issues. Considered ubiquitous under the continents, groundwater varies considerably in depth, quality, accessibility, and availability. A unified discussion of groundwater and its economic importance, Groundwater Economics explores the application of economic evaluation and cost/benefit analysis for the use, protection, remediation and conservation of groundwater. The book reviews the major economic uses of and demand for groundwater, provides an ecosystem context for resource withdrawals, discusses the application of economics to groundwater policy and decisions, and explores the economics of groundwater sustainability. It examines the legal basis for groundwater use and access, then addresses drinking water, irrigation, and waste disposal. The author considers micro- and macro-economic factors, cost-benefit tools, sustainability, transboundary considerations, climate change and policy evaluation, ease of policy implementation, and societal acceptance. He synthesizes key points into practical steps for future application, describing ways to evaluate the economics of groundwater use in the context of the larger ecosystem and the natural capital it provides. The comprehensive approach taken by this book addresses a full range groundwater topics building on other supporting disciplines, rather than focusing solely on how to evaluate the economics of remediation of contaminated sites or of a single resource use. This multidisciplinary course is a more current way to address this complex issue, compared to the single-discipline approach that addresses groundwater as a physical resource on the one hand and its economics on the other. This unified approach presents an array of tools and factors for the evaluation of the economics of proposals for future groundwater use in relation to the ecosystem and its sustainability.
Category: Nature

Issues In Ecological Research And Application 2011 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781464964084
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.19 MB
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Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Ecological Research and Application. The editors have built Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Ecological Research and Application in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Category: Science

The State Of The Nation S Ecosystems

Author : The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment
ISBN : 0521525721
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 87.25 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Provides succinct, comprehensive - yet scientifically sound and non-partisan - view of state of ecosystems in US.
Category: Business & Economics