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Author : Robert H. Sanders
ISBN : 9781139485739
Genre : Science
File Size : 57.85 MB
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Most astronomers and physicists now believe that the matter content of the Universe is dominated by dark matter: hypothetical particles which interact with normal matter primarily through the force of gravity. Though invisible to current direct detection methods, dark matter can explain a variety of astronomical observations. This book describes how this theory has developed over the past 75 years, and why it is now a central feature of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Current attempts to directly detect dark matter locally are discussed, together with the implications for particle physics. The author comments on the sociology of these developments, demonstrating how and why scientists work and interact. Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the leading alternative to this theory, is also presented. This fascinating overview will interest cosmologists, astronomers and particle physicists. Mathematics is kept to a minimum, so the book can be understood by non-specialists.

Author : Ken Freeman
ISBN : 9780387276182
Genre : Science
File Size : 21.62 MB
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Written for the educated non-scientist and scientist alike, it spans a variety of scientific disciplines, from observational astronomy to particle physics. Concepts that the reader will encounter along the way are at the cutting edge of scientific research. However the themes are explained in such a way that no prior understanding of science beyond a high school education is necessary.

Author : Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
ISBN : 9789814293792
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.51 MB
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Dark matter and dark energy are one of the central mysteries in modern physics, although modern astrophysical and cosmological observations and particle physics experiments can and will provide vital clues in uncovering its true nature. The DARK 2009 Conference brought together World's leading researchers in both astrophysics and particle physics, providing an opportunity and platform to present their latest results to the community. The topics covered are wide-ranging, from terrestrial underground experiments to space experimental efforts to search for dark matter, and on the theoretical aspects, from the generating of a fifth family as origin of dark matter, extra dimensions and dark matter to non-standard Wigner classes and dark matter. One of the new highlights was certainly a possible connection between a neutrino mass as observed by nuclear double beta decay and the dark energy. Highly important and relevant in its field, the book presents a vital snapshot of the sometimes seemingly disparate areas of dark matter research and offers an exciting overview of current ideas and future directions.

Author : Silvio Bonometto
ISBN : 9051992947
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.22 MB
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Physics and astrophysics came to dark matter through many different routes, finally accepting it, but often with some distaste. It has been noticed that the existence of dark matter is yet another displacement of humans from the centre of the Universe: not only do our planet and our sun have no central position in the Universe, not only are humans just animals (although with a 'specialized' central nervous system), but even the material of which we are made is only a marginal component of the cosmic substance! If this is the right attitude to take, scientists feeling distaste for dark matter are much like Galileo Galilei's colleagues who refused to look through the telescope to watch the Medici planets. Nevertheless, astronomers, when required to take a ballot in favour of some cosmological model, often still vote for 'pure baryonic' with substantial majorities, although most cosmologists assume that a 'cold' component of dark matter plays a role in producing the world as we observe it. Among the many subjects covered by the book, particular emphasis was given to 1) summarizing the current status of the observations both of the distribution of the nearby galaxies and of the evolution of more distant galaxies; 2) advanced statistical techniques for quantifying structure in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys; 3) the art of cosmic inflation and models for dark matter candidates, and their implications for cosmic microwave background observations; 4) implications of cold dark matter variants for large scale structure, as worked out both by quasi-linear techniques and by fully nonlinear simulations; and 5) Eulerian and Lagrangian approximations for treating the nonlinear dynamics.

The modern roots on the dark matter problem were basically launched in the 30s, with Zwicky's observations on a notorious discrepancy of mass in coma cluster that presented 500 times the mass than expected using the Newtonian theory (Virial theorem). Curiously, almost 90 years have passed, and the dark matter problem persists and is one of the most common challenges in both observational and theoretical physics. The Dark Matter is a rapid communication on the status-quo of the dark matter phenomenology as well as a presentation of new discussions on the theme.

Author : Klapdor-kleingrothaus Hans Volker
ISBN : 9789814546362
Genre :
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A sequel to Unexpected Links Between Egyptian and Babylonian Mathematics (World Scientific, 2005), this book is based on the author's intensive and ground breaking studies of the long history of Mesopotamian mathematics, from the late 4th to the late 1st millennium BC. It is argued in the book that several of the most famous Greek mathematicians appear to have been familiar with various aspects of Babylonian “metric algebra,” a convenient name for an elaborate combination of geometry, metrology, and quadratic equations that is known from both Babylonian and pre-Babylonian mathematical clay tablets.The book's use of “metric algebra diagrams” in the Babylonian style, where the side lengths and areas of geometric figures are explicitly indicated, instead of wholly abstract “lettered diagrams” in the Greek style, is essential for an improved understanding of many interesting propositions and constructions in Greek mathematical works. The author's comparisons with Babylonian mathematics also lead to new answers to some important open questions in the history of Greek mathematics.

Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astroph

Author : John Bahcall
ISBN : 9789814482714
Genre : Science
File Size : 33.23 MB
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If standard gravitational theory is correct, then most of the matter in the universe is in an unidentified form which does not emit enough light to have been detected by current instrumentation. This book is the second editon of the lectures given at the 4th Jerusalem Winter School for Theoretical Physics, with new material added. The lectures are devoted to the “missing matter” problem in the universe, the search to understand dark matter. The goal of this volume is to make current research work on unseen matter accessible to students without prior experience in this area and to provide insights for experts in related research fields. Due to the pedagogical nature of the original lectures and the intense discussions between the lecturers and the students, the written lectures included in this volume often contain techniques and explanations not found in more formal journal publications. Contents:Introduction (J N Bahcall)Distribution of Dark Matter in the Spiral Galaxy NGC 3198 (T S van Albada et al.)Some Possible Regularities in Missing Mass (J N Bahcall & S Casertano)Evolution of Globular Clusters and the Globular Cluster System — I (J P Ostriker & C Thompson)Positive Energy Perturbations in Cosmology — II (J P Ostriker & C Thompson)Dark Matter in Galaxies and Galaxy Systems (S Tremaine & H M Lee)Gravitational Lenses (R D Blandford & C S Kochanek)An Introduction to Inflation (W H Press & D N Spergel)WIMPS in the Sun and in the Lab (W H Press & D N Spergel)An Introduction to Cosmic Strings (W H Press & D N Spergel)A Departure from Newtonian Dynamics at Low Accelerations as an Explanation of the Mass-Discrepancy in Galactic Systems (M Milgrom)Dark Matter in Cosmology (A Aguirre) Readership: Astrophysicists, high energy physicists and advanced students. Keywords:Dark Matter;Dark Energy;Cosmology

Author : U Cotti
ISBN : 9789814492171
Genre : Science
File Size : 78.68 MB
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This volume presents the newest results and developments in the fast-moving field of astroparticle physics. The following topics are covered: dark matter, baryogenesis, neutrino physics and astrophysics, inflation, topological defects, cosmic ray physics and cosmological implications of grand unification, supersymmetry, superstrings and extra dimensions. Contents:Dark Matter:CP-Violating Phases and the Dark Matter Problem (T Falk)Dark Matter Annihilation at the Center of the Galaxy (P Gondolo)High Energy Cosmic Rays:The Most Energetic Particles in the Universe (E Roulet et al.)Cosmic Rays Signatures of Massive Relic Particles (S Sarkar)Energies in the Universe:Quintessence in Tensor–Scalar Theories of Gravity (N Bartolo & M Pietroni)Energy Conditions and Their Cosmological Implications (M Visser & C Barceló)Big Bang Nucleosynthesis:The Current Status of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Related Observations (K A Olive)Lithium-6: A Probe of the Early Universe (K Jedamzik)Inflation:Current Issues for Inflation (D Lyth)Nonthermal Production of Dangerous Relics in the Early Universe (A Riotto)CMB and Structure Formation:Back Reaction of Cosmological Perturbations (R H Brandenberger)Cosmological Implications of a Neutrino Asymmetry (J Lesgourgues & S Pastor)Topological Defects:Vortex Phases in Condensed Matter and Cosmology (M Laine)The Fate of Cosmic String Zero Modes (A-C Davis et al.)Phase Transitions and Magnetic Fields:High Temperature Symmetry Nonrestoration (B Bajc)Primordial Magnetic Fields and Electroweak Baryogenesis (D Grasso)Q-Balls:Cosmology of SUSY Q-Balls (A Kusenko)Q-Ball Formation Through Affleck-Dine Mechanism (S Kasuya)Neutrinos:Theoretical Implications of Recent Neutrino Discoveries (R Mohapatra)Mirror Neutrinos and the Early Universe (R R Volkas)Baryogenesis:Recent Progress in Affleck-Dine Baryogenesis (K Enqvist)Sources for Electroweak Baryogenesis (K Kainulainen)String Cosmology:Cosmology of Strongly Coupled Strings (P Binétruy)Remarks of Anomalous U(1) Symmetries in String Theory (H P Nilles)Extra Dimensions:Large Extra Space and Time Dimensions: Some Cosmological Issues (G Gabadadze)Our World as an Expanding Shell (M Gogberashvili)and other papers Readership: Researchers in high energy physics, cosmology and astrophysics. Keywords:

Particle dark matter: the name of the game -- The thermal relic paradigm: zeroth-order lessons from cosmology -- The thermal relic paradigm: a closer look -- The art of WIMP direct detection -- Indirect dark matter searches -- Searching for dark matter with particle colliders -- Axions and axion-like particles as dark matter -- Sterile neutrinos as dark matter particles -- Bestiarium: a short, biased compendium of notable dark matter particle candidates and models

Author : Malcolm Longair
ISBN : 9783540734772
Genre : Science
File Size : 51.23 MB
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Delineating the huge strides taken in cosmology in the past ten years, this much-anticipated second edition of Malcolm Longair's highly appreciated textbook has been extensively and thoroughly updated. It tells the story of modern astrophysical cosmology from the perspective of one of its most important and fundamental problems – how did the galaxies come about? Longair uses this approach to introduce the whole of what may be called "classical cosmology". What’s more, he describes how the study of the origin of galaxies and larger-scale structures in the Universe has provided us with direct information about the physics of the very early Universe.

Author : Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
ISBN : 354044257X
Genre : Science
File Size : 84.77 MB
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The search for Dark Matter in the Universe has established itself as one of the most exciting and central fields of astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. The lectures and talks in this book emphasize the experimental and theoretical status and future perspectives, stressing in particular the interplay between astro- and particle physics.

Author : Neil J. C. Spooner
ISBN : 9810246021
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.28 MB
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The objective of the workshop series ?The Identification of Dark Matter? is to assess critically the status of work attempting to identify what constitutes dark matter; in particular, to consider what techniques are currently being used, how successful they are, and what new techniques are likely to improve the prospects for identifying dark matter candidates in the future. This proceedings volume includes reviews on major particle astrophysics topics in the field of dark matter, as well as short contributed papers.

The volume contains a collection of reviews covering various indirect cosmological, astrophysical and physical effects of dark matter and physics beyond the Standard Model underlying it. The topics of reviews include theoretical analysis and experimental results of studies of dark matter effects. In particular, there are discussions of problems of large scale structure formation, cosmic ray and gamma background data in confrontation with models of decaying and annihilating dark matter, dark matter effects in stellar evolution, and the search for dark matter at accelerators. The analysis of the whole set of indirect evidence and constraints on dark matter physics will provide an effective test for various models of particle physics beyond the Standard Model.Exploration of this problem bears cross-disciplinary character. In many cases direct experimental studies of the physics of the dark matter is complicated and even impossible, which makes its indirect probes the unique source of information. The reviews contain a set of important information on possible features of dark matter physics, stimulating further development of experimental probes and theoretical studies of extensions of the Standard Model of elementary particles as well as of the structure and evolution of the Universe.