The Concept Of Mind

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The Concept Of Mind

Author : Gilbert Ryle
ISBN : 0226732967
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 47.55 MB
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This now-classic work challenges what Ryle calls philosophy's "official theory," the Cartesians "myth" of the separation of mind and matter. Ryle's linguistic analysis remaps the conceptual geography of mind, not so much solving traditional philosophical problems as dissolving them into the mere consequences of misguided language. His plain language and esstentially simple purpose place him in the traditioin of Locke, Berkeley, Mill, and Russell.
Category: Philosophy

The Concept Of Mind

Author : Gilbert Ryle
ISBN : 9780415485470
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 47.23 MB
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Professor Ryle examines the influence of the Cartesian myth and offers arguments against its assumptions.
Category: Philosophy

The Concept Of Mind

Author : Michael O'sullivan
ISBN : 9781351353021
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 78.45 MB
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Gilbert Ryle’s 1949 The Concept of Mind is now famous above all as the origin of the phrase “the ghost in the machine” – a phrase Ryle used to attack the popular idea that our bodies and minds are separate. His own position was that mental acts are not at all distinct from bodily actions. Indeed, they are the same thing, merely described in different ways – and if one cuts through the confusing language of the old philosophical debates, he suggests, that becomes clear. While, in many ways, modern philosophers of mind have moved on from or discarded Ryle’s actual arguments, The Concept of Mind remains a classic example of two central critical thinking skills: interpretation and reasoning. Ryle was what is known as an “ordinary language” philosopher – a school who considered many philosophical problems to exist purely because of philosophical language. He therefore considered his task as a philosopher to be one of cutting through confusing language, and clarifying matters – exemplifying the critical thinking skill of interpretation at its best. Rather than adding to philosophical knowledge as such, moreover, he saw his role as one of mapping it – giving it what he called a “logical geography.” As such, The Concept of Mind is also all about reasoning: laying out, organizing, and systematizing clear arguments.
Category: Philosophy

History Of The Concept Of Mind

Author : PaulS. Macdonald
ISBN : 9781351563642
Genre : Philosophy
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In the 20th century theorists of mind were almost exclusively concerned with various versions of the materialist thesis, but prior to current debates accounts of soul and mind reveal an extraordinary richness and complexity ?which bear careful and impartial investigation. This book is the first single-authored, comprehensive work to examine the historical, linguistic and conceptual issues involved in exploring the basic features of the human mind - from its most remote origins to the beginning of the modern period. MacDonald traces the development of an armature of psychical concepts from the Old Testament and Homer's works to the 18th century advocacy of an empirical science of the mind. Along the way, detailed attention is paid to the Presocratics, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics and Epicurus, before turning to look at the New Testament, Neoplatonism, Augustine, Medieval Islam, Aquinas and Dante. Treatment of Renaissance theories is followed by an unusual (perhaps unique) chapter on the words "soul" and "mind" in English literature from Chaucer to Shakespeare; the story then rejoins the mainstream with analyses of Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Chapter-focused bibliographies.
Category: Philosophy

Essays On The Concept Of Mind In Early Modern Philosophy

Author : Petr Glombíček
ISBN : 9781443820080
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 34.29 MB
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An important task for every major philosopher is to offer us an understanding of the nature of mind. The essays in this volume discuss different aspects of the philosophical theories of mind put forward in the century and a half that followed Descartes’ Meditations of 1641. These years, often referred to as the ‘early-modern’ period, are probably unparalleled for originality and diversity in conceiving the mind. The volume not only includes two essays on Descartes’ own thinking, but there are also examinations of what Spinoza, Malebranche, Locke, Berkeley, Reid, the Cambridge Platonists, and others, have to say about the nature of mind. The aim of the volume is to represent some of the best contemporary research and reflection on mind in early-modern philosophy. The contributors, who teach at a range of universities in mainland Europe, Great Britain and North America, are Margaret Atherton, Miran Božovič, Petr Glombíček, Boris Hennig, James Hill, Nicholas Jolley, Jan Palkoska, G. A. J. Rogers, and Anthony Savile. All the essays appear here for the first time.
Category: Philosophy

The Concept Of Reduction

Author : Raphael van Riel
ISBN : 9783319041629
Genre : Philosophy
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This volume investigates the notion of reduction. Building on the idea that philosophers employ the term ‘reduction’ to reconcile diversity and directionality with unity, without relying on elimination, the book offers a powerful explication of an “ontological”, notion of reduction the extension of which is (primarily) formed by properties, kinds, individuals, or processes. It argues that related notions of reduction, such as theory-reduction and functional reduction, should be defined in terms of this explication. Thereby, the book offers a coherent framework, which sheds light on the history of the various reduction debates in the philosophy of science and in the philosophy of mind, and on related topics such as reduction and unification, the notion of a scientific level, and physicalism. The book takes its point of departure in the examination of a puzzle about reduction. To illustrate, the book takes as an example the reduction of water. If water reduces to H2O, then water is identical to H2O – thus we get unity. Unity does not come at the price of elimination – claiming that water reduces to H2O, we do not thereby claim that there is no water. But what about diversity and directionality? Intuitively, there should be a difference between water and H2O, such that we get diversity. This is required for there to be directionality: in a sense, if water reduces to H2O, then H2O is prior to, or more basic than water. At least, if water reduces to H2O, then H2O does not reduce to water. But how can this be, if water is identical to H2O? The book shows that the application of current models of reduction does not solve this puzzle, and proposes a new coherent definition, according to which unity is tied to identity, diversity is descriptive in nature, and directionality is the directionality of explanation.
Category: Philosophy

The Concept Of A Philosophical Jurisprudence

Author : Michael Oakeshott
ISBN : 9781845403072
Genre : Philosophy
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This volume brings together for the first time over a hundred of Oakeshott’s essays and reviews, written between 1926 and 1951, that until now have remained scattered through a variety of scholarly journals, periodicals and newspapers. A new editorial introduction explains how these pieces, including the lengthy essay on the philosophical nature of jurisprudence that occupies an important position in Oakeshott’s work, illuminate his other published writings. The collection throws new light on the context of his thought by placing him in dialogue with a number of other major figures in the humanities and social sciences during this period, including Leo Strauss, A.N. Whitehead, Karl Mannheim, Herbert Butterfield, E.H. Carr, Gilbert Ryle, and R.G. Collingwood.
Category: Philosophy

The Concept Of Intelligence

Author : Ira Altman
ISBN : 0761807373
Genre : Education
File Size : 32.28 MB
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This book is about the concept of intelligence which derives virtually all of its significance from an occurrence use of mental conduct adverbs. The Concept of Intelligence provides an episodic rather than a dispositional analysis, while at the same time, agreeing that intelligence has 'outer criteria' of meaning. It reinforces the 'nature' as opposed to the 'nurture' side of the popular debate on intelligence by showing what the concept signifies in ordinary language, and so, dovetails with the controversial 'The Bell Curve.'
Category: Education

The Concept Of The Soul

Author : Michael Fuller
ISBN : 9781443858069
Genre : Religion
File Size : 36.76 MB
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The idea of the soul is one which will not go away. This is despite the fact that traditional dualist understandings of humankind – that we are compound creatures, made up of a material body and a non-material soul – have been widely criticised in recent decades, by scholars from both theological and scientific backgrounds. What are the origins of the centuries-old traditions of dualist thinking? How have they been developed, and what can still be learned from them? What can modern philosophers and theologians say about the concept of the soul from a monist perspective? What light can scientific studies of the brain cast on it? And what perspectives can faiths other than Christianity bring to these issues? These were some of the issues considered at the 2012 conference of the Science and Religion Forum, held at Regents Park College, Oxford. This book presents papers derived from that conference, including contributions from leading scientific and theological scholars. Their very disparate approaches – and very diverse conclusions – will be of interest to a wide readership.
Category: Religion

Conceptual Atomism And The Computational Theory Of Mind

Author : John-Michael Kuczynski
ISBN : 902725205X
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 28.49 MB
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What is it to have a concept? What is it to make an inference? What is it to be rational? On the basis of recent developments in semantics, a number of authors have embraced answers to these questions that have radically counterintuitive consequences, for example: • One can rationally accept self-contradictory propositions (e.g. Smith is a composer and Smith is not a composer).• Psychological states are causally inert: beliefs and desires do nothing. • The mind cannot be understood in terms of folk-psychological concepts (e.g. belief, desire, intention). • One can have a single concept without having any others: an otherwise conceptless creature could grasp the concept of justice or of the number seven. • Thoughts are sentence-tokens, and thought-processes are driven by the syntactic, not the semantic, properties of those tokens. In the first half of Conceptual Atomism and the Computational Theory of Mind, John-Michael Kuczynski argues that these implausible but widely held views are direct consequences of a popular doctrine known as content-externalism, this being the view that the contents of one's mental states are constitutively dependent on facts about the external world. Kuczynski shows that content-externalism involves a failure to distinguish between, on the one hand, what is literally meant by linguistic expressions and, on the other hand, the information that one must work through to compute the literal meanings of such expressions. The second half of the present work concerns the Computational Theory of Mind (CTM). Underlying CTM is an acceptance of conceptual atomism – the view that a creature can have a single concept without having any others – and also an acceptance of the view that concepts are not descriptive (i.e. that one can have a concept of a thing without knowing of any description that is satisfied by that thing). Kuczynski shows that both views are false, one reason being that they presuppose the truth of content-externalism, another being that they are incompatible with the epistemological anti-foundationalism proven correct by Wilfred Sellars and Laurence Bonjour. Kuczynski also shows that CTM involves a misunderstanding of terms such as “computation”, “syntax”, “algorithm” and “formal truth”; and he provides novel analyses of the concepts expressed by these terms. (Series A)
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Descartes S Concept Of Mind

Author : Lilli Alanen
ISBN : 0674020103
Genre : Body, Mind & Spirit
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Descartes's concept of the mind, as distinct from the body with which it forms a union, set the agenda for much of Western philosophy's subsequent reflection on human nature and thought. This is the first book to give an analysis of Descartes's pivotal concept that deals with all the functions of the mind, cognitive as well as volitional, theoretical as well as practical and moral. Focusing on Descartes's view of the mind as intimately united to and intermingled with the body, and exploring its implications for his philosophy of mind and moral psychology, Lilli Alanen argues that the epistemological and methodological consequences of this view have been largely misconstrued in the modern debate. Informed by both the French tradition of Descartes scholarship and recent Anglo-American research, Alanen's book combines historical-contextual analysis with a philosophical problem-oriented approach. It seeks to relate Descartes's views on mind and intentionality both to contemporary debates and to the problems Descartes confronted in their historical context. By drawing out the historical antecedents and the intellectual evolution of Descartes's thinking about the mind, the book shows how his emphasis on the embodiment of the mind has implications far more complex and interesting than the usual dualist account suggests.
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

History Of The Concept Of Mind

Author : Paul S. MacDonald
ISBN : 0754613658
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 35.3 MB
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Talks about the history of heterodox ideas about the concept of mind. This book concludes with an investigation of the many forms of dualism in accounts of the human mind and soul, and the concept of dual-life which underpins our aspiration to understand how humans could have an immortal nature like the gods.
Category: Philosophy

Folk Psychology And The Philosophy Of Mind

Author : Scott M. Christensen
ISBN : 9781134993727
Genre : Psychology
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Within the past ten years, the discussion of the nature of folk psychology and its role in explaining behavior and thought has become central to the philosophy of mind. However, no comprehensive account of the contemporary debate or collection of the works that make up this debate has yet been available. Intending to fill this gap, this volume begins with the crucial background for the contemporary debate and proceeds with a broad range of responses to and developments of these works -- from those who argue that "folk theory" is a misnomer to those who regard folk theory as legitimately explanatory and necessary for any adequate account of human behavior. Intended for courses in the philosophy of mind, psychology, and science, as well as anthropology and social psychology, this anthology is also of great value in courses focusing on folk models, eliminative materialism, explanation, psychological theory, and -- in particular -- intentional psychology. It is accessible to both graduate students and upper-division undergraduate students of philosophy and psychology as well as researchers. As an aid to students, a thorough discussion of the field and the articles in the anthology is provided in the introduction; as an aid to researchers, a complete bibliography is also provided.
Category: Psychology

The Conscious Mind

Author : David J. Chalmers
ISBN : 0195117891
Genre : Medical
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Writing in a rigorous, thought-provoking style, the author takes us on a far-reaching tour through the philosophical ramifications of consciousness, offering provocative insights into the relationship between mind and brain.
Category: Medical

The Concept Of Justice

Author : Thomas Patrick Burke
ISBN : 9781441126733
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 49.56 MB
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In The Concept of Justice, Patrick Burke explores and argues for a return to traditional ideas of ordinary justice in opposition to conceptions of 'social justice' that came to dominate political thought in the 20th Century. Arguing that our notions of justice have been made incoherent by the radical incompatibility between instinctive notions of ordinary justice and theoretical conceptions of social justice, the book goes on to explore the historical roots of these ideas of social justice. Finding the roots of these ideas in religious circles in Italy and England in the 19th century, Burke explores the ongoing religious influence in the development of the concept in the works of Marx, Mill and Hobhouse. In opposition to this legacy of liberal thought, the book presents a new theory of ordinary justice drawing on the thought of Immanuel Kant. In this light, Burke finds that all genuine ethical evaluation must presuppose free will and individual responsibility and that all true injustice is fundamentally coercive.
Category: Philosophy

Concept Of Bodhicitta In Santideva S Bodhicaryavatara The

Author : Francis Brassard
ISBN : 9780791492536
Genre : Religion
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This book explores an important concept within the Buddhist Mahayana tradition, bodhicitta. This term appears frequently in Sanskrit literature relating to the spiritual practices of the bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism and has been variously translated as "thought of enlightenment" or "desire of enlightenment". Francis Brassard offers a contextual analysis of bodhicitta based on the presuppositions underlying the spiritual practice of the bodhisattva. Since the understanding that emerges involves how one ought to view the process of spiritual transformation, this work contributes to Buddhist psychology and soteriology in particular, and to comparative religions in general. The book surveys the various interpretations of the concept of bodhicitta, analyzes its possible functions in the context of the spiritual path of the aspirant to enlightenment, and discusses an understanding of bodhicitta in the context of the Santideva's Bodhicaryavatara.
Category: Religion

The Concept Of Consciousness

Author : Edwin B. Holt
ISBN : 9781596053502
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 25.66 MB
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The present volume does not aim to be a system. It does profess not to forget the initial quest of philosophy.Its scope is limited, for it proposed only to give a consistent account, a definition, of one very common yet perplexing feature of the universe - consciousness" -from The Preface By 1914, when he completed The Concept of Consciousness, Holt believed that objects are as initially perceived, that one could relate conscious experience to physical references and that environment is the determining force in life. Contents of this volume include: .The Renaissance of Logic .Objections to the Programme of Logic .Correspondence: The Particular and The Universal .Further Implications of the Programme of Logic .Our Universe at Large .The Substance of Ideas .The Substance of Matter .The Neutral Mosaic .The Concept of Consciousness EDWIN B. HOLT, (1873-1946) born in Winchester, Massachusetts, was an undergraduate at Amherst College, but transferred to Harvard, receiving his A.B. in 1896. Thereafter, he studied with William James, receiving a doctorate in psychology in 1901. Holt taught at Harvard until 1918, and later served for nearly a decade as a Visiting Professor of Psychology at Princeton, where he was widely acclaimed for his brilliant lectures.
Category: Philosophy

The Concept Of Enlightenment

Author : Swami John
ISBN : 9781430327691
Genre : Religion
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The Concept of Enlightenment is an attempt to describe the indescribable - consciousness without an object. It reveals how most religions and spiritual activities are in fact just adding more and more momentum to the thought realm matrix, the sphere of internal dialog most of us believe is reality. Only by discovering the silence of "No-Mind" can one be freed from the mind's constant self-referencing mechanism that creates the illusion of a separate self. In embracing silence, one encounters the possibility of accessing the energy necessary to trigger transformation, awaken from the dream, and discover "what is."
Category: Religion