THE-CHINESE-TYPEWRITER-A-HISTORY-MIT-PRESS

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The Chinese Typewriter

Author : Thomas S. Mullaney
ISBN : 9780262536103
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68.30 MB
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How Chinese characters triumphed over the QWERTY keyboard and laid the foundation for China's information technology successes today. Chinese writing is character based, the one major world script that is neither alphabetic nor syllabic. Through the years, the Chinese written language encountered presumed alphabetic universalism in the form of Morse Code, Braille, stenography, Linotype, punch cards, word processing, and other systems developed with the Latin alphabet in mind. This book is about those encounters—in particular thousands of Chinese characters versus the typewriter and its QWERTY keyboard. Thomas Mullaney describes a fascinating series of experiments, prototypes, failures, and successes in the century-long quest for a workable Chinese typewriter. The earliest Chinese typewriters, Mullaney tells us, were figments of popular imagination, sensational accounts of twelve-foot keyboards with 5,000 keys. One of the first Chinese typewriters actually constructed was invented by a Christian missionary, who organized characters by common usage (but promoted the less-common characters for “Jesus" to the common usage level). Later came typewriters manufactured for use in Chinese offices, and typewriting schools that turned out trained “typewriter girls” and “typewriter boys.” Still later was the “Double Pigeon” typewriter produced by the Shanghai Calculator and Typewriter Factory, the typewriter of choice under Mao. Clerks and secretaries in this era experimented with alternative ways of organizing characters on their tray beds, inventing an input method that was the first instance of “predictive text.” Today, after more than a century of resistance against the alphabetic, not only have Chinese characters prevailed, they form the linguistic substrate of the vibrant world of Chinese information technology. The Chinese Typewriter, not just an “object history” but grappling with broad questions of technological change and global communication, shows how this happened. A Study of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute Columbia University
Category: Technology & Engineering

International Perspectives On Publishing Platforms

Author : Meghan Forbes
ISBN : 9780429958120
Genre : History
File Size : 69.55 MB
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With large-scale scholarly projects dedicated to digitizing print-based magazines and a concurrent turn towards digital mapping and data visualization, periodicals that were once accessible only in the archive now have the capacity to reach a wider audience, and make visible previously overlooked networks and connections enacted within and across the magazines. International Perspectives on Publishing Platforms: Image, Object, Text offers a unique contribution to the field of periodical studies, while also broadening the scope of purview to consider related content with regards to other relevant printed matter and cultural products, as well as digital archiving strategies. Including interdisciplinary contributions from academics around the world, the volume presents a wide range of approaches to periodicals and printed matter from Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Questions of material print culture and the digital realm are considered both via theoretical and more empirical approaches. As a whole, the book considers the pluralism of perspectives that the study of periodicals and printed matter contribute to our historical understanding of various political and social issues, and also devotes attention to the ways in which digital archiving projects can be instrumentalized as a strategy for filling in gaps in the historical record. International Perspectives on Publishing Platforms should be of great interest to researchers, academics and postgraduates engaged in the study of periodicals, publishing, book history, world literature, digital humanities, media, visual and material culture.
Category: History

Electrified Voices

Author : Kerim Yasar
ISBN : 9780231547024
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 46.85 MB
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Long before karaoke’s ubiquity and the rise of global brands such as Sony, Japan was a place where new audio technologies found eager users and contributed to new cultural forms. In Electrified Voices, Kerim Yasar traces the origins of the modern soundscape, showing how the revolutionary nature of sound technology and the rise of a new auditory culture played an essential role in the formation of Japanese modernity. A far-reaching cultural history of the telegraph, telephone, phonograph, radio, and early sound film in Japan, Electrified Voices shows how these technologies reshaped the production of culture. Audio technologies upended the status of the written word as the only source of prestige while revivifying traditional forms of orality. The ability to reproduce and transmit sound, freeing it from the constraints of time and space, had profound consequences on late nineteenth-century language reform; twentieth-century literary, musical, and cinematic practices; the rise of militarism and nationalism in the 1920s and 30s; and the transition to the postwar period inaugurated by Emperor Hirohito’s declaration of unconditional surrender to Allied forces—a declaration that was recorded on a gramophone record and broadcast throughout the defeated Japanese empire. The first cultural history in English of auditory technologies in modern Japan, Electrified Voices enriches our understanding of Japanese modernity and offers a major contribution to sound studies and global media history.
Category: Social Science

Elles Centrepompidou

Author : Musée national d'art moderne/Centre de création industrielle (France)
ISBN : UIUC:30112100240131
Genre : Art
File Size : 60.53 MB
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Category: Art

Paradigms In Computing

Author : David Jason Gerber
ISBN : 9781938740114
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 26.20 MB
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Paradigms in Computing: Making, Machines, and Models for Design Agency in Architecture brings together critical, theoretical, and practical research and design that illustrates the plurality of computing approaches within the broad spectrum of design and mediated practices. It is an interrogation of our primary field of architecture through the lens of computing, and yet one that realizes a productive expanding of our métier’s definition and boundaries. It is a compilation that purposefully promotes architecture’s disciplinary reach and incorporations beyond the design and construction of buildings and cities. The book offers a glimpse into the wide range of positions and experiences that are shaping practice and discourse today. The work included in Paradigms in Computing is evidence that models for enquiry are many and proliferating. As digitalization and computation continue to infuse our processes with new tools and new design environments, some of the trends collected in this book will continue to be central to the production and speculation of architecture, and others will, in retrospect, be recognized as the seeds of new, or perhaps multiple, paradigms. Included are essays and projects, from; Alisa Andrasek, Rachel Armstrong, Philip Beesley, Tom Bessai, Shajay Bhooshan, Brad Cantrel, Matias Del Campo, Pablo Eiroa, Marc Fornes, David Jason Gerber, Maria Paz Gutierrez, Alvin Huang, Jason Kelly Johnson, Simon Kim, Neil Leach, Greg Lynn, Elena and Anna Maria Manferdini, Alex McDowell, Phillippe Morel, Nick Puckett, Casey Reas, Alex Robinson, Jenny Sabin, Jose Sanchez, Patrik Schumacher, Kyle Steinfeld, Satoru Sugihara, Orkan Telhan, Kathy Velikov and Geoffrey Thun, Tom Verebes, Leire Asensio Villoria and David Mah, Jenny Wu, Eric Howeler and Meejin Yoon, and Zaha Hadid Architects.
Category: Architecture

Organized Networks

Author :
ISBN : 9056625268
Genre : Art
File Size : 38.2 MB
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The celebration of network cultures as open, decentralized and horizontal all too easily overshadows their political dimensions. In Organized Networks, Ned Rossiter, the author of Politics of a Digital Present and Refashioning Pop Music in Asia: Cosmopolitan Flows, Political Tempos and Aesthetic Industries, sets out to upend these myths by tracking the antagonisms lurking within Internet governance debates, the exploitation of labor in creative industries, and the aesthetics of global capital. Rossiter cuts across the fields of media theory, political philosophy and cultural critique to diagnose some of the key issues facing network cultures, questions central to their survival in a post-dot-com era. His work grows from his experience participating in and facilitating network cultures. His explanation of their current transformation into semi-autonomous political and cultural "networks of networks" is virtuosic. And his proposals are radical. A book of the future-present.
Category: Art

We Are In Open Circuits

Author : Nam June Paik
ISBN : 026203980X
Genre : Art
File Size : 74.83 MB
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Essays, project plans, and correspondence from across Nam Jun Paik's career, much of it previously out of print or unpublished. Nam June Paik (1932-2006) is a pivotal figure in the history of modern art. Arguably the most important video artist of all time, and certainly among the most influential and prolific, Paik was a legendary innovator who transformed the electronic moving image into an artist's medium. He wrote incessantly--corresponding with friends, composing performance scores, making production notes for television projects, drafting plans for video installations, writing essays and articles. Celebrated for his visionary development of new artistic tools and for his pioneering work in video and television, Paik often wrote to sharpen his thinking and hone his ideas. He used the typewriter to fashion sentences that broke apart and reassembled themselves as he wrote, producing both poetic texts and aesthetic objects on the page. This first extensive collection of Paik's writings includes many previously unpublished and out-of-print texts. Drawing on materials from the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Nam June Paik Archive and from a range of international publications, We Are in Open Circuits offers important but long-unavailable essays, including "Global Groove and Video Common Market"; unpublished writings on such topics as his creative partnership with the cellist Charlotte Moorman and the role of public television; a substantial part of his compilation "Scrutable Chinese"; and detailed plans for some of his groundbreaking broadcast works, including the trio Good Morning, Mr. Orwell (1984), Bye Bye Kipling (1986), and Wrap Around the World (1988). It also includes nearly 150 pages that reproduce Paik's original typed and handwritten pages, letting readers see his writing in various stages of inspiration and execution.
Category: Art