The A To Z Of Skeletal Muscles

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Skeletal Muscle

Author : Brian R. MacIntosh
ISBN : 0736045171
Genre : Education
File Size : 60.88 MB
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Provides readers with a detailed understanding of the different facets of muscle physiology. Examines motoneuron and muscle structure and function. It is intended for those need to know about skeletal muscle--from undergraduate and graduate students gaining advanced knowledge in kinesiology to physiotherapists, physiatrists, and other professionals whose work demands understanding of muscle form and function.
Category: Education

Skeletal Muscle Structure Function And Plasticity

Author : Richard L. Lieber
ISBN : 0781730619
Genre : Medical
File Size : 26.70 MB
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In its Second Edition, this text addresses basic and applied physiological properties of skeletal muscle in the context of the physiological effects from clinical treatment. Many concepts are expanded and recent studies on human muscle have been added. This new edition also includes more clinically relevant cases and stories. A two-page full color insert of muscle sections is provided to ensure integral understanding of the concepts presented in the text. Anyone interested in human movement analysis and the understanding of generation and control from the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems in implementing movement will find this a valuable resource.
Category: Medical

Skeletal Muscle

Author : Henning Schmalbruch
ISBN : 9783642825514
Genre : Medical
File Size : 24.49 MB
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This volume is intended to cover research in the field of muscle morphology since publication of the previous edition by Haggquist in 1956. The development of new techniques, coupled with an intensified interest in muscle, has resulted in a vast literature which no single person could review, especially within the limitations of one volume. When I accepted the flattering offer to write a new edition, I quickly abandoned any hope of a comprehensive review. Instead, I tried to consider, within my limits, those lines of research which I believe to be important for the understanding of mammalian and ultimately human muscles under normal, experimental, and pathological conditions. It would be naive to suggest that muscle can be adequately described in purely morphologi cal aspects; I would characterize the results of my effort as "muscle as seen with the eyes of a morphologist". It gives me pleasure to acknowledge the help of several colleagues who read and commented on drafts of individual chapters: Dr. Brenda Eisenberg, Chicago; Dr. Else Nygaard, Copenhagen; Dr. Stefano Schiaffino, Padova; Dr. Michael Sjostrom, Umea; Dr. Lars~Erik Thornell, Umea. None of these individ uals can be held responsible for any error or obscurity that persists. Indeed, without their assistance there would have been more. I also thank those col leagues who allowed me to include their published and unpublished material; their names, and also those of the publishers who kindly granted copyright permission, are given in the individual figure captions.
Category: Medical

The Sarcomere And Skeletal Muscle Disease

Author : Nigel G. Laing
ISBN : 9780387848471
Genre : Medical
File Size : 42.94 MB
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Although best known for its role in heart disease, the sarcomere--the fundamental unit of muscle contraction--is also involved in skeletal muscle diseases. Chapters in The Sarcomere and Skeletal Muscle Disease provide an up-to-date review of diseases caused by mutated proteins in the different sub-compartments of the sarcomere, document the techniques currently being used to investigate the pathobiological bases of the diseases, which remain largely unknown, and discuss possible therapeutic options.
Category: Medical

Skeletal Muscle Damage And Repair

Author : Peter M. Tiidus
ISBN : 0736058672
Genre : Medical
File Size : 56.29 MB
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Attempts to cover a wide range of both basic research and applied clinical topics related to skeletal muscle damage and repair mechanisms and their application. This book examines muscle damage and repair mechanisms and issues in specific populations including older adults and special populations.
Category: Medical

Skeletal Muscle Muscular Dystrophy

Author : Donald Fischman
ISBN : 9781615040032
Genre : Medical
File Size : 83.94 MB
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Histologically, muscle is conveniently divided into two groups, striated and nonstriated, based on whether the cells exhibit cross-striations in the light microscope (Figure 3). Smooth muscle is involuntary: its contraction is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Striated muscle includes both cardiac (involuntary) and skeletal (voluntary). The former is innervated by visceral efferent fibers of the autonomic nervous system, whereas the latter is innervated by somatic efferent fibers, most of which have their cell bodies in the ventral, motor horn of the spinal cord. Smooth muscle is designed to have slow, relatively sustained contractions, while striated muscle contracts rapidly and usually phasically. Both cardiac and smooth muscle cells are mononucleated, whereas skeletal muscle cells (fibers) are multinucleated. [In aging hearts or hypertrophied hearts, cardiac muscle cells are often binucleated.] Multinucleation of skeletal muscle arises during development by the cytoplasmic fusion of muscle precursor cells, myoblasts. Adult skeletal muscle cells do not divide; that is also true of most cardiac myocytes. However, skeletal muscle exhibits a considerable amount of regeneration after injury. This is because adult skeletal muscle contains a stem cell, the satellite cell, which lies beneath the basement membrane surrounding the muscle fibers. [The multinucleation of cardiac muscle arises from karyokinesis without cytokinesis.] A diagrammatic series of enlargements of skeletal muscle are shown in Figure 4. A bundle of muscle fibers (fasciculus) is cut from the deltoid muscle. Each muscle cell is termed a myofiber or muscle fiber. Each muscle fiber contains contractile organelles termed myofibrils, which contain the contractile units of muscle termed sarcomeres. The sarcomeres are composed of myofilaments, which in turn are composed of contractile proteins. Muscle connective tissue layers are organized in concentric layers that are important in the entry and exit of vessels and nerves to and from the tissue. These are shown in Figure 5. The outermost layer is the epimysium or muscle sheath. Connective tissue septae (perimysium) run radially into the muscle tissue, dividing it into muscle fascicles. The deepest layer, surrounding each of the muscle fibers is the endomysium. The endomysium is in direct contact with a basal lamina that ensheathes each muscle fiber. It surrounds the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber termed the sarcolemma.
Category: Medical

Oxidative Stress In Skeletal Muscle

Author : Abraham Z. Reznick
ISBN : 3764358203
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.10 MB
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This volume presents for the first time the most up-to-date research findings in the field. Skeletal muscle consumes significant amounts of oxygen, and its oxygen flux increases significantly under conditions of exercise and muscle contraction. This makes the muscle vulnerable to oxidative stress, as concomitantly with the increase of oxygen flow there is an increase of oxygen free radicals, which are a byproduct of muscle respiration. A number of studies in the last decade have documented the involvement of oxygen free radicals in exercising muscles. The consequences of muscle oxidative stress have resulted mainly in increased muscle protein oxidation, elevation of lipid peroxidation, and depletion of muscle antioxidants. The mechanisms of this oxidative stress are under extensive investigation in laboratories around the world and are topics of the chapters in this volume. Understanding these mechanisms may help to improve the well-being and function of muscles in various physiological conditions, in muscle pathologies, and in tissue-ageing. This book is intended for professionals who are interested in muscle function, physiology, pathophysiology and well-being, such as therapists, trainers and medical professionals as well as for researchers in the field of muscle physiology. Series: Molecular and Cell Biology Updates (MCBU) Contents: 1. Free Radical and Oxidative Damage in Biology and Medicine: An Introduction / B. Halliwell 2. Oxidative Metabolism in the Skeletal Muscle / O. Hanninen 3. Strategies to Assess Oxidative Stress / A.Z. Reznick, L. Packer, C.K. Sen 4. The Course of Exercise Induced Skeletal Muscle Fiber Injury / J. Komulainen, V. Vihko 5. Free Radical Mechanisms in Exercise-Related Muscle Damage / M.J. Jackson 6. The Effect of Exercise, Aging and Caloric Restriction on Protein Oxidation and DNA Damage in Skeletal Muscles / Z. Radak, S. Goto 7. Antioxidant Enzyme Response to Exercise and Training in the Skeletal Muscle / L.L. Ji 8. Glutathione, a Key Regulator of Skeletal Muscle Antioxidant Defense / C.K. Sen 9. Vitamin E and its Effect on Skeletal Muscle / M. Meydani, R. Fielding, K.R. Martin 10. Differential Susceptibility of Skeletal Muscle Proteins to Free Radical Induced Oxidative Damage in Vitro / J.W. Haycock, G. Falkous, D. Mantle 11. Oxidative Stress and Calcium Transport in Skeletal and Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum / V.E. Kagan, V.B. Ritov, N.V. Gorbunov, E. Menshikova, G. Salama 12. Oxidative Stress in Immobilization-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy / H. Kondo 13. Effect of Growth Hormone on Oxidative Stress in Immobilized Muscles of Old Animals / I. Roisman, N. Zarzhevesky, A.Z. Reznick 14. The Diaphragm and Oxidative Stress / S. Powers, J.M. Lawler, H.K. Vincent 15. Oxidative Damage after Ischaemia-Reperfusion in Muscle / A. Hochman 16. Oxidative Damage in Rat Skeletal Muscle following L-Tryptophan and Atherogenic-rich diet / E. Livne, N. Ronen, S. Mokady, A.Z. Reznick, B. Gross 17. Oxidative Stress and Muscle Wasting in Cachexia / M. Buck, M. Chojkier 18. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in the Pathogenesis of Alcoholic Myopathy / V.R. Preedy, M. Reilly, D. Mantle, T.J. Peters 19. Drug Induced Muscle Damage / G. Brazeau 20. Free Radicals and Animal Muscle Diseases / J. Arthur 21. Clinical Trials of Antioxidants in Muscle Disease / R.H.T. Edwards, M.J. Jackson
Category: Science

Cell And Muscle Motility

Author : Jerry Shay
ISBN : 9781461592969
Genre : Medical
File Size : 31.32 MB
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Motility is a fundamental property of living systems, from the cytoplasmic streaming of unicellular organisms to the most highly differentiated and de veloped contractile system of higher organisms, striated muscle. Although of motility have a long and in scientific investigations into the mechanisms teresting history, the knowledge of molecular processes, especially in the area of regulation of control of motility, has been developing at an ever more rapid pace with the utilization of multidisciplinary approaches from physiology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, and biophysics. In Volume 3, Cell and Muscle Motility continues the same philosophy as that of the preceding volumes. The essays are meant to focus on topics of current interest, to be critical rather than exhaustive, and to indicate the current trends of research efforts. The series is intended to foster an in terchange of concepts among various workers in a variety of disciplines and to serve as a reference for students and workers who wish to familiarize them selves with the most current progress in motility. Robert M. Dowben Jerry W. Shay Dallas vii Contents Chapter 1 Intermediate Filaments in Striated Muscle: A Review of Structural Studies in Embryonic and Adult Skelttal and Cardiac Muscle Maureen C. Price and Joseph W. Sanger 1. Introduction ................................................ .
Category: Medical

A Neuron Specific Protein Found In Skeletal Muscle

Author : Raffaele Pilla
ISBN : 9781612337852
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.98 MB
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Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43), isolated from rat brain and considered a neuronal marker, is involved in neurite branching, cytoskeleton remodelling, neuronal development and protection. However, GAP-43 mRNA was found in embryonic chicken cells positive to meromyosin, as well as in human satellite cells, myoblasts and myotubes deriving from healthy or dystrophic muscles. Despite these findings, there is no clear evidence about its localization or relationship with other muscle proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate GAP-43 protein expression and localization in C2C12 cells and mice skeletal muscle fibers, using immunoblot and immunofluorescence protocols for confocal mycroscopy. Immunoblot analyses show the presence of GAP-43 in C2C12 cell homogenates as well as in mature muscle fibers. Immunofluorescent images reveal that the protein is localized nearby the external nuclear membranes in C2C12 myoblasts, while in C2C12 myotubes, it has been detected on muscular streaks, in a regular double strand pattern. This localization has been found also in Extensor Digitorum Longus fibers isolated from 1 week, 1 and 24 months old mice. In isolated adult mouse fibers, GAP-43 localization appears to be in relationship with crucial proteins such as triadin, alfa-actinin, RyR, DHPR, as well as mitochondria. In addition, cross-specimen analyses on skeletal muscle cells and mature fibers from Xenopus Laevis (amphibian), rat and human were performed, in order to interpret the results from an evolutionary point of view. In conclusion, these preliminary data confirm the presence of GAP-43 in all the analyzed skeletal muscles, and its localization supports the hypothesis of a possible new functional role in the muscle excitation-contraction coupling process.
Category: Science

Skeletal Muscle In Health And Disease

Author : David A. Jones
ISBN : 0719031648
Genre : Medical
File Size : 67.97 MB
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An understanding of muscle structure and function, and its control in health and failure in disease is a basis for a full understanding of human physiology. This book combines basic but up-to-date information about the structure, biochemistry and physiology of muscle with discussions on the use of muscle in everyday life, in sport and in disease.
Category: Medical

Difiore S Atlas Of Histology With Functional Correlations

Author : Victor P. Eroschenko
ISBN : 0781770572
Genre : Medical
File Size : 37.59 MB
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diFiore's Atlas of Histology with Functional Correlations, Eleventh Edition, explains basic histology concepts through full-color, schematic illustrations. These illustrations are supplemented by more than 450 digitized full-color online photomicrographs of histological images. Part One explains tissues and their relationship to their systems; Part Two addresses organs in a similar way. Targeting undergraduate, allied health and first and second year medical students, the Eleventh Edition includes new and enhanced images through redrawing and digitization to provide increased detail. This edition also features updated illustrations and information on the functions of cells, tissues, and organs of the body based on advances in research and expert recommendations. The atlas' student-friendly "Functional Correlations" sections help students study structure and function together. Students also benefit from a "realistic" perspective as more than 70 micrographs appear adjacent to color illustrations. A companion Website offers student and instructor versions of diFiore's Interactive Atlas with all of the images from the book.
Category: Medical

Biomaterials As Stem Cell Niche

Author : Krishnendu Roy
ISBN : 3642138934
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79.45 MB
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Recent developments in stem cell biology have opened new directions in cell therapy. This book provides the state-of-the-art developments in using biomaterials as artificial niches for engineering stem cells, both for the purpose of better understanding their biology under 3D biomimetic conditions as well as for developing new strategies for efficient long term maintenance and directed differentiation of stem cells into various therapeutic lineages. Animal and human stem cells of both embryonic and adult origin are discussed with applications ranging from nerve regeneration, orthopedics, cardiovascular therapy, blood cell generation and cancer therapy. Both synthetic and natural biomaterials are reviewed with emphasis on how material-stem cell interactions direct specific signaling pathways and ultimately modulate the cell fate. This book is valuable for biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians as well as stem cell biologists involved in basic research and applications of adult and embryonic stem cells.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Genetics And Sports

Author : Malcolm Collins
ISBN : 9783805590273
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34.2 MB
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This publication reviews past, current and future applications of genetic research in the fields of exercise science and sports medicine. It highlights ethical concerns, potential clinical applications and exploitation of genetic information. The authors, an interdisciplinary group of experts comprising clinicians, exercise scientists, human geneticists and other biological scientists, present an integrated and holistic understanding of the field to the reader. Several chapters of the book address the issue of nature and nurture in determining athletic ability and etiology of sports injuries. Other chapters are dealing with genetics and performance research during premolecular and molecular biology eras, gene-lifestyle interactions and their consequences on health, as well as genetic risk factors in musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Finally, the possible application of gene therapy in athletes, gene doping and genetic testing of athletes are discussed. The book is highly recommended to exercise scientists, sports clinicians, human geneticists, athletes, coaches and to all those interested in the relatively new area of genetic research within the fields of exercise science and sports medicine.
Category: Medical

Histology And Cell Biology An Introduction To Pathology E Book

Author : Abraham L Kierszenbaum
ISBN : 9780323085885
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81.24 MB
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Histology and Cell Biology: An Introduction to Pathology uses a wealth of vivid, full-color images to help you master histology and cell biology. Dr. Abraham L. Kierszenbaum presents an integrated approach that correlates normal histology with cellular and molecular biology, pathology, and clinical medicine throughout the text. A unique pictorial approach—through illustrative diagrams, photomicrographs, and pathology photographs—paired with bolded words, key clinical terms in red, and clinical boxes and "Essential Concepts" boxes that summarize important facts give you everything you need to prepare for your course exams as well as the USMLE Step 1. Access to, with USMLE-style multiple-choice review questions, downloadable images, and online only references. Easily find and cross-reference information through a detailed table of contents that highlights clinical examples in red. Review material quickly using pedagogical features, such as Essential Concept boxes, bolded words, and key clinical terms marked in red, that emphasize key details and reinforce your learning. Integrate cell biology and histology with pathology thanks to vivid descriptive illustrations that compare micrographs with diagrams and pathological images. Apply the latest developments in pathology through updated text and new illustrations that emphasize appropriate correlations. Expand your understanding of clinical applications with additional clinical case boxes that focus on applying cell and molecular biology to clinical conditions. Effectively review concepts and reinforce your learning using new Concept Map flow charts that provide a framework to illustrate the integration of cell-tissue-structure-function within a clinical-pathology context.
Category: Medical

The Role Of Protein And Amino Acids In Sustaining And Enhancing Performance

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309063463
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 48.42 MB
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It is a commonly held belief that athletes, particularly body builders, have greater requirements for dietary protein than sedentary individuals. However, the evidence in support of this contention is controversial. This book is the latest in a series of publications designed to inform both civilian and military scientists and personnel about issues related to nutrition and military service. Among the many other stressors they experience, soldiers face unique nutritional demands during combat. Of particular concern is the role that dietary protein might play in controlling muscle mass and strength, response to injury and infection, and cognitive performance. The first part of the book contains the committee's summary of the workshop, responses to the Army's questions, conclusions, and recommendations. The remainder of the book contains papers contributed by speakers at the workshop on such topics as, the effects of aging and hormones on regulation of muscle mass and function, alterations in protein metabolism due to the stress of injury or infection, the role of individual amino acids, the components of proteins, as neurotransmitters, hormones, and modulators of various physiological processes, and the efficacy and safety considerations associated with dietary supplements aimed at enhancing performance.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Concise Histology E Book

Author : Leslie P. Gartner
ISBN : 9781437735796
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60.98 MB
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CONCISE HISTOLOGY, by Leslie P. Gartner, PhD and James L. Hiatt, PhD, thoroughly reviews all the histology knowledge required for the USMLE Step 1 in an easy-access outline format. Designed for students who need to learn a large amount of material in a limited time, it presents key information in a readable, concise manner, accompanied by full-color illustrations that clarify complex concepts. This title includes additional digital media when purchased in print format. For this digital book edition, media content is not included. Efficiently absorb each topic through a self-contained two-page spread: one page of concise text, and a corresponding page of carefully selected, full-color illustrations – mostly from Gartner & Hiatt’s Color Textbook of Histology 3rd Edition. Access the full text online at, and test your knowledge with an online testing centre providing students with class style tests using electron and photomicrographs, cross referenced to the corresponding sections of the textbook. See the relevance of histology to the practice of medicine with the aid of clinical consideration boxes interspersed throughout the text. Gain a rich and accurate understanding of histology thanks to the expertise and skillful teaching style of bestselling authors Drs. Gartner and Hiatt.
Category: Medical

Skeletal Muscle Mechanics

Author : W. Herzog
ISBN : 0471492388
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.60 MB
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Skeletal Muscle Mechanics: From Mechanisms to Function summarises the variety of approaches used by today's scientist to understand muscle function and the mechanisms of contraction. This book contains research by leading scientists from numerous fields using many different scientific techniques. Topics covered include: * Cellular and molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle contraction * Historical perspective of muscle research * The newest developments in techniques for the determination of the mechanical properties of single cross-bridges * Theoretical modelling of muscle contraction and force production * Multifaceted approaches to determine the in vivo function of skeletal muscle This state-of-the-art account is written by internationally recognised authors and will be a valuable resource to researchers of biomechanics in sports science and exercise physiology. "I expect this book to be excellent and timely." Professor R. McNeill Alexander FRS, School of Biology, University of Leeds, UK
Category: Science

Skeletal Muscle

Author : Lee D. Peachey
ISBN : UOM:39015004442409
Genre : Connective tissues
File Size : 60.21 MB
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Category: Connective tissues