Telomerases Telomeres And Cancer

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Telomerases Telomeres And Cancer

Author : Guido Krupp
ISBN : 0306474379
Genre : Medical
File Size : 24.56 MB
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This volume provides broad insights to the most recent discoveries in telomere biology, with current applications in tumor diagnostics and future potentials in therapy. Special features of diverse organisms are presented, with ciliates, the "telomerase discoverer organisms"; yeasts, the "molecular genetisists' toy for eukaryotes"; including plants and insects as well. 28 chapters were written by a group of leading research scientists, working in the telomere/telomerase fields today. This book will be a core reference for any physician, scientist or "educated reader" with an interest in the exciting developments in this research field.
Category: Medical

Telomere And Telomerase In Cancer

Author : Angayarkanni Jayaraman
ISBN : OCLC:1154224451
Genre : Medicine
File Size : 89.64 MB
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The linear ends of chromosome are protected by specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) termed as telomere. These specialized terminal elements with tandem repeated sequence are the protective cap that alleviate end replication problem and cell senescence. The telomere length maintenance is essential to avoid cell death and apoptosis. Telomere shortening has been related to chronic stress due to several factors, which include not only psychological stress but also diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Telomerase enzyme which maintains telomere length is the major factor responsible for evading cell death. Telomere length maintenance and telomerase expression put together are the prerequisite for immortality, an essential character for cancer cells. Understanding the mechanism of telomere and telomerase functions paves way for eradicating the diseases such as cancer.
Category: Medicine

Telomeres And Telomerase In Aging Disease And Cancer

Author : K. Lenhard Rudolph
ISBN : 9783540737094
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55.9 MB
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Telomere shortening represents one of the basic aspects of ageing and telomere dysfunction could contribute to the accumulation of DNA damage during ageing. This book summarizes evidence and data indicating that telomere dysfunction influences human ageing, diseases and cancer. The book describes our current knowledge on checkpoints that limit cellular lifespan and survival in response to telomere dysfunction. There is special focus on adult stem cells.
Category: Medical

Telomerases

Author : Neal F. Lue
ISBN : 9781118267516
Genre : Science
File Size : 73.36 MB
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This book is a comprehensive and up-to-date review andevaluation of the contemporary status of telomerase research. Chapters in this volume cover the basic structure, mechanisms, anddiversity of the essential and regulatory subunits oftelomerase. Other topics include telomerase biogenesis,transcriptional and post-translational regulation, off-telomerefunctions of telomerase and the role of telomerase in cellularsenescence, aging and cancer. Its relationship to retrotransposons,a class of mobile genetic elements that shares similarities withtelomerase and serves as telomeres in selected organisms, are alsoreviewed.
Category: Science

Telomere Territory And Cancer

Author : Parvin Mehdipour
ISBN : 9789400746329
Genre : Medical
File Size : 64.59 MB
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Timing, racing, combating, struggling and targeting are some actions through which cellular fate could be reflected and evaluated. Interaction between cell territory and environment occur during pre-embryonic, fetal development, and post-natal periods. What the researchers observe as the outcome of telomeres behavior is only the peak of an ice mountain within a stormy ocean. Cellular life depends on programmed behavior of telomeres, capable to surprise the cells. Telomeres provide an introduction to the history of our cells which govern the quality of life and status of health. Telomeres as the cooperative territory are capable of stabilizing the chromosomal territory. The status of telomeres reflects the key information, announcing the real age of individuals, and may be a valuable marker for prognosis and predicting cancer. Telomere territory is characterized with a multi-disciplinary manner. Therefore, this book is aimed to offer a wide range of chapters, hoping to be useful for diverse audiences, including hematologists-oncologists, radiotherapists, surgeons, cancer researchers, and all the sectors who affect the macro- and micro- environmental domains. Finally, telomeres are sensitive, cooperative, and trustable targets. It is worth to state that ‘telomeres are messengers of NATURE’, let’s to know them as they are.
Category: Medical

On The Far Side Of Telomeres The Many Roles Of Telomerase In The Acquisition And Retention Of Cancer Stemness

Author : Kerem Teralı
ISBN : OCLC:1154262111
Genre : Medicine
File Size : 55.13 MB
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It is well recognised that upregulation/reactivation of telomerase, the telomere-lengthening enzyme, is the sine qua non of cellular immortalisation and malignant transformation. But there is also convincing evidence that telomerase stands at a crossroads where several developmental signalling pathways meet and that its upregulation/reactivation has effects beyond maintaining telomere length, such as altering energy metabolism and modulating gene expression. We believe that it is important to realise that, in a pathological context, such extratelomeric effects of telomerase are related to the emergence and persistence of the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype. Given the common conception of cancer stemness as a major contributor to therapy resistance and tumour relapse, a more complete annotation of biological mechanisms for its regulation by telomerase will provide the opportunity to develop telomerase-targeted anticancer therapies which kill or differentiate CSCs effectively.
Category: Medicine

Telomeres And Telomerase In Cancer

Author : Keiko Hiyama
ISBN : 1603278796
Genre : Medical
File Size : 72.81 MB
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Telomerase, an enzyme that maintains telomeres and endows eukaryotic cells with immortality, was first discovered in tetrahymena in 1985. In 1990s, it was proven that this enzyme also plays a key role in the infinite proliferation of human cancer cells. Now telomere and telomerase are widely accepted as important factors involved in cancer biology, and as promising diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets. Recently, role of telomerase in “cancer stem cells” has become another attractive story. Until now, there are several good books on telomere and telomerase focusing on biology in ciliates, yeasts, and mouse or basic sciences in human, providing basic scientists or students with updated knowledge.
Category: Medical

Telomerase In Bladder Cancer

Author : Martin Paul Mayfield
ISBN : OCLC:1179615945
Genre :
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The tips of mammalian chromosomes are protected by multiple repetitions of the DNA sequence TTAGGG, known as Telomeres. In human cells several copies of this repeat are lost with every cell division, so that in time the telomere is significantly reduced in size: this inhibits function of the telomere and is believed to result in loss of function. It is believed that this process is attenuated in cancers by replenishment of the telomeres by an enzyme known as Telomerase. In this thesis an investigation into the expression of telomerase in human bladder cancer is reported. Tumour specimens were obtained from patients undergoing surgical treatment for bladder cancer, and assayed for the presence of telomerase by the means of an in vitro , polymerase chain reaction-based assay known as the Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). Telomerase expression was identified in 20/25 patients with bladder cancer, with lower rates of expression in lower grade cancer (56%) than higher grade cancer (93%), individual tumours did not express telomerase consistently in all fragments assayed. Telomerase expression was not identified in normal bladder tissue, but low rates were identified in benign inflammatory bladder conditions (14%), and telomerase was frequently identified in bladders which had previously contained tumours (50%). An explanation in terms of current models of bladder cancer and telomerase action is proposed.
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Telomeres And Telomerase

Author : Derek J. Chadwick
ISBN : 9780470515440
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.22 MB
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Telomeres and Telomerase Chairman: Sydney Brenner, 1997 Telomeres are the protective genetic elements located at the ends of chromosomes and are essential for correct chromosomal structure and function. They are not fully replicated by the conventional DNA polymerase system because DNA synthesis occurs only in the 5' to 3' direction and requires an RNA primer for initiation. Consequently, cells require a special enzyme to maintain the telomeric ends of chromosomes during each round of replication. This enzyme, telomerase, is a ribonucleoprotein that extends chromosome ends by adding short stretches of nucleotide repeats using a portion of its integral RNA component as the template. Recently, much excitement has been generated by the suggestion that telomerase, or rather the absence of telomerase and the resultant loss of terminal DNA, is a cause of human ageing. The evidence for this is twofold: the telomeres of certain cells in culture shorten during their lifespan; and immortalization of cells is associated, at least in some cases, with the maintenance of telomeres and telomerase activity. The latter observation prompted the analysis of clinical samples from patients with cancer and the demonstration that, in contrast to normal somatic cells, malignant cells possess telomerase activity. This is a unique book. Not only does it contain the latest experimental results from an international group of experts, but it also includes critical examinations of the current evidence, and discussions that attempt to identify the central and underlying concepts of this rapidly expanding field.
Category: Science

Telomerase Inhibition

Author : Lucy Andrews
ISBN : 9781588296832
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60.8 MB
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Due in part to the selective nature of telomerase inhibition as an anticancer approach, the field has expanded considerably in the past decade. The recent advances in methods of telomerase inhibition encompass many different areas of research including molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, oncology and gerontology. Telomerase Inhibition provides methods and protocols for those researchers. The techniques described in this book should provide the researcher with a diverse and comprehensive set of tools with which to study telomerase inhibition. Leaders in the field provide recently developed methods that have widespread application such as targeting the telomerase holoenzyme, its RNA template and other elements associated with telomerase activity. Additional methods involving the screening of telomerase inhibitors and telomerase inhibition combined with other chemotherapeutic agents are presented. This text, on the cutting edge of the field, will provide investigators with the most recent methods applied to the expanding field of telomerase inhibition.
Category: Medical

Telomerase

Author :
ISBN :
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Telomeres And Telomerase

Author : John A. Double
ISBN : 9781592591893
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.25 MB
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The enzyme telomerase provides a mechanism that ensures chromosome stability in both normal and neoplastic cells. This reference covers methods of dentral importance in the analysis of telomerase function and activity for all cell and molecular biologists. These range from the standard telomerase activity (TRAP) assay through to many more novel approaches such as the use of real-time PCR, in-situ PCR and non-PCR based assays of telomerase activity. Also included are protocols for the study of telomeres themselves and methods for the identification of regulators of telomerase function.
Category: Science

Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Of The Head And Neck An Issue Of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics E Book

Author : Cemal Cingi
ISBN : 9781455758722
Genre : Medical
File Size : 81.31 MB
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Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and therapeutic costs especially in Western countries such as Australia, Europe and United States of America. The overall NMSC rates have risen precipitously in the last three decades, leading to an increase in patients seeking treatment from dermatologists, facial plastic surgeons, plastic surgeons, and related disciplines. The head and neck is a region in which anatomical, functional and aesthetic problems may occur; therefore, clinicians, surgeons and researchers are working to find new diagnostic techniques and therapeutic modalities. This issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics reviews different topics in NMSC in-depth with discussion, figures, tables, clinical, histopathological and surgical photographs, and provides an up-to-date information source for the clinicians and surgeons. Guest Editor Cemal Cingi, an expert clinician and researcher in cancers of the head and neck, leads an international panel of authors on this subject.
Category: Medical

Some Aspects Of Chromosome Structure And Function

Author : R.C. Sobti
ISBN : 0792370570
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21.6 MB
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This volume is a compilation of twenty articles written by scientists from different parts of the world dealing with various aspects of repetitive sequences in chromosomes, telomeric sequences and their maintenance by telomerase, chromatin structure and gene activation, centrometric complexity in holocentric chromosomes, translocation frequencies in X and Y chromosomes and evolution of DNA repair mechanisms, cytogenetics of certain groups of animals viz. lepidoptera, fishes and birds, and radiosensitivity as an indicator of predisposition to breast cancer. The molecular genetics of various cancers viz., gastrointestinal, lung, prostate, and bladder is also discussed.
Category: Medical

Gene Based Therapies For Cancer

Author : Jack A. Roth
ISBN : 144196102X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59.80 MB
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Cancer gene therapy is a novel therapy that targets the underlying genetic defects in the cancer cell. Progress in this field has been rapid and gene therapy promises to further extend personalized cancer treatment. In this volume leading experts have contributed their experience in developing gene therapies for a variety of cancers. Translational gene therapy approaches are emphasized. Chapters include discussions of specific gene delivery technologies as well as their application to various cancers with extensive discussions of ongoing clinical trials. This information should be useful to both students, fellows, and experienced scientists with an interest in this rapidly developing area.
Category: Medical

Telomerase Independent Telomere Maintenance In Ovarian Cancer A Molecular Genetic Analysis

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:74228538
Genre :
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The goal of this project is to elucidate some of the genetic and biological determinants of ovarian cancer, focusing on an in vitro model for ovarian cancer that we have developed. We found that immortalization and transformation of human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells can differ in the pathway used for telomere length maintenance, a phenomenon that we have also observed in the clinical disease. We have found that the majority of our HOSE cell cultures use the Alterative Lengthing of Telomeres (ALT) pathway for telomere maintenance, thereby providing an in vitro model to characterize the underlying basis of the ALT pathway in ovarian cancer. In the first year of funding we have completed construction of custom cDNA microarrays and interrogated 50 additional ovarian tumors for telomerase activity. We have also successfully reintroduced telomerase into HOSE cell lines that utilize ALT, characterized these lines and demonstrated that the two pathways, telomerase and ALT, can coexist and used these lines to screen commercial cDNA microarrays for gene expression differences. Validation of gene expression changes is currently underway. Identification of genes important in activating or regulating ALT will provide new targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
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