Teacher Expectations In Education

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Becoming A High Expectation Teacher

Author : Christine Rubie-Davies
ISBN : 9781317644620
Genre : Education
File Size : 74.36 MB
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We constantly hear cries from politicians for teachers to have high expectations. But what this means in practical terms is never spelled out. Simply deciding that as a teacher you will expect all your students to achieve more than other classes you have taught in the same school, is not going to translate automatically into enhanced achievement for students. Becoming a High Expectation Teacher is a book that every education student, training or practising teacher, should read. It details the beliefs and practices of high expectation teachers – teachers who have high expectations for all their students – and provides practical examples for teachers of how to change classrooms into ones in which all students are expected to learn at much higher levels than teachers may previously have thought possible. It shows how student achievement can be raised by providing both research evidence and practical examples. This book is based on the first ever intervention study in the teacher expectation area, designed to change teachers’ expectations through introducing them to the beliefs and practices of high expectation teachers. A holistic view of the classroom is emphasised whereby both the instructional and socio-emotional aspects of the classroom are considered if teachers are to increase student achievement. There is a focus on high expectation teachers, those who have high expectations for all students, and a close examination of what it is that these teachers do in their classrooms that mean that their students make very large learning gains each year. Becoming a High Expectation Teacher explores three key areas in which what high expectation teachers do differs substantially from what other teachers do: the way they group students for learning, the way they create a caring classroom community, and the way in which they use goalsetting to motivate students, to promote student autonomy and to promote mastery learning. Areas covered include:- Formation of teacher expectations Teacher personality and expectation Ability grouping and goal setting Enhancing class climate Sustaining high expectations for students Becoming a High Expectation Teacher is an essential read for any researcher, student, trainee or practicing teacher who cares passionately about the teacher-student relationship and about raising expectations and student achievement.
Category: Education

Teacher Expectations And Pupil Learning Rle Edu N

Author : Roy Nash
ISBN : 9781136453199
Genre : Education
File Size : 89.66 MB
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In the field of teacher expectations and pupil learning one important psychological truth is that the pupils’ achievement in learning is strongly influenced by the teachers’ expectations of their level of performance, high or low. Roy Nash discusses critically and fully important research in this area. In the belief that research must be interpreted within an overall theory of social action, the author relates the empirical studies which he examines to an interactionist theory. He emphasizes the importance of making teachers aware of the implications of what they are doing and of the possibility of establishing wider and more educative patterns of interaction. He shows that research into ‘attitudes’, ‘perceptions’, or ‘expectations’ is all essentially concerned with the same problem: how teachers relate to pupils on the basis of a model of what pupils may be. Much of the work he discusses has direct relevance to teachers in their day-to-day work. The research findings will help them to become more aware of their attitudes and how these influence their actions, and should make them more likely to give all their pupils equal opportunities within their classes. Among the topics covered are observational and experimental studies of teacher expectations, the analysis of classroom climate, self-conceptions, pupils’ perceptions and expectations, and the significance of classroom-based research into teacher/pupil interaction.
Category: Education

Teacher Expectations In Education

Author : Christine M. Rubie-Davies
ISBN : 9781351243872
Genre : Education
File Size : 90.97 MB
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The influence of teacher expectations on student outcomes is routinely explored by professors, administrators, teachers, researchers, journalists, and scholars. Written by a leading expert on teacher expectations, this book situates the topic within the broader context of educational psychology research and theory, and brings it to a wider audience. With chapters on the history of the teacher expectation field, student perceptions of teacher expectations, and implications for practice, this concise volume is designed for use in educational psychology courses and any education course that includes social-psychological aspects of classrooms in the curriculum. It will be indispensable for student researchers and both pre- and in-service teachers alike.
Category: Education

Teacher Expectations In Education

Author : Christine M. Rubie-Davies
ISBN : 9781315520490
Genre : Education
File Size : 40.21 MB
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The influence of teacher expectations on student outcomes is routinely explored by professors, administrators, teachers, researchers, journalists, and scholars. Written by a leading expert on teacher expectations, this book situates the topic within the broader context of educational psychology research and theory, and brings it to a wider audience. With chapters on the history of the teacher expectation field, student perceptions of teacher expectations, and implications for practice, this concise volume is designed for use in educational psychology courses and any education course that includes social-psychological aspects of classrooms in the curriculum. It will be indispensable for student researchers and both pre- and in-service teachers alike.
Category: Education

Teachers Expectations And Boys Academic Underachievement At Junior Secondary Schools In Kiribati

Author : Tematang Iaoniman
ISBN : OCLC:1059537735
Genre : Junior high school boys
File Size : 76.88 MB
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One of the contemporary issues in education faced by both developing and developed countries is boys‘ underachievement in schools, and this issue is of pressing concern in the island nation of Kiribati. Researchers have identified multiple factors that have had significant impact on boys‘ academic outcomes. The current study, however, solely focused on teacher expectations. Research-based findings suggest that teacher expectations, either high or low, can have corresponding relations with students‘ academic outcomes. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between teacher expectations and boys‘ academic underachievement. The current study involved 9 teachers and 36 students, recruited from three junior secondary schools in Kiribati, using a purposeful random sampling method. The current study employed two qualitative research methods: focus group interviews with students, and one-on-one in-depth interviews with teachers. The findings revealed that teacher expectations for boys‘ academic achievement were lower than their female counterparts, because boys were perceived as having negative classroom behaviours. It appeared that culture shaped the way in which gender roles are constructed and that such gender role expectations appeared to influence teacher expectations. The implications of the findings from the current study and future research directions are also presented. This thesis contributes to research conducted in the field of teacher expectations and provides evidence to substantiate the relationship between teacher expectations and boys‘ academic underachievement.
Category: Junior high school boys

High Expectations Teaching

Author : Jonathon (Jon) D. Saphier
ISBN : 1506356796
Genre : Education
File Size : 35.45 MB
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The myth of fixed intelligence debunked For all the productive conversation around "mindsets," what's missing are the details of how to convince our discouraged and underperforming students that "smart is something you can get." Until now. With the publication of High-Expectations Teaching, Jon Saphier reveals once and for all evidence that the bell curve of ability is plain wrong--that ability is something that can be grown significantly if we can first help students to believe in themselves. In drill-down detail, Saphier provides an instructional playbook for increasing student confidence and agency in the daily flow of classroom life: Powerful strategies for attribution retraining, organized around 50 Ways to Get Students to Believe in Themselves Concrete examples, scripts, and classroom structures and routines for empowering student agency and choice Dozens of accompanying videos showing high-expectations strategies in action All children in all schools, regardless of income or social class, will benefit from the strategies in this book. But for children of poverty and children of color, our proficiency with these skills is essential . . . in many ways life saving. Jon Saphier challenges us all--educators, students, and parents--to get started today. About Jon Saphier The author of nine books, including The Skillful Teacher, Jon Saphier is founder and president of Research for Better Teaching, Inc. (RBT), a professional development organization dedicated since 1979 to improving classroom teaching and school leadership throughout the United States and internationally.
Category: Education

Teachers Views In Special Education

Author : Fiona Wing Hang Hui
ISBN : OCLC:874051718
Genre : Inclusive education
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The current study aims to investigate special school teachers and regular primary school teacher's expectations, perceptions and beliefs around Special education in New Zealand. Regular primary schools as well as special schools were randomly selected, based on their geographical location in the Auckland region, to participate in the research. Primary school level teachers, who have experience teaching in Special education for a period of no less than six months in the past, were the target participants of the study. These teachers participated in a short questionnaire that asked for various details on their teaching background and teaching resources in their class. Interested participants were then invited to participate in a semistructured, in-depth interview with the researcher focusing on their expectations, perceptions and beliefs in several more main topics in Special education. Grounded theory was used as a tool to analyse, interpret and understand the qualitative data presented. The results indicated there are slight differences in expectations of teachers in special schools to teachers in mainstream settings in regular schools around the areas of expectations and goals for the special needs student, the effectiveness of mainstreaming special needs students and also the behaviours and expectations of the special needs student in the mainstream setting of the classroom. Teachers from both school settings also gave responses that indicated their unanimous belief of a lack of training for teachers in the Special education sector in New Zealand, and also the lack of resource funding or support from the government or outside institutions for effectively teaching a special needs student in the classroom. These results lead to conclusions that further research is needed in New Zealand around: teacher expectations of special needs students' achievements and goals, of the current mainstreaming and inclusion policies, of service training, of funding and resource support in this field. Addressing such areas for research would help to explore whether teachers' expectations and perceptions have positive or negative relationships with the learning and development of the special need student or others, and also whether there is a model to provide solutions to the issues noted.
Category: Inclusive education

Stem Teachers And Teaching In The Digital Era

Author : Yifat Ben-David Kolikant
ISBN : 9783030293963
Genre : Education
File Size : 89.80 MB
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This book brings together researchers from Israel and Canada to discuss the challenges today's teachers and teacher‐educators face in their practice. There is a growing expectation that the 21st century STEM teachers re‐examine their teaching philosophies and adjust their practices to reflect the increasing role of digital technologies. This expectation presents a significant challenge to teachers, who are often asked to implement novel technology‐rich pedagogies they did not have a chance to experience as students or become comfortable with. To exacerbate this challenge, the 21st century teachers function not only in a frequently‐changing educational reality manifested by continuous reforms, but are also bombarded by often contradictory and competing demands from the legislators, administrators, parents, and students. How do we break the vicious circle of reforms and support STEM teachers in making a real change in student learning? This book is unique for at least three reasons. First, it showcases research situated in Israel and Canada that examines the challenges today's teachers and teacher‐educators face in their practice. While the governments of both countries emphasize STEM education, their approaches are different and thus provide for interesting comparisons. Second, in addition to including research-based chapters, prominent scholars discuss the contributions in each of the book sections, problematizing the issues from a global perspective. Third, technology has a potential to empower teachers in this era of change, and this book provides the unique insights from each country, while allowing for comparisons, discussing solutions, and asking new questions. This book will be of interest to all involved in STEM teacher education programs or graduate programs in education, as well as to educational administrators interested in implementing technology in their schools.
Category: Education

Teaching Problem Students

Author : Jere Brophy
ISBN : 1572309563
Genre : Education
File Size : 48.22 MB
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Focuses on how teachers and school practitioners can improve the academic skills, attitudes, and coping abilities of students with behavior and adjustment problems. Presented are findings from the Classroom Strategy Study, which identifies widely used classroom management strategies that work-and those that don't work-for addressing a wide range of specific challenges in the elementary and middle grades.
Category: Education

Teacher Expectations And Special Education

Author : Amanda Neal
ISBN : OCLC:813393335
Genre : Special education teachers
File Size : 35.72 MB
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The purpose of this meta-synthesis is to examine and review the variance in expectations of general education and special education teachers with students with disabilities. Teacher's expectations, perceptions, and characteristics affect their interactions and instructional strategies with students, which can influence achievement. These expectations and reactions can cause differential treatment of students according to the teacher's perceived assessment of ability. This judgment can predict a student's educational experience and success. Teachers who believe that they have the skills necessary to teach students with disabilities have increased expectations for their students. Teachers who do not have these beliefs often have lowered expectations and lower standards for their students. Negative teacher expectancies have long-term negative effects for students. Teachers are very influential in the future success of students with disabilities. Students with disabilities are aware of the expectations and stereotypes about them, which indirectly influence their perceptions of self-competence. Teachers that focus on a strength perspective versus a dificit perspective tend to have higher expectations for their students. To the student, this means an increased chance for success. Findings on the relationship between teacher expectations of students and the consquences of these expectations on students and teachers are summarized. The implications of this relationship are then discussed, including how and why these expectations form, ahd how and why they will affect the students, but also the teacher's performance.
Category: Special education teachers

Changing Expectations For The K 12 Teacher Workforce

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309499064
Genre : Education
File Size : 50.73 MB
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Teachers play a critical role in the success of their students, both academically and in regard to long term outcomes such as higher education participation and economic attainment. Expectations for teachers are increasing due to changing learning standards and a rapidly diversifying student population. At the same time, there are perceptions that the teaching workforce may be shifting toward a younger and less experienced demographic. These actual and perceived changes raise important questions about the ways teacher education may need to evolve in order to ensure that educators are able to meet the needs of students and provide them with classroom experiences that will put them on the path to future success. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace explores the impact of the changing landscape of K-12 education and the potential for expansion of effective models, programs, and practices for teacher education. This report explores factors that contribute to understanding the current teacher workforce, changing expectations for teaching and learning, trends and developments in the teacher labor market, preservice teacher education, and opportunities for learning in the workplace and in-service professional development.
Category: Education

Greater Expectations

Author : Robin Turner
ISBN : 9781571107404
Genre : Education
File Size : 39.54 MB
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Provides advice for high school English teachers on how to bridge the cultural gap between minority students and higher education by building a supportive classroom community, and offers lesson plans based on college-level skills.
Category: Education

Adolescents In The Internet Age 2nd Edition

Author : Paris S. Strom
ISBN : 9781623967642
Genre : Education
File Size : 90.59 MB
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Teaching adolescents and learning from them is the paradigm elaborated throughout this second edition of Adolescents in the Internet Age. The premise is based upon four assumptions: (1) Adolescents have unique experiences that qualify them as the most credible source on what growing up is like in the current environment; (2) Adolescents are more competent than many adults with tools of technology that will be needed for learning in the future; (3) Adolescents and adults can support mutual development by adopting the concept of reciprocal learning; and (4) The common quest of adolescents to gain adult identity could be attained before employment. Expectations are the theme for every chapter. The reason expectations are so important is because they influence goals, determine priorities, and are used to evaluate progress and achievements of individuals and institutions. When teacher expectations correspond with the abilities and interests of students, achievement and satisfaction are common outcomes. In contrast, if teachers expect too little, student potential can be undermined. There is also concern if expectations that students have for themselves surpass their abilities. This occurs if teachers do not inform students about their deficits. Multitasking, doing too many things at the same time, detracts from productivity. Sharing accountability depends upon complimentary and attainable expectations that can be met by students, teachers, and parents. To support appropriate expectations, tthis book for secondary teachers and high school students seeking a broader understanding of their own generation is organized in four parts about aspects of learning and development. (1) Identity expectations introduce traditional perspectives on adolescence, changes related to sources of learning, evolving emphasis of schools, and ways to support motivation, goal setting, and formation of identity. (2) Cognitive expectations examine mental abilities, academic standards, emergence of the Internet as a learning tool, development of media literacy, creative problem solving, and encouragement of higher order thinking skills. (3) Social expectations explore the need for giving greater attention to social development, importance of teamwork skills, involvement with social networking, adoption of civil behavior, school safety, and values as a basis for ethical behavior and character. (4) Health expectations center on decisions that influence physical health, wellbeing, and lifestyle choice. Consideration is given to stress management, emotional intelligence, and risk assessment strategies for individual teenagers and the schools that they attend.
Category: Education

Differences In Physical Education Teacher Expectations For Somatotype And Gender Of Middle School Students

Author : Adam A. Szajda
ISBN : OCLC:52032346
Genre : Expectation (Psychology)
File Size : 90.55 MB
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Abstract: The investigation was designed to determine middle school physical education teachers had different expectations for middle school students of different somatotypes and gender. Middle School PE teachers currently teaching in Massachusetts (N = 43) responded to the questionnaire. A total of four 3 x 2 x 2 Mixed Factorial ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. Teacher expectations were measured on a Lickert scale across four student categories: overall performance in physical skill, social relations with peers, cooperative behavior during class, and ability to reason. A significant (p
Category: Expectation (Psychology)

Teacher Expectations And Ethnicity

Author : Nane Tupuna Rio
ISBN : OCLC:988225468
Genre : Ethnicity
File Size : 41.64 MB
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Having expectations tends to be a fundamental part of human nature. This particular phenomenon has been seen to have a crucial role in education. There has been strong evidence to suggest that teacher expectations influence student learning in a variety of ways. This thesis is based on the influences and understandings of teacher expectations that may be evident in multi-ethnic classrooms in Aotearoa New Zealand. The thesis comprises three studies. Study 1 examined whether ethnicity played a role in teachers’ expectations. The participants were 57 primary school teachers who completed a teacher expectation survey. The findings showed that the higher teachers’ expectations were for students, the more progress they made. However, when achievement was not taken into account, expectations for Maori and Pasifika students were lower than for the other groups. This may mean that Maori and Pasifika are engaged in the low level activities often assigned to those performing at low levels. Study 2 explored whether and how students knew their teachers had high or low expectations of them. The participants were 1,187 students aged between 8–12 years. The findings showed that students were astute at knowing which teacher behaviours portrayed alternatively high or low expectations. Understandings that teacher expectations are low for some students may lead to student self-belief and motivation declining over time. Study 3 examined what teachers understood about teacher expectations with a particular focus on Māori and Pasifika students. Through interviews with 10 teachers, Study 3 explored teacher perceptions of how teacher expectations are shaped, whether teacher expectations influenced teacher practice and student outcomes. Study 3 indicated that teachers recognised that some teachers had lower expectations for Maori and Pasifika students. Overall, teachers had a fairly superficial understanding of the expectation phenomenon. It is recommended that teachers develop a deeper conceptual understanding of teacher expectations and the implications teacher expectation has on student learning. The thesis makes a contribution to both theoretical and educational understandings of the phenomenon of teacher expectations. Directions for future research are outlined.
Category: Ethnicity

Teacher Expectations Matter

Author : Nicholas W. Papageorge
ISBN : OCLC:1065532468
Genre : Educational attainment
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We develop and estimate a joint model of the education and teacher-expectation production functions that identifies both the distribution of biases in teacher expectations and the impact of those biases on student outcomes via self-fulfilling prophecies. Our approach leverages a unique feature of a nationally representative dataset: two teachers provided their educational expectations for each student. Identification of causal effects exploits teacher disagreements about the same student, an idea we formalize using lessons from the measurement error literature. We provide novel, arguably causal evidence that teacher expectations affect students' educational attainment: Estimates suggest an elasticity of college completion with respect to teachers' expectations of about 0.12. On average, teachers are overly optimistic about students' ability to complete a four-year college degree. However, the degree of over-optimism of white teachers is significantly larger for white students than for black students. This highlights a nuance that is frequently overlooked in discussions of biased beliefs: less biased (i.e., more accurate) beliefs can be counterproductive if there are positive returns to optimism or if there are socio-demographic gaps in the degree of teachers' optimism; we find evidence of both.
Category: Educational attainment

Essays On Teacher Preferences Teacher Quality And Teacher Expectations

Author : Lindsay Fox
ISBN : OCLC:953632621
Genre :
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In the 3 papers that make up this dissertation, I address questions whose findings are directly relevant to education policy debates about school improvement and the personnel management of a large labor market. In paper 1, I use data on teacher transfer requests in New York City to create a novel measure of school desirability. Pooling across boroughs, I find that student body characteristics, test scores, and school climate measures explain about 20 percent of the true variation in school desirability. The percentage of free and reduced price lunch eligible students is the most important predictor of desirability, and school climate measures do little to explain desirability above and beyond student demographics. However, I do show that there are a number of schools serving high proportions of disadvantaged students that are more desirable to teachers than the average school serving low proportions of disadvantaged students. In other words, there are a number of schools that teachers find attractive despite what we would predict based on observable characteristics. Identifying and learning from these schools is a first step towards ameliorating inequitable access to good teachers. In papers 2 and 3, I investigate whether teachers are differentially influential in different subjects or with different students. In paper 2, I ask whether elementary school teachers in Miami-Dade County Public Schools are similarly effective at raising achievement with different students and different subjects. The answer to both questions is yes, though there are bigger differences between subjects. I carry out a thought experiment whereby teachers in my dataset are assigned to subjects based on their comparative advantage within their school and grade, and the result is a small increase in average achievement. I also provide a general mathematical derivation of the expected achievement gains due to subject specialization which are a function of the variance of the teacher effects in each subject, the cross-subject correlation between the teacher effects, and the reliability of the teacher effect estimates. Lastly, paper 3 contributes to a mixed literature on the effects of sex and race congruence between students and teachers. Using The Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, I investigate whether having a same-sex or a same-race teacher impacts teacher recommendations for advanced courses and expectations for educational attainment. I use a first difference approach to implement a student fixed effects model that compares how two different teachers assess the same student. I find no effects on either outcome for the full sample, but I do find large positive effects for black students who are assigned a same-race teacher on expectations to complete more than high school. The magnitude of this same-race effect is more than half of the black-white gap in teacher expectations. Taken together, these three papers provide policy makers and education sector managers evidence on various aspects of the teacher labor market and school personnel decisions that are influential in shaping students' educational opportunities and trajectories.