TANNING CHEMISTRY THE SCIENCE OF LEATHER

Download Tanning Chemistry The Science Of Leather ebook PDF or Read Online books in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to Tanning Chemistry The Science Of Leather book pdf for free now.

Tanning Chemistry

Author : Anthony D Covington
ISBN : 9781782626022
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 80.27 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 807
Read : 737

Even in the 21st Century, the manufacture of leather retains an air of the dark arts, still somewhat shrouded in the mysteries of a millennia old, craft based industry. Despite the best efforts of a few scientists over the last century or so, much of the understanding of the principles of tanning is still based on received wisdom and experience. Leather is made from (usually) the hides and skins of animals - large animals such as cattle have hides, small animals such as sheep have skins. The skin of any animal is largely composed of the protein collagen, so it is the chemistry of this fibrous protein and the properties it confers to the skin with which the tanner is most concerned. In addition, other components of the skin impact on processing, impact on the chemistry of the material and impact on the properties of the product, leather. Therefore, it is useful to understand the relationships between skin structure at the molecular and macro levels, the changes imposed by modifying the chemistry of the material and the eventual properties of the leather. This book aims to contribute to changing the thinking in the industry, to continue building a body of scientific understanding, aimed at enhancing the sustainability of an industry which produces a unique group of materials, derived from a natural source. The Science of Leather is the only current text on tanning science, and addresses the scientific principles which underpin the processes involved in making leather. It is concerned with the chemical modification of collagen, prior to tanning and the tanning reactions in particular. The subject is covered in the following order: collagen chemistry, collagen structure, skin structure, processing to prepare for tanning, the tanning processes and processing after tanning. The aim of the book is to provide leather scientists and technologists with an understanding of how the reactions work, the nature of their outcomes and how the processes can be controlled and changed. The objective is to synthesise a scientific view of leather making and to arrive at an understanding of the nature of tanning - how the wide range of chemistries employed in the art can change the properties of collagen, making leather with different properties, especially conferring different degrees of stabilisation as measured by the hydrothermal stability. Environmental issues are not treated as a separate theme - the impact of leather making on the environment is a thread running through the text, with the assumption that better understanding of the science of leather making will lead to improved processing. The book also reflects on the ways leather technology may develop in the future based on the foundation of understanding the scientific principles which can be exploited. It also includes a subject index, references and a glossary. The book provides the reader with insights into the role science plays in leather technology and provides fundamental understanding, which should be the basis for scientific and technological research and development for the benefit of the global leather industry. The book is aimed at students, leather scientists and technologists, in both academia and industry, in leather production and in chemical supply houses.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Tanning Chemistry 2nd Edition

Author : Anthony D Covington
ISBN : 9781788012041
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.70 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 294
Read : 215

This book offers a state-of-the-art view of leather making, based on the scientific principles underpinning the technology. In particular, it contributes to the understanding of the modern leather industry, allowing practitioners to make judgements about day-to-day problems in the tannery and how change can be applied in a predictable way. Major themes running through the book are the economics and environmental impact of leather making and how these will ensure the sustainability of the industry. This second edition of Tony Covington’s Tanning Chemistry is a revision, update and extension in collaboration with a new co-author, Will Wise. The update reflects the advances made in the past decade, including a discussion of the impact of new information concerning the chemistry of sulfide. The original chapters have been re-organised and new chapters on novel modes of reagent delivery and the principles of finishing are now included. Enzymology is addressed as a separate topic, as are environmental impact and the future of leather. The book will be useful to all those involved in the supply chain, from farm, through students, chemical suppliers and tanners, to leather goods brands. Leather science is the key to understanding leather technology, to make it work, to make it work better and to keep it ahead of the competition.
Category: Science

Applicative Chemistry Of Tanning Metallic Heterocomplexes

Author : Carmen Gaidau
ISBN : 9781608057436
Genre : Science
File Size : 45.61 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 633
Read : 195

The chemistry of heterocomplex compounds is a fascinating field for experts in chemical synthesis and structural analysis, and for technologists specializing in leather processing. This volume describes the vast theoretical and practical possibilities of exploiting the action synergism of metals with different collagen cross-linking capacity. The possibility of reducing chromium content from leather tanning agents by replacing it with other tanning metals has significant environmental implications and minimum changes in terms of quality and production costs of natural leather, and is a viable alternative for a safe future. Applicative Chemistry of Tanning Metallic Heterocomplexes is a book dedicated to the synthesis and use of tanning metallic heterocomplexes in leather tanning as alternatives to tanning with basic chromium salts. Replacing chromium with other tanning metals is an innovative approach that exploits the possibility that a series of known disadvantages of tanning metals used individually be reduced by heterocomplexation. The synthesis mechanism of stable combinations of chromium with other tanning metals: aluminum, iron, titanium, or zirconium is based on the stoichiometry of oxidation-reduction reactions which enables a wide range of combinations, the premise for obtaining various properties by tanning and retanning natural leather. The volume is intended as a useful reference for researchers, chemical auxiliary producers, experts in natural leather processing who are looking for clean and efficient solutions for wastewater pollutants, sludge or solid wastes while striving to preserve the known characteristics of mineral tanned natural leather.
Category: Science

James Watt

Author : Ben Russell
ISBN : 9781780234021
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 31.74 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 948
Read : 351

Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer James Watt (1736–1819) is best known for his pioneering work on the steam engine that became fundamental to the incredible changes and developments wrought by the Industrial Revolution. But in this new biography, Ben Russell tells a much bigger, richer story, peering over Watt’s shoulder to more fully explore the processes he used and how his ephemeral ideas were transformed into tangible artifacts. Over the course of the book, Russell reveals as much about the life of James Watt as he does a history of Britain’s early industrial transformation and the birth of professional engineering. To record this fascinating narrative, Russell draws on a wide range of resources—from archival material to three-dimensional objects to scholarship in a diversity of fields from ceramics to antique machine-making. He explores Watt’s early years and interest in chemistry and examines Watt’s partnership with Matthew Boulton, with whom he would become a successful and wealthy man. In addition to discussing Watt’s work and incredible contributions that changed societies around the world, Russell looks at Britain’s early industrial transformation. Published in association with the Science Museum London, and with seventy illustrations, James Watt is not only an intriguing exploration of the engineer’s life, but also an illuminating journey into the broader practices of invention in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Published in association with the Science Museum, London
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Physical Chemistry Of Leather Making

Author : Krzysztof Bieńkiewicz
ISBN : UCAL:B4585854
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 76.3 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 781
Read : 671

The background of scientific principles involved in all leather-maiking processes, from rawhide to finished leather, is presented in this volume. In particular, the text describes and discusses the use of physical chemistry techniques in leather-making phenomena and establishes working principles upon which modern practice is based. The results of international research are also presented.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Science For Students Of Leather Technology

Author : R. Reed
ISBN : 9781483159645
Genre : Science
File Size : 36.36 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 606
Read : 1070

Science for Students of Leather Technology is the first of a series of textbooks of leather science and technology designed to assist students at technical colleges and institutes as well as at universities. The book begins with an introduction to leather manufacturing. This is followed by separate chapters on the physical chemistry of solutions needed by students of leather manufacture; types of macromolecules; lipids and their use at various stages of leather manufacture; and the principles of their use as surface agents. Subsequent chapters deal with the general features of skin as an organ; how the skins from different animals may develop their special characteristics; common problems arising from insects and from micro-organisms in leather manufacture; and the structure and reactions of chromium complexes, which are the most widely used tanning agents; and modern views on the structure of the vegetable tannins and of the dyestuffs and pigments. This book is intended for students with a variety of backgrounds. Those whose chemical studies have not proceeded much beyond the elementary level will find considerable difficulty with some sections, especially where the organic chemistry of complex molecules (proteins, carbohydrates, dyes and vegetable tannins) is described. It is, however, possible to supplement the explanations given by reference to standard chemical textbooks, using the subject matter of the present volume as a guide to those sections which would repay further study.
Category: Science

Conservation Of Leather And Related Materials

Author : Marion Kite
ISBN : 9780750648813
Genre : Antiques & Collectibles
File Size : 79.32 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 858
Read : 991

The conservation of skin, leather and related materials is an area that, until now, has had little representation by the written word in book form. Marion Kite and Roy Thomson, of the Leather Conservation Centre, have prepared a text which is both authoritative and comprehensive, including contributions from the leading specialists in their fields, such as Betty Haines, Mary Lou Florian, Ester Cameron and Jim Spriggs. The book covers all aspects of Skin and Leather preservation, from Cuir Bouillie to Bookbindings. There is significant discussion of the technical and chemical elements necessary in conservation, meaning that professional conservators will find the book a vital part of their collection. As part of the Butterworth-Heinemann Black series, the book carries the stamp of approval of the leading figures in the world of Conservation and Museology, and as such it is the only publication available on the topic carrying this immediate mark of authority. * First book to cover the subject comprehensively * Wide coverage, including Fish and Reptiles, Taxidermy and Furs, making it invaluable for conservator, curator and collector alike * Technical aspects of conservation discussed in full
Category: Antiques & Collectibles

The Chrome Tanning Process Its Theory Practical Application And Chemical Control

Author : E. W. Merry
ISBN : 1447421914
Genre : Reference
File Size : 36.98 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 895
Read : 503

This fascinating book contains a detailed treatise on the chemical aspects of leather tanning, detailing chrome tanning theory, its practical application, and chemical control. A must-have for serious leatherworkers, this antique text contains a wealth of scientific information pivotal to the proper application of chrome tanning. Chapters included within this book are: 'The Preparation of Technical Chrome Tanning Liquors', 'Some Factors in the One-bath Chrome Tanning Process', 'The Washing and Neutralising of Chrome Leather', 'Works Control in the Chrome Tannery', 'The Chemistry of Chromium Salts', and many more. This book has been elected for modern republication due to its educational value, and is proudly republished here complete with a new prefatory introduction to the subject.
Category: Reference