Supplementation Of Probiotic Protexintm

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Opportunities For Improving Resource Use Efficeincy Of Peri Urban Dairy Herds In Faisalabad Punjab Pakistan

Author : Muhammad Tariq
ISBN : 9783736945227
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.24 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Worldwide rapidly increasing urbanization is intensifying the demand for foods, particularly those of animal origin, in the urban centers. Peri-urban dairy production has already a longstanding tradition in Pakistan (chapter 1), but these dairy production systems have their unique characteristics, opportunities and constraints. Although in general they are economically profitable, the profitability varies tremendously between farms. Poor managerial practices, lack of knowledge about balanced feeding and feed scarcity management, poor hygiene in milk production and handling, and unsupervised use of veterinary medicines leading to drug residues in milk are recognized as major technical challenges for peri-urban dairy farmers in Pakistan. Therefore, efforts must be made to improve management practices of peri-urban dairy units in such a way that farm income is increased and product quality and safety is assured. Qualitative and semi-quantitative data obtained from 139 interviews with peri-urban dairy farmers in Faisalabad, Pakistan, was subjected to cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farms regarding animal management, milk yields and marketing strategies (chapter 2). Four distinct production systems were identified. Semi-commercial small scale mixed systems (SSM; 31%) combined crop and livestock production, and fodder was primarily produced for own livestock. Semi-commercial small scale dairy producers (SSD; 21.6%) had few buffaloes and cattle and low income. Commercial small scale dairy producers (CSD; 37.4%) were mostly well-off and produced substantial quantities of milk year-round. Commercial large scale dairy farms (CLD; 10%) showed the highest input and output levels. In all systems most of the produced milk was sold (SSM: 69%, SSD: 69%, CSD: 87%; CLD: 94%). Negligence in breeding, wastage of high yielding buffaloes, high costs of feedstuffs, an unfavorable marketing system and lack of a diversified dairy value chain were the main constraints for all production systems. Improving resources use efficiency, especially with respect to animal genetics and nutrition, should encourage these peri-urban dairy farmers to produce more milk for sale, serving both the increasing urban demand and their own income.
Category: Science

Direct Fed Microbials And Prebiotics For Animals

Author : Todd R. Callaway
ISBN : 9781461413110
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 80.18 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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The practice of supplementing direct fed microbial and prebiotic additives to domestic animals during growth is becoming more widespread in food animal production. Beneficial effects particularly in cattle, pigs and poultry, including improved general health, foodborne pathogen reduction, more efficient food utilization, faster growth rate and increased milk and egg production are common results. The success associated with direct fed microbial and prebiotic applications in multiple species ensures their continued commercialization and the widespread use of such additives. However, several fundamental questions remain about how and why probiotic products work, and which kind of probiotic products are best for specific production scenarios. It appears that early establishment and retention of an ecological balance in the gastrointestinal tract is an important first step for an external biological additive to be effective in young animals. Therefore, it is possible that the effectiveness of direct fed microbials and prebiotics in some animal species may only be an indirect consequence of speeding up the establishment and succession of the dominant microflora characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract. Consequently, an understanding of the key processes during establishment of microflora in the gastrointestinal system that lead to the subsequent fermentation characteristics and ecological balance exhibited by the highly protective microflora is needed. Several additional areas of future research directions are also suggested for further development and implementation of these biological approaches as new molecular and drug delivery technologies become available. Continued research on direct fed microbials and prebiotics in general should markedly expand their commercial applications.
Category: Technology & Engineering

A Guide To Zebra Finches Their Colour Varieties Management And Breeding

Author : John Lewis
ISBN : 9780958710282
Genre : Pets
File Size : 24.58 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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This title features 96 pages of easy-to-read, highly informative text covering such topics as History and Ecology, Housing, Feeding, Health, Choosing Stock, Exhibiting, and all current recognised Australian Color Varieties on these internationally popular endemic birds. Full color throughout, this book is a must for any Zebra Finch enthusiast.
Category: Pets