Structures In Science

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Structures In Science

Author : Theo A.F. Kuipers
ISBN : 9789401597395
Genre : Science
File Size : 21.29 MB
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Although there is an abundance of highly specialized monographs, learned collections and general introductions to the philosophy of science, only a few 25 years. synthetic monographs and advanced textbooks have appeared in the last The philosophy of science seems to have lost its self-confidence. The main reason for such a loss is that the traditional analytical, logical-empiricist approaches to the philosophy of science had to make a number of concessions, especially in response to the work of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos. With Structures in Science I intend to present both a synthetic mono graph and an advanced textbook that accommodates and integrates the insight of these philosophers, in what I like to call a neo-classical approach. The resulting monograph elaborates several important topics from one or more perspectives, by distinguishing various kinds of research programs, and various ways of explaining and reducing laws and concepts, and by summarizing an integrated explication (presented in From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism, ICR) of the notions of confirmation, empirical progress and truth approximation.
Category: Science

Structures And Norms In Science

Author : Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara
ISBN : 0792343859
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.83 MB
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This book gives a state-of-the-art survey of current research in logic and philosophy of science, as viewed by invited speakers selected by the most prestigious international organization in the field. In particular, it gives a coherent picture of foundational research into the various sciences, both natural and social. In addition, it has special interest items such as symposia on interfaces between logic and methodology, semantics and semiotics, as well as updates on the current state of the field in Eastern Europe and the Far East.
Category: Science

Quantum Structures In Cognitive And Social Science

Author : Diederik Aerts
ISBN : 9782889198764
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 79.79 MB
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Traditional approaches to cognitive psychology correspond with a classical view of logic and probability theory. More specifically, one typically assumes that cognitive processes of human thought are founded on the Boolean structures of classical logic, while the probabilistic aspects of these processes are based on the Kolmogorovian structures of classical probability theory. However, growing experimental evidence indicates that the models founded on classical structures systematically fail when human decisions are at stake. These experimental deviations from classical behavior have been called `paradoxes’, `fallacies’, `effects’ or `contradictions’, depending on the specific situation where they appear. But, they involve a broad spectrum of cognitive and social science domains, ranging from conceptual combination to decision making under uncertainty, behavioral economics, and linguistics. This situation has constituted a serious drawback to the development of various disciplines, like cognitive science, linguistics, artificial intelligence, economic modeling and behavioral finance. A different approach to cognitive psychology, initiated two decades ago, has meanwhile matured into a new domain of research, called ‘quantum cognition’. Its main feature is the use of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory as modeling tool for these cognitive situations where traditional classically based approaches fail. Quantum cognition has recently attracted the interest of important journals and editing houses, academic and funding institutions, popular science and media. Specifically, within a quantum cognition approach, one assumes that human decisions do not necessarily obey the rules of Boolean logic and Kolmogorovian probability, and can on the contrary be modeled by the quantum-mechanical formalism. Different concrete quantum-theoretic models have meanwhile been developed that successfully represent the cognitive situations that are classically problematical, by explaining observed deviations from classicality in terms of genuine quantum effects, such as `contextuality’, `emergence’, `interference’, `superposition’, `entanglement’ and `indistinguishability’. In addition, the validity of these quantum models is convincingly confirmed by new experimental tests. We also stress that, since the use of a quantum-theoretic framework is mainly for modeling purposes, the identification of quantum structures in cognitive processes does not presuppose (without being incompatible with it) the existence of microscopic quantum processes in the human brain. In this Research Topic, we review the major achievements that have been obtained in quantum cognition, by providing an accurate picture of the state-of-the-art of this emerging discipline. Our overview does not pretend to be either complete or exhaustive. But, we aim to introduce psychologists and social scientists to this challenging new research area, encouraging them, at the same time, to consider its promising results. It is our opinion that, if continuous progress in this domain can be realized, quantum cognition can constitute an important breakthrough in cognitive psychology, and potentially open the way towards a new scientific paradigm in social science.
Category: Psychology

The Science Of Buildings

Author : Alex Woolf
ISBN : 0531131947
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 71.21 MB
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We spend a lot of our lives in buildings, but how many of us really think about how theyre built and what they do for us? As society developed, architects needed to create different kinds of structure from palaces and temples to modern factories and airports. This book explores the science of architecture since ancient times, and examines the life cycle of a building, from design to demolition. It looks at the challenges faced by todays architects, including how to build in areas prone to natural disaster, and how to build sustainably, so that our structures dont end up damaging the planet. After all, the first kilometer-high building is already under construction! Features include funny and interesting illustrations; real-world science examples; side panels to tackle complex subject matter in a fun and relevant way; detailed glossary and more.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

An Introduction To Shell Structures

Author : Michele Melaragno
ISBN : 9781475702231
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 29.56 MB
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Shell structures is a term defining concrete or steel vaults of present century architecture that derive from the masonry vaults and domes of the past.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Structures In Logic And Computer Science

Author : Jan Mycielski
ISBN : 3540632468
Genre : Computers
File Size : 41.22 MB
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The book summarises contemporary knowledge about the theory of atomic and molecular clusters. New results are discussed on a high theoretical level. Access to this field of research is given by an explanation of the various subjects in introductory chapters.
Category: Computers

The Structure And Growth Of Scientific Knowledge

Author : G.L. Pandit
ISBN : 9789401576802
Genre : Science
File Size : 69.90 MB
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Professor Pandit, working among the admirable group of philosophers at the University of Delhi, has written a fundamental criticism and a constructive re-interpretation of all that has been preserved as serious epistemological and methodological reflections on the sciences in modern Western philosoph- from the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes and Leibniz to those of Russell and Wittgenstein, Carnap and Popper, and, we need hardly add, onward to the troubling relativisms and reconstructions of historical epistemologies in the works of Hanson, Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend. His themes are intrigu ing, set forth as they are with masterly case studies of physics and the life sciences, and within an original conceptual framework for philosophical analysis of the processes, functions, and structures of scientific knowing. Pandit's contributions deserve thoughtful examination. For our part, we wish to point to some among them: (1) an interactive articulation of subjective and objective factors of both problems and theories in the course of scientific development; (2) a striking contrast between the explanatory power of a scientific theory and its 'resolving power', i. e.
Category: Science

Structure In Art And In Science

Author : Gyorgy Kepes
ISBN : STANFORD:20501340652
Genre : Art
File Size : 70.57 MB
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The philosophy and importance of structure in design.
Category: Art

Cognitive Structures In Scientific Inquiry

Author : Roberto Festa
ISBN : 9789042016484
Genre : Science
File Size : 66.50 MB
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This book is the second of two volumes devoted to the work of Theo Kuipers, a leading Dutch philosopher of science. Philosophers and scientists from all over the world, thirty seven in all, comment on Kuipers' philosophy, and each of their commentaries is followed by a reply from Kuipers. The present volume is devoted to Kuipers' neo-classical philosophy of science, as laid down in hisStructures in Science (Kluwer, 2001). Kuipers defends a dialectical interaction between science and philosophy in that he views philosophy of science as a meta-science which formulates cognitive structures that provide heuristic patterns for actual scientific research, including design research. In addition, Kuipers pays considerable attention to the computational approaches to philosophy of science as well as to the ethics of doing research. Thomas Nickles, David Atkinson, Jean-Paul van Bendegem, Maarten Franssen, Anne Ruth Mackor, Arno Wouters, Erik Weber & Helena de Preester, Eric Scerri, Adam Grobler & Andrzej Wisniewski, Alexander van den Bosch, Gerard Vreeswijk, Jaap Kamps, Paul Thagard, Emma Ruttkamp, Robert Causey, Henk Zandvoort comment on these ideas of Kuipers, and many present their own account. The present book also contains a synopsis of Structures in Science. It can be read independently of the first volume ofEssays in Debate with Theo Kuipers, which is devoted to Kuipers' From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (2000).
Category: Science

Edible Structures

Author : José Miguel Aguilera
ISBN : 9781439898918
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76.48 MB
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Nature converts molecules into edible structures, most of which are then transformed into products in factories and kitchens. Tasty food structures enter our mouths and different sensations invade our bodies. By the time these structures reach our cells, they have been broken back down into molecules that serve as fuel and raw materials for our bodies. Drawing from the physical and engineering sciences, food technology, nutrition, and gastronomy, Edible Structures: The Basic Science of What We Eat examines the importance of food structures—the supramolecular assemblies and matrices that are created by nature and when we cook—rather than the basic chemical compounds that are the more traditional focus of study. The central objectives of this book are to address the pressing food trends of this century, including: Growing evidence that flavorful food structures are important for the delivery of the nutritious and healthful food molecules from which they are made A need to understand and control how food structures are created and presented as products that respond to nutritional requirements Opportunities to design certain foods to better suit the needs of modern lifestyles The empowerment of consumers and the appearance of the axis that connects the food we eat with our brain, digestive system, and the cells in our body The separation between a knowledgeable gourmet "elite" and the rest of the population who simply want to eat quick meals as cheaply as possible Entertaining and informative, Edible Structures: The Basic Science of What We Eat uses scientific yet understandable terms throughout to facilitate the communication between experts and the educated public, especially those who are curious, love to cook and innovate in the kitchen and/or want to enjoy good food. The language and concepts presented in this book give the reader some access to specialized texts and scientific journals, and above all, to the best and most current information available on the Internet and other media.
Category: Medical

Foundations Of Software Science And Computational Structures

Author : Lars Birkedal
ISBN : 9783642287299
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 54.14 MB
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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Foundations of Software Science and Computational Structures, FOSSACS 2012, held as part of the joint European Conference on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2012, which took place in Tallinn, Estonia, in March/April 2012. The 29 papers presented in this book together with two invited talks in full paper length were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 full paper submissions. The papers deal with theories and methods to support analysis, synthesis, transformation and verification of programs and software systems.
Category: Mathematics

Foundations Of Software Science And Computational Structures

Author : Martin Hofmann
ISBN : 9783642198045
Genre : Computers
File Size : 89.19 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Foundations of Software Science and computational Structures, FOSSACS 2011, held in Saarbrücken, Germany, March 26—April 3, 2011, as part of ETAPS 2011, the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software. The 30 revised full papers presented together with one full-paper length invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on coalgebra and computability, type theory, process calculi, automata theory, semantics, binding, security, and program analysis.
Category: Computers

Biological Social And Organizational Components Of Success For Women In Academic Science And Engineering

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309100410
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 35.81 MB
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During the last 40 years, the number of women studying science and engineering (S&E) has increased dramatically. Nevertheless, women do not hold academic faculty positions in numbers that commensurate with their increasing share of the S&E talent pool. The discrepancy exists at both the junior and senior faculty levels. In December 2005, the National Research Council held a workshop to explore these issues. Experts in a number of disciplines met to address what sex-differences research tells us about capability, behavior, career decisions, and achievement; the role of organizational structures and institutional policy; cross-cutting issues of race and ethnicity; key research needs and experimental paradigms and tools; and the ramifications of their research for policy, particularly for evaluating current and potential academic faculty. Biological, Social, and Organizational Components of Success for Women in Academic Science and Engineering consists of three elements: an introduction, summaries of panel discussions including public comment sessions, and poster abstracts.
Category: Political Science

Foundations Of Software Science And Computation Structures

Author : Frank Pfenning
ISBN : 9783642370755
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 39.57 MB
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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Foundations of Software Science and Computational Structures, FOSSACS 2013, held as part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2013, which took place in Rome, Italy, in March 2013 The 28 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 109 submissions. They are organized in topical sections named: models of computation; reasoning about processes; bisimulation; modal and higher-order logics; reasoning about programs; computational complexity; quantitative models; and categorical models.
Category: Mathematics

The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions

Author : Thomas S. Kuhn
ISBN : 9780226458144
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.74 MB
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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.
Category: Science

Foundations Of Software Science And Computational Structures

Author : Luca Aceto
ISBN : 9783540330455
Genre : Computers
File Size : 39.19 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Foundations of Software Science and Computation Structures, FOSSACS 2006, held in Vienna, Austria in March 2006 as part of ETAPS. The 28 revised full papers presented together with 1 invited paper were carefully reviewed and selected from 107 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on mobile processes, software science, distributed computation, categorical models, real time and hybrid systems, process calculi, automata and logic, domains, lambda calculus, types, and security.
Category: Computers

Foundations Of Software Science And Computation Structures

Author : Portugal) ETAPS 98 (1998 : Lisbon
ISBN : 3540643001
Genre : Computers
File Size : 29.21 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Conference on the Foundations of Software Science and Computation Structures, FoSSaCS'98, held as part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS'98, in Lisbon, Portugal, in March/April 1998. The 19 revised full papers presented in the book were carefully selected from a total of 44 submissions. Among the topics covered are formal specification, automata theory, term rewriting and rewriting systems, process algebras, formal language theory, type theory, event structures, and iteration theory.
Category: Computers