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Structure Analysis By Electron Diffraction

Author : B. K. Vainshtein
ISBN : 9781483164755
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.82 MB
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Structure Analysis by Electron Diffraction focuses on the theory and practice of studying the atomic structure of crystalline substances through electron diffraction. The publication first offers information on diffraction methods in structure analysis and the geometrical theory of electron diffraction patterns. Discussions focus on the fundamental concepts of the theory of scattering and structure analysis of crystals, structure analysis by electron diffraction, formation of spot electron diffraction patterns, electron diffraction texture patterns, and polycrystalline electron diffraction patterns. The text then ponders on intensities of reflections, including atomic scattering, temperature factor, structure amplitude, experimental measurements of intensity, and review of equations for intensities of reflections in electron diffraction patterns. The manuscript examines the Fourier methods in electron diffraction and experimental electron diffraction structure investigations. Topics include the determination of the structure of the hydrated chlorides of transition metals; structures of carbides and nitrides of certain metals and semi-conducting alloys; electron diffraction investigation of clay minerals; and possibilities inherent in structure analysis by electron diffraction. The book is a helpful source of data for readers interested in structure analysis by electron diffraction.
Category: Science

International Tables For Crystallography Volume B

Author : Uri Shmueli
ISBN : 1402082053
Genre : Science
File Size : 56.74 MB
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International Tables for Crystallography are no longer available for purchase from Springer. For further information please contact Wiley Inc. (follow the link on the right hand side of this page). Volume B presents accounts of the numerous aspects of reciprocal space in crystallographic research. After an introductory chapter, Part 1 presents the reader with an account of structure-factor formalisms, an extensive treatment of the theory, algorithms and crystallographic applications of Fourier methods, and fundamental as well as advanced treatments of symmetry in reciprocal space. In Part 2, these general accounts are followed by detailed expositions of crystallographic statistics, the theory of direct methods, Patterson techniques, isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering, and treatments of the role of electron microscopy and diffraction in crystal structure determination, including applications of direct methods to electron crystallography. Part 3 deals with applications of reciprocal space to molecular geometry and `best'-plane calculations, and contains a treatment of the principles of molecular graphics and modelling and their applications. A convergence-acceleration method of importance in the computation of approximate lattice sums is presented and the part concludes with a discussion of the Ewald method. Part 4 contains treatments of various diffuse-scattering phenomena arising from crystal dynamics, disorder and low dimensionality (liquid crystals), and an exposition of the underlying theories and/or experimental evidence. Polymer crystallography and reciprocal-space images of aperiodic crystals are also treated. Part 5 of the volume contains introductory treatments of the theory of the interaction of radiation with matter (dynamical theory) as applied to X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction techniques. The simplified trigonometric expressions for the structure factors in the 230 three-dimensional space groups, which appeared in Volume I of International Tables for X-ray Crystallography, are now given in Appendix 1.4.3 to Chapter 1.4 of this volume. Volume B is a vital addition to the library of scientists engaged in crystal structure determination, crystallographic computing, crystal physics and other fields of crystallographic research. Graduate students specializing in crystallography will find much material suitable for self-study and a rich source of references to the relevant literature.
Category: Science

Transmission Electron Microscopy

Author : Ludwig Reimer
ISBN : 9783662135532
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.90 MB
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The aim of this book is to outline the physics of image formation, electron specimen interactions and image interpretation in transmission electron mic roscopy. The book evolved from lectures delivered at the University of Munster and is a revised version of the first part of my earlier book Elek tronenmikroskopische Untersuchungs- und Priiparationsmethoden, omitting the part which describes specimen-preparation methods. In the introductory chapter, the different types of electron microscope are compared, the various electron-specimen interactions and their applications are summarized and the most important aspects of high-resolution, analytical and high-voltage electron microscopy are discussed. The optics of electron lenses is discussed in Chapter 2 in order to bring out electron-lens properties that are important for an understanding of the function of an electron microscope. In Chapter 3, the wave optics of elec trons and the phase shifts by electrostatic and magnetic fields are introduced; Fresnel electron diffraction is treated using Huygens' principle. The recogni tion that the Fraunhofer-diffraction pattern is the Fourier transform of the wave amplitude behind a specimen is important because the influence of the imaging process on the contrast transfer of spatial frequencies can be described by introducing phase shifts and envelopes in the Fourier plane. In Chapter 4, the elements of an electron-optical column are described: the electron gun, the condenser and the imaging system. A thorough understanding of electron-specimen interactions is essential to explain image contrast.
Category: Science

Electron Diffraction Analysis Of Clay Mineral Structures

Author : B. B. Zvyagin
ISBN : 9781461586128
Genre : Science
File Size : 63.60 MB
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As a method of structure analysis, electron diffraction has its own spe cial possibilities and advantages in comparison to the X -ray method for the study of finely dispersed minerals with layer or pseudolayer structures. How ever, possibly because of the prior existence of the X-ray method, which found universal application in different fields and attracted the main efforts of spe cialists, electron diffraction has been unevenly disseminated and developed in different countries. In particular, the oblique texture method, which gives very complete and detailed structural information, has been mainly used in the Soviet Union, where electron-diffraction cameras specially suited to the method have been constructed. In other countries, studies have been made of micro-single crystals, because these studies could be carried out with existing electron microscopes. It should be recognized that the scale of distribution and use attained by electron-diffraction methods, at present limited by exist ing experimental conditions. is more than justified by the value of the results which may be obtained by their aid. The author hopes that the present book will give the reader a fuller idea of the valuable advantages of the method, and of the structural crystallography picture which has been built up for clay minerals, and layer silicates in general, from electron-diffraction data. The time between the appearance of this book and that of the Russian edition has been comparatively short.
Category: Science

Electron Microscopy And Analysis Third Edition

Author : Peter J. Goodhew
ISBN : 0748409688
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 74.24 MB
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Electron Microscopy and Analysis deals with several sophisticated techniques for magnifying images of very small objects by large amounts - especially in a physical science context. It has been ten years since the last edition of Electron Microscopy and Analysis was published and there have been rapid changes in this field since then. The authors have vastly updated their very successful second edition, which is already established as an essential laboratory manual worldwide, and they have incorporated questions and answers in each chapter for ease of learning. Equally as relevant for material scientists and bioscientists, this third edition is an essential textbook.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Electron Crystallography

Author : Thomas E. Weirich
ISBN : 9781402039201
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.62 MB
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During the last decade we have been witness to several exciting achievements in electron crystallography. This includes structural and charge density studies on organic molecules complicated inorganic and metallic materials in the amorphous, nano-, meso- and quasi-crystalline state and also development of new software, tailor-made for the special needs of electron crystallography. Moreover, these developments have been accompanied by a now available new generation of computer controlled electron microscopes equipped with high-coherent field-emission sources, cryo-specimen holders, ultra-fast CCD cameras, imaging plates, energy filters and even correctors for electron optical distortions. Thus, a fast and semi-automatic data acquisition from small sample areas, similar to what we today know from imaging plates diffraction systems in X-ray crystallography, can be envisioned for the very near future. This progress clearly shows that the contribution of electron crystallography is quite unique, as it enables to reveal the intimate structure of samples with high accuracy but on much smaller samples than have ever been investigated by X-ray diffraction. As a tribute to these tremendous recent achievements, this NATO Advanced Study Institute was devoted to the novel approaches of electron crystallography for structure determination of nanosized materials.
Category: Science

Electron Crystallography

Author : Xiaodong Zou
ISBN : 9780199580200
Genre : Science
File Size : 40.71 MB
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Includes bibliographical references and index.
Category: Science