Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

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On The Linkage Of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation To Skin Cancer

Author : Pythagoras Cutchis
ISBN : UOM:39015040658430
Genre : Skin
File Size : 84.4 MB
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The linkage of solar ultraviolet radiation to skin cancer is investigated in this paper by making comparisons of incidence rates in countries with predominantly white populations with respect to geographic, time, age, and anatomic site variations. It is concluded that the evidence in support of the hypothesis that solar ultraviolet radiation is a dominant factor in the induction of squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas is convincing. Many anomalies of various kinds are found in the hypothesis that solar ultraviolet radiation is a significant factor in the induction of malignant melanoma, leading to the conclusion that the primary cause(s) for this class of tumors must be sought elsewhere. Analysis of the data indicates that urbanization is an important factor in the etiology of basal cell carcinoma and, to a lesser degree, in the etiology of malignant melanoma. The biological amplification factor (ratio of percent increase in non-melanoma skin cancer incidence to percent increase in ultraviolet dose) is estimated to lie between 1 and 2. (Author).
Category: Skin

Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

Author : Christos S. Zerefos
ISBN : 9783662033753
Genre : Science
File Size : 79.36 MB
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Following the rapid developments in the UV-B measurement techniques and the rapidly growing research in the field in the late 80's and early 90's, we organized a large gathering of distinguished experts in a NATO Advanced Study Institute, held in Halkidiki, Greece on October, 2-11. 1995. The Institute was organized so as to include state of the art lectures on most aspects of solar ultraviolet radiation and its effects. This was achieved by extended lectures and discussions given in five sessions by 27 lecturers and a demonstration of filed measurements and calibration techniques at the end of the Institute. The ASI began with the sun and fundamentals on solar radiative emissions and their variability in time and continued with the interaction of solar Ultraviolet with the atmosphere through the complex scattering processes and photochemical reactions involved. Particular emphasis was given to changes in atmospheric composition imposed by different manifestations of the solar activity cycle. as well as on the modelling of radiative transfer through the atmosphere and the ocean under variable environmental conditions. Overviews on the ozone issue. its monitoring and variability were extensively discussed with emphasis on the observed acceleration of ozone decline in the early 90's. This acceleration had as a consequence, significant increases in UV-B radiation observed at a few world-wide distributed stations.
Category: Science

Stratospheric Ozone Reduction Solar Ultraviolet Radiation And Plant Life

Author : Robert C. Worrest
ISBN : 9783642700903
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.62 MB
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Inadvertent alterations of the earth's atmosphere by man's activities are now of regional and even global proportion. Increasing concern has been focused in the last decade on consequences of acid rain, carbon dioxide enrichment of the atmosphere and reduction of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The latter two problems are of truly global scale. This book focuses on the atmospheric ozone reduction problem and the potential consequences for plant life. unlike carbon dioxide enrichment, reduction of the total atmospheric ozone column has not yet taken place to a noticeable degree -- it is a problem of the future. The processes leading to ozone reduction involve time periods on the scale of decades. However, by the same token, if society finds ozone reduction to be unacceptable it will take even longer for the process to be reversed. Thus, anticipation of the consequences of ozone reduction is of obvious importance. Speculation of the possibility of ozone reduction first appeared in the early 1970's and was focused on the consequences of the injection of large quantities of nitrogen oxides into the upper atmosphere by supersonic aircraft flying at high altitudes. Other sources of nitrogen oxides originating from the earth's surface were also considered. With further refinement, the concerns of nitrogen oxide pollution of the upper atmosphere were diminished since the quantities likely to be involved were insufficient to cause a serious threat to the ozone layer.
Category: Science

The Role Of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation In Marine Ecosystems

Author : John Calkins
ISBN : 9781468481334
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.94 MB
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The inspiration for this monograph derived from the realization that human technical capacity has become so great that we can, even without malice, substantially modify and damage the gigantic and remote outer limit of our planet, the stratosphere. Above the atmosphere of our ordinary experience, the stratosphere is a tenuous layer of gas, blocked from rapid exchange with the troposphere, some twenty kilometers above the surface of the earth, seldom reached by humans, and yet a fragile shell which shields life on earth from a band of solar radiation of demonstrable injurious potential. It is immediately obvious that if stratospheric ozone were reduced and consequently the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface were increased, then human skin cancer, known to be related to solar ultraviolet exposure, would also be increased. But how does one even begin to estimate the impact of changed solar ultraviolet radiation on such a diverse. interacting, and complex ecosystem as the oceans? Studies which I conducted in Iceland focused on this question and were noted to the Marine Sciences Panel of the Scientific Affairs Committee of NATO by Professor Unnsteinn Stefansson, leading to a request to investigate the possibility of organizing a NATO sponsored Advanced Research Institute on this topic.
Category: Science

Ultraviolet Radiation In The Solar System

Author : M. Vázquez
ISBN : 9781402037306
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.85 MB
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In the history of science the opening up of a new observational or experimental window is always followed by an increase in knowledge of the subject concerned. This is also the case with the subject of this book, ultraviolet radiation (hereafter UV). In principle, the ultraviolet range might be just one more of these windows, of no particular importance. However, the energy per UV photon provides the main peculiarity, its magnitude being great enough to produce important ch- ical reactions in the atmospheres of planets and satellites, thereby a?ecting the transmission of this radiation to the ground. The Sun is the main natural source of UV radiation in the Solar System and our planet is the body where its in?uences can be best tested and the only one where its relation with life can be studied. However, the terrestrial atmosphere blocksmostofthephotonsinthiselectromagneticrangeandastronomershavehad to develop various techniques (balloons, planes and rockets) to cross this barrier and access the information. These tools have been used in parallel to investigate the physical properties of the terrestrial atmosphere and the interaction of its constituents with light. This book will addresses most of these topics.
Category: Science

Environmental Uv Radiation Impact On Ecosystems And Human Health And Predictive Models

Author : Francesco Ghetti
ISBN : 1402036965
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71.30 MB
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This volume originates from the NATO Advanced Study Institute Environmental UV Radiation: Impact on Ecosystems and Human Health and Predictive Models, held in Pisa, Italy in June 2001. The Institute was sponsored and mainly funded by the NATO Scientific Affairs Division, whose constant contribution in favour of the cooperation among scientists from different countries must be acknowledged. Other Institutions substantially contributed to the success of the ASI and our thanks and appreciation go to the Italian National Research Council (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), the Italian Space Agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), the European Society for Photobiology and the bank Banca Toscana. In the last two decades of the past century, concern has been growing for the possible effects on the biosphere of the stratospheric ozone depletion, due to anthropogenic emissions of ozone-destroying chemicals. The ozone loss causes an increase in the biologically important part of the solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) reaching the Earth’s surface, which constitutes a threat to the biosphere, because of UV damaging effects on humans, animals and plants. The international agreements have reduced the production of ozo- destroying compounds, which, however, are still present in high concentrations in the stratosphere, mainly because of their longevity, and thus ozone depletion will likely continue for several decades.
Category: Medical

Sun Protection In Man

Author : P.U. Giacomoni
ISBN : 0080518168
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.10 MB
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"Sun Protection in Man" looks at the beneficial and harmful effects of solar radiation. The physiological consequences of sun exposure have been systematically studied starting at the end of the nineteenth century and we now have accumulated knowledge about how Caucasian and Asian skins reacts to solar radiation. The chemical effects of solar ultraviolet radiation have been analyzed with particular emphasis during the second half of the twentieth century. Research on micro-organisms has allowed us to understand the mechanisms of UV-induced mutagenesis and photosensitization. Studies with laboratory rodents have opened the path to the understanding of UV-induced immune-depression, carcinogenesis, photo-damage and photo-aging. The results of these studies have enabled other scientists to investigate the same phenomena in human organs such as the skin and the eye. UV radiation damages hair, as well. The present knowledge in these fields is summarized in some of the chapters of this monograph. Mass phenomenon in Europe with the generalization of summer vacations which were a consequence of social reforms introducing the concept of "paid vacations". This created a need for protection and opened a market for sunscreens. This monograph is concerned with sun protection as a whole and is not just "another book on sunscreens". Nonetheless, in these days of general concern, it is important to learn about the efficiency of sunscreens. Several authors discuss how to reduce the number of impinging photons and explain why sunscreens seem to offer less protection than expected. Guidelines are given on how to use sunscreens in everyday life, which are expressed rigorously though clearly, for access to the common reader. Our knowledge on the relationship between sun and humans is at the early stages of development. Industrial and commercial activities are concerned by the development of this knowledge, and rules have been and will be promulgated to guarantee efficacy and safety of sun-products. It is hoped that this monograph will be of interest to the scholar, the layman and the legislator.
Category: Science

Environmental Effects Of Ozone Depletion And Its Interactions With Climate Change

Author : United Nations Environment Programme
ISBN : UCR:31210018057248
Genre : Atmospheric chemistry
File Size : 88.34 MB
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The 2002 report updates the assessment of the environmental effects of increased ultraviolet radiation and focuses on the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change. Findings include that atmospheric ozone levels remain depleted with an annual global average loss of about three per cent. Although the quality, quantity and availability of ground-based UV measurements continue to improve, a global-scale assessment is not yet available. Long-term effects on UV radiation from changes in cloud and snow cover have been observed, which indicates complex interactions between climate change and UV-B radiation. New studies continue to confirm the health problems caused by UV-B radiation, especially the formation of cataracts in the eyes, skin cancer and damage to the immune system. Interactions between UV radiation and other global climate change factors are also likely to affect many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Category: Atmospheric chemistry

Ecosystems Evolution And Ultraviolet Radiation

Author : Charles Cockell
ISBN : 0387988785
Genre : Nature
File Size : 71.84 MB
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From microbial to plant ecosystems, this book examines how changes in UV radiation, caused by anthropogenic ozone depletion, as well as changes in radiation levels throughout the evolution of life on Earth, can alter species composition and interspecies competitiveness. It focuses on the evolutionary aspects of the effects of UV as well as the various synergistic interactions of UV radiation with other environmental factors. Because our knowledge of UV effects on whole ecosystems is still at a relatively early stage, an important part of each chapter is an overview of future research directions and indications of where new date and knowledge is needed.
Category: Nature

Scattered And Filtered Solar Uv Measurements

Author : Alfio V. Parisi
ISBN : 9789401512466
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.6 MB
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This textbook provides a comprehensive understanding of the scattered and filtered solar UV environment, the techniques to measure this radiation and the resulting UV exposures to humans. As is well known, the incidence of skin cancer and sun-related eye disorders can be reduced by minimization exposure to UV radiation. The book aims to quantify, understand and provide information on the effects of filtered and scattered UV light.
Category: Science

The Solar Radiation And Climate Experiment Sorce

Author : G.J. Rottman
ISBN : 0387302425
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.49 MB
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The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) is a small satellite, carrying four scientific instruments to measure the solar radiation incident. This collection of papers describes the SORCE mission, goals, spacecraft, instrument development and calibration, science implications on how the Sun influences Earth's environment, and others.
Category: Science

Uv A

Author : John Parrish
ISBN : 9781468424751
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 65.64 MB
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The origin of this text was a request by industry and government to summarize the biological effects and to estimate the limits of safe exposure to longwave ul traviolet radiation. The specific issue was the safety of a small medium-pressure mercury arc designed to emit UV-A (NUVA-Lite, L. D. Caulk Co. , Milford, Delaware) for photopolymerization of resinous fillings used in dentistry. How- ever, the context grew to become a consideration of the risks and benefits to hu mans of electromagnetic radiation between the biologically active short UV and the visible spectrum. We have accumulated data from our own experimental work and from the literature and have attempted to put this information in the perspective of known biologic effects of ultraviolet radiation as it influences hu mans. Interest in the biological effects of longwave ultraviolet radiation is increas ing in all of the many scientific disciplines that make up the complex field of photobiology. In order to minimize the chance for error and personal prejudice and to maximize the use of expertise, each chapter has been reviewed by several authorities. Some of the contributions of this group led to significant alterations and creative additions to the chapter, and these persons deserve not only our sin cere gratitude but also recognition by the reader. These include Chapters 2 and 3: Dr. Robert E. Levin, Mr. Charles P. Comeau, Mr. Donald Gonser, Dr. David Sliney; Chapter 5: Dr. Jerry Williams, Dr. Robert Webb, Dr. Madhu A.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Coenzymes Advances In Research And Application 2011 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781464927386
Genre : Medical
File Size : 30.86 MB
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Coenzymes: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Enzymes and Coenzymes. The editors have built Coenzymes: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Enzymes and Coenzymes in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Coenzymes: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Category: Medical