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Meeting the food requirements of an ever-increasing population is a pressing challenge for every country around the globe. Soil degradation has a negative impact on food security by reducing the cultivated land areas, while at the same time the world population is predicted to increase to 9.2 billion in 2050. Soil degradation adversely affects soil function and productivity and degraded soils now amount to 6 billion ha worldwide. The major factors are salinization, erosion, depletion of nutrients due to exhaustive agricultural practices and contamination with toxic metal ions and agrochemicals, which reduces the activity of soil microbe. In addition, poor soil management also decreases fertility. As such, measures are required to restore the soil health and productivity: organic matter, beneficial microorganisms and nutrient dynamics can all improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Understanding the role of soil health restoration and management in sustainability and nutritional security calls for a holistic approach to assess soil functions and examine the contributions of a particular management system within a defined timescale. Further, best management practices in cropping systems are important in ensuring sustainability and food and nutritional security without compromising the soil quality and productivity potential. Rational soil management practices must allow environmentally and economically sustainable yields and restoration of soil health.
Soil degradation is a widespread problem in Africa resulting in decreased agricultural productivity while demand for food continues to increase. Degradation is caused by accelerated erosion, acidification, contamination, depletion of soil organic matter and plant nutrients, and salinization. The major cause of soil degradation in Africa is uncontrolled and excessive grazing in the savanna regions followed by deforestation and the use of inappropriate and extractive farming practices. Perpetual neglect of the health of soils in Africa can exacerbate the already serious problems of food and nutritional insecurity and environmental degradation. Food and nutritional security of the growing population of Africa can only be achieved if degraded soils are restored and soils of agroecosystems are managed prudently and sustainably. Ignoring soils and taking the fragile, finite and precious soil resources for granted is the principal cause of poverty, hunger, and environmental degradation. The downward spiral must be reversed through soil restoration measures based on translating science into action. This book describes the soils of Africa, processes of soil degradation, extent and severity of soil degradation, and the impacts of degradation processes on food and nutritional security. Features: Explores the extent and severity of soil degradation in Africa Analyzes the cause–effect relationship between anthropogenic activities and soil degradation Reviews processes of soil degradation in Africa including erosion, salinization, nutrient depletion, and decline of soil organic matter Addresses the effect of climate change on soil degradation in Africa. Explains how soil degradation causes food and nutritional insecurity Part of the Advances in Soil Sciences series, this volume is specifically devoted to the processes and factors that cause soil degradation and the challenges and potential for remediation and restoration of soil health in Africa.
Author : Muhammad Farooq
ISBN : 9783319479286
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 90.45 MB
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This book is a ready reference on recent innovations in dryland agriculture and reinforces the understanding for its utilization to develop environmentally sustainable and profitable food production systems. It covers the basic concepts and history, components and elements, breeding and modelling efforts, and potential benefits, experiences, challenges and innovations relevant to agriculture in dryland areas around world.
Feeding the increasing global population, which is projected to reach ~10 billion by 2050, there has been increasing demands for more improved/sustainable agricultural management practices that can be followed by farmers to improve productivity without jeopardizing the environment and ecosystem. Indeed, about 95% of our food directly or indirectly comes from soil. It is a precious resource, and sustainable soil management is a critical socio–economic and environmental issue. Maintaining the environmental sustainability while the world is facing resource degradation, increasing climate change and population explosion is the current challenge of every food production sectors. Thus, there is an urgent need to evolve a holistic approach such as conservation agriculture to sustain higher crop productivity in the country without deteriorating soil health. Conservation Agriculture (CA), is a sustainable approach to manage agro–ecosystems in order to improve productivity, increase farm profitabilty and food security and also enhance the resource base and environment. Worldwide, it has been reported various benefits and prospects in adopting CA technologies in different agro-climatic conditions. Yet, CA in arid and semi-arid regions of India and parts of south Asia raises uncertainities due to its extreme climates, large scale residue burning, soil erosion and other constraints such as low water holding capacity, high potential evapotranspiration, etc . Thus, the proposed book has 30 chapters addressing all issues relevant to conservation agriculture/no-till farming system. The book also gives further strengthening existing knowledge in relation to soil physical, chemical and biological processes and health within close proximity of CA as well as machinery requirements. Moreover, the information on carbon (C) sequestration, C credits, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, mitigation of climate change effects and socio-economic view on CA under diverse ecologies namely rainfed, irrigated and hill eco-region is also deliberated. For large scale adoption of CA practices in South Asian region especially in India and other countries need dissemination of best-bet CA technologies for dominant soil types/cropping systems through participatory mode, strong linkages and institutional mechanism and public-private-policy support. We hope this book gives a comprehensive and clear picture about conservation agriculture/no-till farming and its associated problem, challenges, prospects and benefits. This book shall be highly useful reference material to researchers, scientists, students, farmers and land managers for efficient and sustainable management of natural resources.
Author : Anthony David Bradshaw
ISBN : 9789812795380
Genre : Nature
File Size : 70.96 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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A broad discussion of modern restoration and the management needed after restoration. It deals with relevant topics such as restoration ecology; restoration planning; ecological and ecotoxicological risk assessment; management and adaptive management; restoration in the broader context of sustainable development; and case studies and examples related to the Asian region. Major emphasis is placed on the Asian region, but the techniques described in the book can also be applied to other regions. The work should serve as a reference for undergraduate and postgraduate students, professors, decision-makers and engineers in environmental science and management.
Microbial enzymes play a vital role in maintaining soil health and removing pollutants from contaminated land. Soil microflora is closely associated with maintaining soil fertility, and the use of chemical pesticides, fertilizers and other volatile sprays in agriculture threatens the health ofthe microbial population in the soil. Every single particle of healthy soil contains millions of bacteria, which interact with the nutrients available, sustaining the nutrient cycle and making this microflora an essential component of life on earth. How do microbes help in the nutrient cycle? Either by intracellular digestion of macromolecules and converting these into smaller units in their metabolic pathways, or by secreting enzymes into the extracellular environment to facilitate the conversion of complex macromolecules into micro-molecules that can be easily absorbed by other living species. To meet demands for energy and food for the growing global population, it is important to protect agricultural land from contamination and maintain its productivity. Heavy metal ions from contaminated land canenter crops, fish or aquatic organismsvia contaminated water, and theseare then taken up by the human body, where they can accumulate and alter the normal microflora. The microbiological component of the soil is ahighly complex system and is still not fully understood. How do microbes survive in the changing physicochemical environment of soil?. This book helps readers understand the mechanism, various routes of microbialsoil remediation, the interactionsof different genera, and how microbial enzymes support the sustainable restoration of healthy soil.
Each issue of Transactions B is devoted to a specific area of the biological sciences, including clinical science. All papers are peer reviewed and edited to the highest standards. Published on the 29th of each month, Transactions B is essential reading for all biologists.
Author : Ann M. Lewandowski
ISBN : MINN:31951D01931908H
Genre : Soils
File Size : 42.82 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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"This publication is an introduction for non-soil scientists to the issues and terminology found in soil quality research. For the reader who wants to learn more, the "Suggested Topic Reading" section provides suggestions for entry points into the literature."