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Social Epidemiology

Author : Lisa F. Berkman
ISBN : 0195083318
Genre : Medical
File Size : 36.93 MB
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This book shows the important links between social conditions and health and begins to describe the processes through which these health inequalities may be generated. It reviews a range of methodologies that could be used by health researchers in this field and proposes innovative future research directions.
Category: Medical

Social Epidemiology

Author : Julie Cwikel
ISBN : 0231100485
Genre : Medical
File Size : 27.31 MB
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By tracking the distribution of disease and pinpointing relevant risk factors, social epidemiology reveals how social problems are intrinsically linked to the health of populations. The practice also takes into account the psychosocial, biological, and medical determinants of disease and health, encouraging a rich and multidisciplinary approach to analyzing and solving complex contemporary social issues. This book provides a clear and comprehensive set of tools for practice. Julie Cwikel begins with an overview of the historical roots of public health and social medicine and shows how they formed the theoretical basis for current social epidemiological methods. Cwikel then explains the theoretical and programmatic tools social epidemiologists use in their research, program planning, and evaluation. In conclusion, Cwikel demonstrates how the SOCEPID model can be applied to a range of topics, including chronic illness, obesity, violence prevention, occupational health, sexually transmitted diseases (especially HIV), environmental hazards, and addressing the needs of vulnerable populations such as immigrants and trafficked women. With compelling authority, Cwikel shows readers how the exciting and growing field of social epidemiology is both practical and activist, drawing on cutting-edge empirical findings to conduct policymaking research and promote health at both the personal and population levels.
Category: Medical

Methods In Social Epidemiology

Author : J. Michael Oakes
ISBN : 9781118505595
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 46.31 MB
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A thorough, practical reference on the social patterns behind health outcomes Methods in Social Epidemiology provides students and professionals with a comprehensive reference for studying the social distribution and social determinants of health. Covering the theory, models, and methods used to measure and analyze these phenomena, this book serves as both an introduction to the field and a practical manual for data collection and analysis. This new second edition has been updated to reflect the field's tremendous growth in recent years, including advancements in statistical modeling and study designs. New chapters delve into genetic methods, structural cofounding, selection bias, network methods, and more, including new discussion on qualitative data collection with disadvantaged populations. Social epidemiology studies the way society's innumerable social interactions, both past and present, yields different exposures and health outcomes between individuals within populations. This book provides a thorough, detailed overview of the field, with expert guidance toward the real-world methods that fuel the latest advances. Identify, measure, and track health patterns in the population Discover how poverty, race, and socioeconomic factors become risk factors for disease Learn qualitative data collection techniques and methods of statistical analysis Examine up-to-date models, theory, and frameworks in the social epidemiology sphere As the field continues to evolve, researchers continue to identify new disease-specific risk factors and learn more about how the social system promotes and maintains well-known exposure disparities. New technology in data science and genomics allows for more rigorous investigation and analysis, while the general thinking in the field has become more targeted and attentive to causal inference and core assumptions behind effect identification. It's an exciting time to be a part of the field, and Methods in Social Epidemiology provides a solid reference for any student, researcher, or faculty in public health.
Category: Mathematics

Social Epidemiology

Author : Lisa F. Berkman PhD
ISBN : 9780199395347
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88.12 MB
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Social epidemiology is the study of how the social world influences -- and in many cases defines -- the fundamental determinants of health. This link was substantiated in the first edition of Social Epidemiology, and the generation of research that followed has fundamentally changed the way we understand epidemiology and public health. This much-awaited second edition elevates the field again, first by codifying the last decade of research, then by extending it to examine how public policies impact health. The new edition includes: · 11 fully updated chapters, including entries on the links between health and discrimination, income inequality, social networks, and emotion · Four all-new chapters on the role of policies in shaping health, including how to translate evidence into action with multi-level interventions · Updated references, detailing the best research over the last two decades The result is a bold, brilliant text that will serve the new world of epidemiology in which scientists both observe health and design interventions to improve it. Social Epidemiology again sets an intellectual agenda and provides an essential foundation for those interested in social determinants of health around the world.
Category: Medical

Rethinking Social Epidemiology

Author : Patricia O’Campo
ISBN : 9400721382
Genre : Medical
File Size : 85.8 MB
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To date, much of the empirical work in social epidemiology has demonstrated the existence of health inequalities along a number of axes of social differentiation. However, this research, in isolation, will not inform effective solutions to health inequalities. Rethinking Social Epidemiology provides an expanded vision of social epidemiology as a science of change, one that seeks to better address key questions related to both the causes of social inequalities in health (problem-focused research) as well as the implementation of interventions to alleviate conditions of marginalization and poverty (solution-focused research). This book is ideally suited for emerging and practicing social epidemiologists as well as graduate students and health professionals in related disciplines.
Category: Medical

The Social Epidemiology Of Sleep

Author : Dustin T. Duncan
ISBN : 9780190930455
Genre : Medical
File Size : 37.85 MB
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AN ESSENTIAL NEW RESOURCE ON A FUNDAMENTAL DETERMINANT OF HEALTH Sleep, along with the sleep-related behaviors that impact sleep quality, have emerged as significant determinants of health and well-being across populations. An emerging body of research has confirmed that sleep is strongly socially patterned, following trends along lines of socioeconomic status, race, immigration status, age, work, and geography. The Social Epidemiology of Sleep serves as both an introduction to sleep epidemiology and a synthesis of the most important and exciting research to date, including: · An introduction to sleep epidemiology, including methods of assessment and their validity, the descriptive epidemiology of sleep patterns and disorders, associations with health, and basic biology · What we know about the variation of sleep patterns and disorders across populations, including consideration of sleep across the lifespan and within special populations · Major social determinants of sleep (including socioeconomic status, immigration status, neighborhood contexts, and others) based on the accumulated research With editors from both population science and medicine, combined with contributions from psychology, sociology, demography, geography, social epidemiology, and medicine, this text codifies a new field at the intersection of how we sleep and the social and behavioral factors that influence it.
Category: Medical

Epidemiology And The People S Health

Author : Nancy Krieger
ISBN : 9780199750351
Genre : Medical
File Size : 28.17 MB
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This concise, conceptually rich, and accessible book is a rallying cry for a return to the study and discussion of epidemiologic theory: what it is, why it matters, how it has changed over time, and its implications for improving population health and promoting health equity. By tracing its history and contours from ancient societies on through the development of--and debates within--contemporary epidemiology worldwide, Dr. Krieger shows how epidemiologic theory has long shaped epidemiologic practice, knowledge, and the politics of public health.
Category: Medical

Health Care Politics Policy And Services

Author : Gunnar Almgren, MSW, PhD
ISBN : 9780826108883
Genre : Medical
File Size : 83.41 MB
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This new edition of the AJN Award-winning textbook analyzes the most current health care reforms and their effect on our health system from a social justice perspective. It addresses the reforms of the landmark health care reform bill passed in March, 2010, and provides students of health care policy with a framework within which they can understand and evaluate our health system. The text provides a comprehensive description and analysis of the historical evolution and organization of our health care system that is framed by a forthright social justice critique. In addition to extensive coverage of our health care system structures, finances, and performance on a variety of population health indicators, the text analyzes disparities in access to health and health care in America-by race, ethnicity, class, age, gender, and geography. Issues of special focus include long-term care policy, the bioethical dimensions of health care policy, the transformation of health to an economic commodity, the politics of health care policymaking, and the global context of health care disparities. New to the Second Edition: Contains numerous chapters that have been extensively revised or completely rewritten Explains the political goals of and barriers to each stage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (PPACA) implementation plan Provides two distinct critiques of the PPACA Offers a social and political health care agenda based on a social justice perspective Features a teaching guide
Category: Medical

Towards A Peoples Social Epidemiology

Author : Ryan J Petteway
ISBN : OCLC:957714131
Genre :
File Size : 84.46 MB
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Abstract TOWARDS A PEOPLE'S SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY: An Intergenerational Study of Place, Embodiment, & Health via Participatory Action Research with Residents of Public Housing By Ryan J. Petteway Doctor of Public health University of California, Berkeley Professor Rachel Morello-Frosch, Chair Social Epidemiology has made critical contributions to understanding health inequities. However, translation of social epidemiology science into meaningful and timely action remains a challenge. With so much focus within the field on issues like social position, discrimination, racism, power, and privilege, there has been surprisingly little deliberation about the extent and value of social inclusion and equity within the field itself, and how the challenge of translation might be more readily met through re-envisioning the role of the people in the research enterprise--reimagining what "social" could, or even should, mean for the future of the field. Place-health research represents a particularly promising subfield within which to emphasize these principles, especially within the context of public housing. Thus, the overall aim for my dissertation work was to conduct research at the nexus of public health and public housing by integrating participatory research methods and information communication technologies (ICTs) to democratize the research process and facilitate local action. In this spirit, my work develops, introduces, and field-tests 3 interrelated and nested concepts that, in application, represent a model for inclusive and equitable social epidemiology: A People's Social Epidemiology, the Placescape, and Geographies of Embodiment. First, Chapter 1 introduces a conceptual framework for A People's Social Epidemiology--a multicomponent and tiered framework to guide social epidemiology research/practice to become more inclusive and equitable, improve knowledge translation, and facilitate timely, locally relevant action--essentially, to enhance the "social" in social epidemiology. The framework draws upon theory, concepts, and principles from social epidemiology, community-based participatory research (CBPR), and information and communication technologies for development (ICTD). This work specifically highlights place-health research as a subfield particularly suited for A People's Social Epidemiology approach, and the framework was accordingly "field-tested" through my development and implementation of the People's Social Epidemiology Project (PSEP)--an intergenerational CBPR study of place, embodiment, and health with residents of public housing. For the PSEP, parent-youth dyads were recruited from a predominantly Black public housing community and trained in core principles related to social epidemiology and health equity, and fundamental aspects of public health research and CBPR. They were then trained in 4 participatory research methods: Photovoice, Activity Space Mapping, X-Ray Mapping, and 2 Participatory GIS. All research methods were completed by the participants themselves. First, participants used Photovoice (via cellphones) to identify, photo-document, and describe their important daily places and specific exposures/opportunities within each place they perceive affects their health. Next, they used Activity Space Mapping to geolocate and map their Photovoice photos, identify any additional non-photographed places, and to rate and provide time estimates for each mapped place. Then, using a cognitive mapping method known as X-Ray Mapping, they created symbolic representations of place-embodiment reflecting how each of their mapped places affects their bodies/health. Finally, constituting Participatory GIS, they integrated and digitally mapped their work via a web-based multimedia-enabled ICT platform, Local Ground. This platform allows participants to create, print, and digitally share their place-health research maps with the broader community and city officials. Anchored in A People's Social Epidemiology, Chapter 2 introduces the Placescape framework. The goal of the work presented here was to develop and field-test a place-health framework that: 1) accounts for the multi-nodal nature of "place" and its contingent spatial, temporal, and social inter-nodal connections/divisions; 2) elucidates potential intergenerational and life-stage differences in place experiences/perceptions; and 3) explicitly engages the sociopolitical mechanisms that make, unmake, and remake place over time. A framework for a placescape approach was developed drawing from place-health, social epidemiology, participatory research, geography, and sociology literatures. This framework was then applied to the PSEP study, with parents and youth using the above combination of participatory methods to map their "placescapes". Findings revealed clear spatial and temporal differences in adult and youth placescapes, as well as a very distinct pattern of place "nodes" among youth--indicating a multinodal placescape. Lastly, rooted in the Placescape framework, Chapter 3 introduces the Geographies of Embodiment concept through detailing the process and findings of a novel cognitive mapping methodology to elucidate subjective notions of place-embodiment within place-health research--X-Ray Mapping. This work aims to enhance place-health research efforts by furthering our understanding of: 1) which places matter for health and when (i.e. spatially- and temporally-specific notions of "place"); 2) how these places matter--the processes/mechanisms of the physiological embodiment of place; and 3) intergenerational and life-stage differences in place-embodiment experiences/perceptions. Findings revealed clear spatial differences between adult and youth geographies of embodiment, as well clear perceptual differences in which body areas are affected by place and how. Overall, the work presented in these three chapters outlines a framework for conducting more inclusive and equitable--and more practicable and actionable--social epidemiology research, develops a new paradigm for understanding/researching place and health--especially within public housing communities--rooted in intergenerational and participatory approaches, and introduces a novel research methodology to elucidate subjective notions of place-embodiment within place-health research. These combined contributions improve efforts to appropriately conceptualize and measure "place", and further understanding of place, place-embodiment, and health within public housing. Moreover, these contributions offer guidance on how to move towards a more inclusive and equitable social epidemiology research practice--one that is of, for, and by the people, and not simply about them/us.

Essential Epidemiology

Author : Penny Webb
ISBN : 0521546613
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73.26 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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This is an accessible, easily readable, and modern introduction to epidemiology for students of medicine and public health. It combines a strong public health perspective and rationale with modern methodological insights in a coherent and straight forward way. It emphasises the fundamental principles common to all areas of epidemiology and, unlike many other texts, integrates both public health and clinical epidemiology and the study of infectious and chronic diseases. It aims to give health professionals a good understanding of the methods and potential problems underlying epidemiological data and reports but also provides a thorough introduction for would-be epidemiologists. The 'nuts and bolts' of epidemiology are embedded in the wider health perspective and the concluding chapter explores future possibilities and emphasises the integration of the various strands of the discipline. The basic messages are reinforced through numerous examples and questions, with answers provided.
Category: Medical