Sidereus Nuncius Or The Sidereal Messenger

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Sidereus Nuncius Or The Sidereal Messenger

Author : Galileo Galilei
ISBN : 9780226320120
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.17 MB
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Galileo Galilei’s Sidereus Nuncius is arguably the most dramatic scientific book ever published. It announced new and unexpected phenomena in the heavens, “unheard of through the ages,” revealed by a mysterious new instrument. Galileo had ingeniously improved the rudimentary “spyglasses” that appeared in Europe in 1608, and in the autumn of 1609 he pointed his new instrument at the sky, revealing astonishing sights: mountains on the moon, fixed stars invisible to the naked eye, individual stars in the Milky Way, and four moons around the planet Jupiter. These discoveries changed the terms of the debate between geocentric and heliocentric cosmology and helped ensure the eventual acceptance of the Copernican planetary system. Albert Van Helden’s beautifully rendered and eminently readable translation is based on the Venice 1610 edition’s original Latin text. An introduction, conclusion, and copious notes place the book in its historical and intellectual context, and a new preface, written by Van Helden, highlights recent discoveries in the field, including the detection of a forged copy of Sidereus Nuncius, and new understandings about the political complexities of Galileo’s work.
Category: Science

The Sidereal Messenger Of Galileo Galilei And A Part Of The Preface To Kepler S Dioptrics Containing The Original Account Of Galileo S Astronomical Discoveries

Author : Galileo Galilei
ISBN : 9781465607928
Genre : Astronomy
File Size : 61.34 MB
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In 1609, Galileo, then Professor of Mathematics at Padua, in the service of the Venetian Republic, heard from a correspondent at Paris of the invention of a telescope, and set to work to consider how such an instrument could be made. The result was his invention of the telescope known by his name, and identical in principle with the modern opera-glass. In a maritime and warlike State, the advantages to be expected from such an invention were immediately recognised, and Galileo was rewarded with a confirmation of his Professorship for life, and a handsome stipend, in recognition of his invention and construction of the first telescope seen at Venice. In his pamphlet, The Sidereal Messenger, here translated, Galileo relates how he came to learn the value of the telescope for astronomical research; and how his observations were rewarded by numerous discoveries in rapid succession, and at length by that of Jupiter’s satellites. Galileo at once saw the value of this discovery as bearing upon the establishment of the Copernican system of astronomy, which had met with slight acceptance, and indeed as yet had hardly any recommendation except that of greater simplicity. Kepler had just published at Prague his work on the planet Mars (Commentaria de motibus Stellæ Martis), on which he had been engaged apparently for eight years; there he heard of Galileo’s discoveries, and at length was invited by Galileo himself, through a common friend, Giuliano de’ Medici, ambassador of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, Cosmo de’ Medici II., to the Emperor Rudolph II., to correspond with Galileo on the subject of these discoveries. The Emperor also requested his opinion, and Kepler accordingly examined Galileo’s Sidereal Messenger in a pamphlet, entitled A Discussion with the Sidereal Messenger(Florence, 1610). In this Discussion Kepler gives reasons for accepting Galileo’s observations—although he was not able to verify them from want of a telescope—and entirely supports Galileo’s views and conclusions, adducing his own previous speculations, or pointing out, as in the case of Galileo’s idea of earth-light on the moon, the previous conception of the same explanation of the phenomenon. He rejects, however, Galileo’s explanation of the copper colour of the moon in eclipses. Kepler ends by expressing unbounded enthusiasm at the discovery of Jupiter’s satellites, and the argument it furnishes in support of the Copernican theory. Soon after, in 1611, Kepler published another pamphlet, his Narrative, giving an account of actual observations made in verification of Galileo’s discoveries by himself and several friends, whose names he gives, with a telescope made by Galileo, and belonging to Ernest, Elector and Archbishop of Cologne. Kepler and his friends saw the lunar mountains and three of the satellites of Jupiter, but failed to make out any signs of the ring of Saturn corresponding to the imperfect description of Galileo.
Category: Astronomy

Galileo S O

Author : Horst Bredekamp
ISBN : 9783050050959
Genre : Art
File Size : 77.64 MB
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Der "Sternenbote", Galileo Galileis im Jahre 1610 in Venedig publizierter Sidereus Nuncius, hat ebenso Geschichte geschrieben wie Kopernikus De revolutionibus und Newtons Principia. Erstmals wurde hier durch die Nutzung des Teleskopes deutlich, dass Gestirne wie der Mond eine ebenso zerklüftete Oberfläche besitzen wie die Erde. Zudem erkannte Galilei, dass Planeten wie der Jupiter das Zentrum eines eigenen Planetensystems bilden. Galileis Buch veränderte die Sicht des Kosmos für immer. Aus Angst davor, dass ihm die Konkurrenz zuvorkommen würde, hat Galilei sein Werk wie von Furien gehetzt produziert. Acht Wochen, nachdem er die erste Zeile geschrieben hatte, war es als fertiges Buch auf dem Markt. Die ersten Teile wurden bereits in der Druckerei gesetzt, als der zweite Teil weder erforscht noch geschrieben war. Von der ersten bis zur letzten Seite sind die Spuren dieser atemlosen Hast sichtbar geblieben, und auch hierin liegt sein unnachahmlicher Reiz.
Category: Art

Thus Spoke Galileo

Author : Galileo Galilei
ISBN : 0198566255
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 85.56 MB
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Presentation of the most important discoveries by Galileo Galilei, endorsed by his own lively writings. Includes simple explanations for the general reader, comparative discussions about state of knowledge in Galileo's time and in today's understanding, as well as major public and private events in Galileo's life.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Forms And Meanings

Author : Roger Chartier
ISBN : 081221546X
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 65.38 MB
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In Forms and Meanings, Chartier explores what effect changes in form will have on the way we come to know texts in the future, placing his projections within a larger historical perspective that spans from stone tablet to Guttenberg bible and beyond.
Category: Literary Criticism

Searching For Stars On An Island In Maine

Author : Alan Lightman
ISBN : 9781472152817
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.34 MB
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As a physicist, Alan Lightman has always held a purely scientific view of the world. Even as a teenager, experimenting in his own laboratory, he was impressed by the logic and materiality of the universe, which is governed by a small number of disembodied forces and laws. Those laws decree that all things in the world are material and impermanent. But one summer evening, while looking at the stars from a small boat at sea, Lightman was overcome by the overwhelming sensation that he was merging with something larger than himself - a grand and eternal unity, a hint of something absolute and immaterial. Searching for Stars on an Island in Maine is the result of these seemingly contradictory impulses, written as an extended meditation on an island in Maine, where Lightman and his wife spend their summers. Framing the dialogue between religion and science as a contrast between absolutes and relatives, Lightman explores our human quest for truth and meaning and the different methods of religion and science in that quest. Along the way, he draws from sources ranging from St. Augustine's conception of absolute truth to Einstein's relativity, from a belief in the divine and eternal nature of stars to their discovered materiality and mortality, from the unity of the once indivisible atom to the multiplicity of subatomic particles and the recent notion of multiple universes. What emerges is not only an understanding of the encounter between science and religion but also a profound exploration of the complexity of human existence.
Category: Science

Metaphor And Analogy In The Sciences

Author : F. Hallyn
ISBN : 9789401594424
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 77.29 MB
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This collection of papers contains historical case studies, systematic contributions of a general nature, and applications to specific sciences. The bibliographies of the contributions contain references to all central items from the traditions that are relevant today. While providing access to contemporary views on the issue, the papers illustrate the wide variety of functions of metaphors and analogies, as well as the many connections between the study of some of these functions and other subjects and disciplines.
Category: Philosophy

Galileo S Sidereus Nuncius Or A Sidereal Message

Author : Galileo Galilei
ISBN : UOM:39015084135063
Genre : Science
File Size : 57.41 MB
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An instrument can change the world and compel us to rethink our place in the universe. The telescope did just this, but only when it was used by Galileo, whose eye was prepared to see new things and whose hand was able to depict what he saw. It was not only because Galileo was a gifted and persistent observer, but also because he was an exceptional draughtsman that he was able to discover what others had failed to see or lacked the ability to record.
Category: Science

Is God A Mathematician

Author : Mario Livio
ISBN : 9781416594437
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 62.74 MB
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Bestselling author and astrophysicist Mario Livio examines the lives and theories of history’s greatest mathematicians to ask how—if mathematics is an abstract construction of the human mind—it can so perfectly explain the physical world. Nobel Laureate Eugene Wigner once wondered about “the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics” in the formulation of the laws of nature. Is God a Mathematician? investigates why mathematics is as powerful as it is. From ancient times to the present, scientists and philosophers have marveled at how such a seemingly abstract discipline could so perfectly explain the natural world. More than that—mathematics has often made predictions, for example, about subatomic particles or cosmic phenomena that were unknown at the time, but later were proven to be true. Is mathematics ultimately invented or discovered? If, as Einstein insisted, mathematics is “a product of human thought that is independent of experience,” how can it so accurately describe and even predict the world around us? Physicist and author Mario Livio brilliantly explores mathematical ideas from Pythagoras to the present day as he shows us how intriguing questions and ingenious answers have led to ever deeper insights into our world. This fascinating book will interest anyone curious about the human mind, the scientific world, and the relationship between them.
Category: Mathematics

Routledge History Of Philosophy Volume Iv

Author : G.H.R. Parkinson
ISBN : 9781134938735
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 58.39 MB
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First published in 1993. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Category: Philosophy

Siderevs Nvncivs

Author : Galileo Galilei
ISBN : OCLC:1200232053
Genre : Astronomy
File Size : 31.89 MB
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"In 1609, Galileo constructed the first powerful telescope and started observing the heavens, which led to many monumental discoveries. He published his initial findings on the moon and the stars in a short treatise titled "Sidereus Nuncius" ("Sidereal Messenger")."
Category: Astronomy

On Sunspots

Author : Galileo Galilei
ISBN : 0226707172
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.92 MB
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Galileo’s telescopic discoveries, and especially his observation of sunspots, caused great debate in an age when the heavens were thought to be perfect and unchanging. Christoph Scheiner, a Jesuit mathematician, argued that sunspots were planets or moons crossing in front of the Sun. Galileo, on the other hand, countered that the spots were on or near the surface of the Sun itself, and he supported his position with a series of meticulous observations and mathematical demonstrations that eventually convinced even his rival. On Sunspots collects the correspondence that constituted the public debate, including the first English translation of Scheiner’s two tracts as well as Galileo’s three letters, which have previously appeared only in abridged form. In addition, Albert Van Helden and Eileen Reeves have supplemented the correspondence with lengthy introductions, extensive notes, and a bibliography. The result will become the standard work on the subject, essential for students and historians of astronomy, the telescope, and early modern Catholicism.
Category: Science

Instrumental Traditions And Theories Of Light

Author : Xiang Chen
ISBN : 9789401141956
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.63 MB
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An analysis of the optical revolution in the context of early 19th century Britain. Far from merely involving the replacement of one optical theory by another, the revolution also involved substantial changes in instruments and the practices that surrounded them. People's judgements about classification, explanation and evaluation were affected by the way they used such optical instruments as spectroscopes, telescopes, polarisers, photometers, gratings, prisms and apertures. There were two instrumental traditions in this historical period, each of which nurtured a body of practice that exemplified how optical instruments should be operated, and especially how the eye should be used. These traditions functioned just like paradigms, shaping perspectives and even world views. Readership: Scholars and graduate students in the history of science, history of instrument, philosophy of science and science studies. Can also be used as a textbook in graduate courses on 19th century physics.
Category: Science

The Changing Image Of The Sciences

Author : Ida H. Stamhuis
ISBN : 9789401005876
Genre : History
File Size : 90.24 MB
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This volume is written as a reaction to the worldwide decreasing interest in the natural sciences. It addresses many intriguing questions. How is the changing image of the distinct sciences experienced by the general public, by the scientists themselves, or in disciplines in which natural sciences are applied? How can it be connected to the phenomenon of the low number of women in science? It is of interest to researchers, teachers, and students of natural sciences, the history of science, and philosophy.
Category: History

Eye Of The Beholder Johannes Vermeer Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek And The Reinvention Of Seeing

Author : Laura J. Snyder
ISBN : 9780393246520
Genre : Science
File Size : 64.89 MB
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The remarkable story of how an artist and a scientist in seventeenth-century Holland transformed the way we see the world. On a summer day in 1674, in the small Dutch city of Delft, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek—a cloth salesman, local bureaucrat, and self-taught natural philosopher—gazed through a tiny lens set into a brass holder and discovered a never-before imagined world of microscopic life. At the same time, in a nearby attic, the painter Johannes Vermeer was using another optical device, a camera obscura, to experiment with light and create the most luminous pictures ever beheld. “See for yourself!” was the clarion call of the 1600s. Scientists peered at nature through microscopes and telescopes, making the discoveries in astronomy, physics, chemistry, and anatomy that ignited the Scientific Revolution. Artists investigated nature with lenses, mirrors, and camera obscuras, creating extraordinarily detailed paintings of flowers and insects, and scenes filled with realistic effects of light, shadow, and color. By extending the reach of sight the new optical instruments prompted the realization that there is more than meets the eye. But they also raised questions about how we see and what it means to see. In answering these questions, scientists and artists in Delft changed how we perceive the world. In Eye of the Beholder, Laura J. Snyder transports us to the streets, inns, and guildhalls of seventeenth-century Holland, where artists and scientists gathered, and to their studios and laboratories, where they mixed paints and prepared canvases, ground and polished lenses, examined and dissected insects and other animals, and invented the modern notion of seeing. With charm and narrative flair Snyder brings Vermeer and Van Leeuwenhoek—and the men and women around them—vividly to life. The story of these two geniuses and the transformation they engendered shows us why we see the world—and our place within it—as we do today. Eye of the Beholder was named "A Best Art Book of the Year" by Christie's and "A Best Read of the Year" by New Scientist in 2015.
Category: Science

Quirky Sides Of Scientists

Author : David R Topper
ISBN : 9780387710198
Genre : Science
File Size : 59.15 MB
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These historical narratives of scientific behavior reveal the often irrational way scientists arrive at and assess their theories. There are stories of Einstein’s stubbornness leading him to reject a correct interpretation of an experiment and miss an important deduction from his own theory, and Newton missing the important deduction from one of his most celebrated discoveries. This enlightening book clearly demonstrates that the greatest minds throughout history arrived at their famous scientific theories in very unorganized ways and they often did not fully grasp the significance and implications of their own work.
Category: Science